Climate Change and Transportation Planning


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  • FY2011 SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES REGIONAL PLANNING ADVANCED NOTICE Today, U.S. Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan announced that HUD will be investing an additional $67 million towards creating stronger, more sustainable communities that connect housing to jobs while fostering local innovation and building a clean energy economy through its Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant program.HUD provided advance notice today that the second round of Regional Planning grants will soon be made available through a Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA). The grants will be awarded competitively to multi-jurisdictional and multi-sector partnerships as well as regional consortia consisting of state and local governments, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), educational institutions, non-profit organizations and philanthropic organizations. This year’s funding was approved by Congress in HUD’s 2011 budget, as part of $100 million devoted to the agency's Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities.  To read the full text of HUD's advance funding announcement, visit HUD's Sustainability website.The Advance Notice provides a detailed review of the program requirements that will be expected from the official NOFA. It builds on lessons learned from the first year of the program and direct input from a wide range of stakeholders from across the nation. We strongly encourage you to review this document and to spread the word to jurisdictions that you believe may have an interest in participating in this program. If you have specific questions about the notice that you would like to have addressed, please do not hesitate to be in touch via our office website,  FY2010/2011 SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES CAPACITY BUILDING NOFA Earlier this month, HUD’s Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities and EPA’s Offices of Sustainable Communities, Water, and Brownfields and Land Revitalization announced a joint Notice of Funding Availability for the Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities Program. For the first time ever, HUD and EPA will join forces to competitively award $5.65 million to strengthen the capacity of existing grantees from each agency to create more housing choices, make transportation more efficient and reliable, and support vibrant and healthy neighborhoods for American families. The Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities grant program will award funds to capacity building service providers who will work directly with grant recipients from the FY2010, and FY 2011 HUD Sustainable Communities Regional Planning and Community Challenge, HUD Preferred Sustainability Status Communities, and EPA Sustainable Community Technical Assistance and Brownfield Area Wide Planning grant programs. Applications for the NOFA are due July 8, 2011. LINK TO NOTICE FY2011 HUD CHOICE NEIGHBORHOODS PLANNING GRANTS On June 7th, HUD announced that $3.6 million in Choice Neighborhoods Planning Grants will be awarded in fiscal year 2011 to assist in the transformation, rehabilitation and preservation of public housing and privately owned HUD-assisted housing and support communities that use innovative tools to tackle concentrated poverty holistically. Read HUD’s FY 2011 Choice Neighborhoods Notice of Funding Availability. FY2011 FTA  LIVABILITY GRANTSFinally, DOT announced last week that $175M in Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Livability Grants is available to increase and improve transportation options for urban, suburban and rural communities. The NOFA should be published later this week in the federal regist
  • Climate Change and Transportation Planning

    1. 1. Climate Change and Transportation Planning<br />Ohio<br />July 19, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Our Agenda Today<br />Introductions/Opening Remarks<br />Overview on Basics of Climate Science (Jeff Houk)<br />Tools for Quantifying GHG emissions and Key Considerations (Jeff Houk)<br />Overview of Climate Change Efforts in Ohio <br />MPO and DOT Climate Change Efforts and Issues - roundtable discussion<br />Climate Change and the Transportation Planning Process (Jim Thorne)<br />GHG Mitigation Strategies (Diane Turchetta)<br />Adaptation in Transportation Planning (Jim, Diane)<br />Climate Change in Transportation Planning - Small Groups<br /> Q & A<br />
    3. 3. Climate Science – Jeff Houk<br />
    4. 4. Tools for Quantifying GHG emissions and Key Considerations - Jeff Houk<br />
    5. 5. Overview of Climate Change related efforts in Ohio – Jim Thorne, moderator<br />Presentation from ODOT on Climate Change Related Activities: Tim Hill, Office of Environmental Services Administrator, Ohio Department of Transportation<br />Presentation from Ohio University on GHG inventory project: Kevin Crist<br />Presentation from Akron MPO to discuss climate change in Transportation Plan: Curtis Baker<br />
    6. 6. Roundtable discussion of what each agency has done related to climate change<br />Each agency representative provides overview and examples to address questions: <br /><ul><li>Is climate change addressed in your planning process?
    7. 7. Examples of how climate change is evident in planning process, connections to current efforts, or possible future activities.
    8. 8. Challenges to incorporating climate change into transportation planning.</li></li></ul><li>Lets Break for Lunch<br />
    9. 9. Climate Change and the Transportation Planning Process<br />
    10. 10. Transportation: Mitigation and Adaptation<br />GHG Mitigation<br />Slow rate of change and reduce impacts<br />Climate Change Adaptation<br />Plan for and deal with expected impacts<br />
    11. 11. Multiple Transportation Strategies to Reduce GHG<br /><ul><li>Raise vehicle energy efficiency
    12. 12. Reduce carbon content of fuels
    13. 13. Reduce VMT
    14. 14. Land use
    15. 15. Improve system and operational efficiencies
    16. 16. Construction, Maintenance, and Agency Operations</li></li></ul><li>“Two Legs of the Stool”<br />Transportation System Efficiencies<br />Traffic flow improvements<br />ITS/Management and Operations<br />Improved Intermodal connections<br />Travel (by SOV) Activity Reduction<br />Reducing VMT<br />Land Use strategies<br />Bike/ped<br />Transit<br />Pricing<br />
    17. 17. Transportation Planning Factors<br />(A) support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area<br /> (global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency)<br />(B) increase the safety for motorized and nonmotorized users<br />(C) increase the security for motorized and nonmotorized users<br />(D) increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight <br />(E) protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns<br />(F) enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight; <br />(G) promote efficient system management and operation<br />(H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system. <br />
    18. 18. 23 U.S.C.134 and 49 U.S.C. 5303<br />. . .national policy that the MPO designated for each urbanized area is to carry out a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive multimodal transportation planning process, including the development of a metropolitan transportation plan and a transportation improvement program (TIP), that encourages and promotes the safe and efficient development, management, and operation of surface transportation systems to serve the mobility needs of people and freight (including accessible pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities) and foster economic growth and development, while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution; <br />23CFR450.300<br />
    19. 19. Planning Factors<br />Economic vitality<br />Accessibility and mobility<br />Protect and enhance the environment<br />Safety<br />Security<br />Promote energy conservation<br />Improve quality of life<br />Consistency between transportation and planned growth and economic development<br />Efficient system management and operation<br />Enhance integration and connectivity<br />Preservation of existing system<br />
    20. 20. Linkage Opportunities in Planning Regulation<br /><ul><li>Energy and environmental concerns
    21. 21. Integrated transportation system, system preservation, safety and security
    22. 22. Transportation demand and system management strategies
    23. 23. Consultation</li></ul>Integrating Climate Change into the Transportation Planning Process, FHWA, 2008<br />
    24. 24. <ul><li>Integrated multimodal system
    25. 25. Transit, multimodal & intermodal, pedestrian walkways & bike facilities
    26. 26. Operational and management strategies
    27. 27. Environmental mitigation
    28. 28. Consultation</li></ul> 23 CFR 450.322<br />Transportation Plan<br />
    29. 29.<br />
    30. 30. Overview of Current Practice<br /><ul><li>Acknowledge connection between transportation and climate change
    31. 31. Mitigation of GHG emissions
    32. 32. (vision – goals – policies – strategies)
    33. 33. Performance measures
    34. 34. Related to GHG emissions
    35. 35. Quantifying GHG emissions
    36. 36. Emerging: tools, methods, data</li></li></ul><li>Climate Change in Planning<br />Integrate land use<br />Processes<br />Step 1: Stakeholder Identification and Initial Outreach<br />Components<br />Link funding<br />Link funding<br />Coordinate<br />Stakeholder Outreach<br />Step 2: Establish Vision, Goals, and Objectives<br />Step 5: Develop Alternative Plan Scenarios<br />Step 4: Evaluate Deficiencies<br />Step 3: Define Performance Criteria and Data Needs<br />Step 6: Evaluate Alternatives & Select Preferred Alternative<br />Feedback<br />Feedback<br />Feedback<br />Performance Measures<br />Trends and Challenges<br />Performance Measures<br />Vision, Goals, and Trends<br />Strategies and Improvement Projects<br />
    37. 37. Climate Change and the Planning Process<br />Coordinate<br /><ul><li>Existing and new interested parties and stakeholders
    38. 38. Use the planning process as a forum to educate the public</li></ul>Integrate Land Use<br /><ul><li>Cross linkages with land use plans
    39. 39. Invest in visioning up front to save time and resources in later planning stages</li></ul>Link Funding<br /><ul><li>Prioritize projects using climate change performance measures</li></li></ul><li>Where Climate Change May Show Up in Plans:<br /><ul><li>Vision and Goals
    40. 40. Trends and Challenges
    41. 41. Strategies and Improvement Projects
    42. 42. Performance Measures</li></li></ul><li>
    43. 43.
    44. 44. Actions from One MPO Plan<br />Baltimore: Transportation Outlook 2035, 2007<br />Environmental Stewardship Section of Plan<br />Specific strategies that will reduce GHG emissions include:<br /><ul><li>Truck stop electrification
    45. 45. Incident management
    46. 46. Alternative fuel vehicle purchases
    47. 47. Park-and-ride lot improvements
    48. 48. Rideshare coordination
    49. 49. Teleworkpromotion</li></li></ul><li>Integration of Climate Change Considerations in Statewide and Regional Transportation Planning<br />USDOT Center for Climate Change<br />Case Studies and Proceedings<br /><ul><li>TRB Panel
    50. 50. AMPO Conference</li></ul>Climate Change in Transportation Planning<br /><ul><li>Vision and long range planning
    51. 51. Forecasts, data and performance measures
    52. 52. Public involvement
    53. 53. Collaboration with partners
    54. 54. Project selection</li></ul>NY State<br />PSRC<br />MWCOG<br />BRMPO<br />NEG/ECP<br />
    55. 55. Integration of Climate Change Considerations<br />USDOT, July 2009<br />
    56. 56. Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning<br />TRR 2219, TRB<br />
    57. 57. Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning<br />Vision<br /> GHG emissions, mitigation, adaptation<br /> Climate change facts<br />Goals, Objectives, and Performance Measures<br /> Current goals that support GHG reduction<br /> GHG mitigation (with policy approval)<br /> Likely effects of climate change on existing goals<br /> GHG reduction targets<br /> Performance measures<br />TRR 2219, TRB<br />
    58. 58. Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning<br />Analysis<br /> Incorporate GHG analysis into process<br /> Long term urban form/land use effects on GHG<br /> Collect data related to assessing vulnerability<br /> Cost effectiveness of mitigation strategies<br />Identify Strategies<br /> Identify potential adaptation strategies<br /> Scenario Planning – climate change scenario<br /> GHG Reduction Strategies in existing process (CMP)<br />Evaluation<br /> GHG emissions mitigation and adaptation as criteria<br />TRR 2219, TRB<br />
    59. 59. Incorporating Climate ChangeConsiderations into Transportation Planning<br />Incorporating climate change considerations into the planning process would provide the opportunity for transportation planners and decision makers to best develop the most cost effective strategies in the context of all the other goals that are guiding the planning process.<br />Incorporating Climate Change Considerations into Transportation Planning<br />Nicholas Schmidt and Michael D. Meyer<br />
    60. 60. Climate Change – Model Language inTransportation Plans, FHWA, 2010<br />State and Regional Transportation Plans<br />What is climate change? <br />How does transportation contribute to climate change? <br />Why should transportation plans address climate change?<br />How does the plan address climate change? <br />
    61. 61. Transportation Outlook 2040Mid America Regional Council<br />Regional Vision:<br />Greater Kansas City is a sustainable region that increases the vitality of our society, economy, and environment for current residents and future generations. <br />Transportation Vision:<br />A safe, balanced, regional multimodal transportation system that is coordinated with land-use planning, supports equitable access to opportunities, and protects the environment.<br />
    62. 62. Transportation Outlook 2040Mid America Regional Council<br />Transportation System Goals:<br />Accessibility - Maximize mobility and access to opportunity for all area residents <br />Climate Change & Energy Use** - Decrease the use of fossil fuels through reduced travel demand, technology advancements and a transition to renewable energy sources <br />Economic Vitality - Support an innovative, competitive 21st-century economy <br />Environment - Protect and restore our region's natural resources (land, water and air) through proactive environmental stewardship <br />Place Making** - Coordinate transportation and land-use planning as means to create quality places in existing and developing areas, and strengthen the quality of the region <br />Public Health** - Facilitate healthy, active living <br />Safety & Security - Improve safety and security for all transportation users <br />System Condition - Ensure transportation system is maintained in good condition <br />System Performance** - Manage the system to achieve reliable and efficient performance <br /> <br />**New plan goals for Transportation Outlook 2040<br />
    63. 63. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENERGY USE – Decrease the use of fossil fuels through reduced travel demand, technology advancements, and a transition to renewable energy sources. <br />Objectives: <br />Reduce regional transportation‐related greenhouse gas emissions. <br />Reduce regional transportation‐related energy use derived from fossil fuels. <br />Strategies: See chapter 10.0 Environmental Integration for additional detail. <br />
    64. 64. MARC Climate Change Strategies<br /><ul><li>DEVELOP REGIONAL CLIMATE PROTECTION PLAN
    71. 71. IMPLEMENT THE CLEAN AIR ACTION PLAN </li></li></ul><li>DEVELOP REGIONAL CLIMATE PROTECTION PLANSpecific transportation‐related strategies:<br />a. Incorporate energy conservation, use of renewable energy, and reductions in GHG into the transportation project solicitation and funding processes. <br />b. Adjust methodologies and models for quantification of transportation‐related greenhouse gas emissions. <br />c. Work with local governments to include transportation‐related greenhouse gas reductions strategies in their policies and ordinances, such as: <br /><ul><li>Encourage eco‐driving.
    72. 72. Encourage carpooling (e.g., RideShare).
    73. 73. Allow employees to telecommute.
    74. 74. Ramp up speed limit enforcement.
    75. 75. Install LED traffic lights.
    76. 76. Use low greenhouse‐gas emissions pavement and paving practices.
    77. 77. Adopt policies to facilitate the development of compact, mixed‐use, walkable communities. </li></li></ul><li>INCREASE EFFICIENCYSpecific implementation strategies: <br />Conduct planning and strengthen incentives for alternative fuel infrastructure needed to support alternative‐fuel vehicle technology implementation. <br />b. Educate stakeholders on vehicle fuel efficiency and alternative‐fuel vehicles. <br />c. Secure grant resources for the promotion and support of fuel efficiency and alternative fuel vehicles. <br />
    78. 78. MARC Plan Performance Measures<br />
    79. 79. Climate Change Performance Measures, MARC<br />
    80. 80. MARC: Performance Measures & Progress Report<br />
    81. 81. Tracking Performance Measures, MARC<br />
    82. 82. Transportation Outlook 2040 Major Strategies <br />• Maximize use of existing infrastructure <br />• Improve connectivity and access <br />• Promote non-motorized transportation options <br />• Preserve, enhance, and expand regional transit and paratransit services <br />• Integrate land‐use and transportation planning <br />• Enhance, preserve and connect high‐quality natural resources <br />
    83. 83. Sustainable Communities Partnership<br /><ul><li>DOT, EPA, HUD
    84. 84. Improve access to affordable housing, provide more transportation options and lower transportation costs while protecting the environment
    85. 85. Encourages livability principles to be incorporated into federal programs and funding.
    86. 86. Achieve our economic, social, and environmental goals most effectively when we work on them together.</li></li></ul><li>HUD/DOT/EPA Sustainable Communities Partnership <br />Better coordinate federal transportation, environmental protection, and housing investments and identify strategies that support the Partnership’s Guiding Principles<br />
    87. 87. Six Livability Principles of the Sustainability Partnership<br />
    88. 88.<br />
    89. 89. Livability in Transportation<br />Using the quality, location and type of transportation facilities and services to help achieve broader community goals such as access to good jobs, affordable housing, quality schools, and safe streets<br />Livability, sustainability, smart growth, walkable communities, new urbanism, healthy neighborhoods, active living, transit oriented development, complete streets,<br />
    90. 90. Another Definition, sort of<br /><br />
    91. 91. Livable Communities<br />More efficient use of resources <br />Increase accessibility <br />Improve connections and options<br />Reduce energy use<br />Environmental benefits<br />Health and Social benefits<br />Livable Communities are where people have access to many different forms of transportation and affordable housing…..” U.S. DOT Secretary, Ray LaHood <br />
    92. 92. A New Resource<br />
    93. 93. Atlanta, GA—Livable Centers Initiative (LCI)<br />LCI program initiated in 1999 to better link transportation and land use planning with long-term goals of VMT and congestion reduction and improved air quality. <br />Awards grants to prepare plans to enhance existing centers and corridors.<br />More than 100 studies had been completed, representing nearly $9 million in planning assistance funding. <br />
    94. 94. Opportunities to Address Livability<br />Opportunities to Address Climate Change<br />Planning for:<br />Grid street patterns, short blocks, streetscapes<br />Transit and transit supportive land use<br />Planning for bike and pedestrian travel<br />Land use (as it supports transportation and vice versa)<br />System efficiencies<br />Travel Demand Management<br />
    95. 95. Transportation and Land Use: A Two-Way Street<br />TRANSPORTATION<br />LAND USE<br />Accessibility<br />Supply<br /><ul><li> Density
    96. 96. Diversity
    97. 97. Design</li></ul>Accessibility<br />Demand<br />
    98. 98. Land Use and Travel<br /><ul><li>Density
    99. 99. Diversity
    100. 100. Design
    101. 101. Destination accessibility
    102. 102. Distance to transit
    103. 103. Demographics
    104. 104. Development scale
    105. 105. Demand management</li></li></ul><li>Making the Land Use Connection <br /><ul><li>Scenario Planning
    106. 106. Integrating transportation and land use plans
    107. 107. Context Sensitive Solutions
    108. 108. Align regional goals, policies and programs
    109. 109. LRP supports regional or corridor plan or vision
    110. 110. Partnership efforts with local agencies
    111. 111. Technical assistance for integrated plans
    112. 112. Transportation project selection criteria consistent with Comprehensive Plan goals
    113. 113. Financial incentives for local actions to support vision</li></li></ul><li>Examples of Scenario Planning Applications<br />Puget Sound Regional Council<br />Focus growth in bigger cities<br />Focus growth in smaller cities and towns<br />Continue as planned<br />
    114. 114. Gainesville, Florida<br />Rip Van Winkle Technique<br />Source: Marlie Sanderson<br />North Central Florida Regional Planning Council<br />
    115. 115. Photo MontageDover & Kohl<br />
    116. 116. Photo MontageDover & Kohl<br />
    117. 117. North Central Florida <br />Regional Planning Council <br />
    118. 118. North Central Florida <br />Regional Planning Council <br />
    119. 119. North Central Florida <br />Regional Planning Council <br />
    120. 120. North Central Florida <br />Regional Planning Council <br />
    121. 121. NCFRPC measures used to evaluate scenarios<br />Vehicle miles of travel<br />Average trip length<br />Transit ridership<br />Amount of farmland converted<br />Air quality<br />Energy consumption<br />Percent Population Served by Transit<br />Amount of New Land Consumed<br />Congested Lane Miles<br />
    122. 122. Photo MontageUrban Advantage<br />
    123. 123. Photo MontageUrban Advantage<br />
    124. 124. Capital District Transportation Committee – Albany, NY<br />Source: Christopher O’Neill, CDTC<br />
    125. 125. CDTC Linkages<br />
    126. 126. Scenario Planning and Climate Change<br />
    127. 127. Scenario Planning: Where and How We Might Live<br />
    128. 128. Indicators Used to Compare Scenarios<br />
    129. 129. CCMPO Scenario Indicators<br />
    130. 130. Burlington, VT Scenarios<br />
    131. 131. FHWA Land Use Tool Kit<br /><br />
    132. 132. ICMA/Smart Growth Network<br />ICMA’s membership has called sustainability which they define as balancing economic development, environmental protection, and social equity goals while maintaining financial viability, “the issue of our age.”<br />
    133. 133. Applying smart growth principles to climate concerns on the local and regional levels:<br /><ul><li>Create more sustainable and resilient communities
    134. 134. Green the local economy
    135. 135. Engage the community in the climate change planning process
    136. 136. Approach climate change planning on a regional level
    137. 137. Address transportation through transit-oriented development and complete streets
    138. 138. Promote density through infill development and brownfield redevelopment
    139. 139. Adopt green building policies
    140. 140. Preserve and create green space
    141. 141. Plan for climate adaptation.</li></li></ul><li>Approach Climate Change Planning on a Regional Level<br />Plan for Climate Change Adaptation<br />
    142. 142. Transportation Planning for Sustainability<br />
    143. 143. Sustainability Case Studies<br />
    144. 144. Sustainability Guidebook Case Study Example<br />
    145. 145. What Might a Planner Do Now?<br /><ul><li>Engage in topic discussions
    146. 146. Recognize connections to transportation
    147. 147. Explore strategies to reduce GHG emissions
    148. 148. Quantify baseline CO2 emissions</li></ul>Transportation Research Record 2119, TRB<br />
    149. 149. Possible Climate Change Related Efforts<br />Address climate change within context of Planning Factors.<br />Educate planning partners on climate change issues and implications.<br />Discuss climate change within Plan (mitigation and adaptation). <br />Examine existing plan goals for connections to GHG mitigation and adaptation.<br />Develop GHG related performance measures.<br />Recognize existing plan strategies with GHG mitigation implications (bike/ped, transit, system efficiencies, scenario planning, etc.). <br />Develop GHG mitigation strategies/policies.<br />Quantify GHG emissions, develop baseline inventory.<br />Recognize co-benefits: climate change, livability, energy conservation/security, sustainability, congestion relief, etc.<br />
    150. 150. Climate Change and Transportation – Mitigation Strategies<br />Ohio Workshop<br />July 19, 2011<br />
    151. 151. Transportation-RelatedGHG Emissions*<br />* Includes bunker fuels<br />Source: U.S. EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007 (U.S. EPA, 2009)<br />
    152. 152. What is the full array of transportation strategies to reduce GHG?<br />Examples<br />Higher CAFE standards<br />CA’s low carbon fuel standard<br />Less travel, could be in part due to land use changes<br />Signalization, ITS, Eco-driving<br />Materials, maintenance practices<br />Five GHG “legs”<br />Vehicle efficiency<br />Low-carbon fuels<br />VMT Reductions (including land use)<br />Vehicle/System Operations<br />Construction, Maintenance, and Agency Operations<br />
    153. 153. Co-Benefits of GHG Mitigation Strategies<br /><ul><li>Most of the strategies to reduce GHG emissions also reduce transportation energy consumption
    154. 154. Energy consumption
    155. 155. Reduce costs
    156. 156. Promote sustainability</li></li></ul><li>Produced by the U.S. DOT Climate Change Center<br />Analyzes:<br /><ul><li>Transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels and trends
    157. 157. Strategies for reducing these emissions</li></ul>Scope:<br /><ul><li>Full range of strategies
    158. 158. All transportation modes
    159. 159. Primarily synthesis
    160. 160. GHG reduction, costs, co-benefits, impact on DOT goals, key interactions</li></ul>DOT Report to Congress<br />Mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007<br /><br />
    161. 161. System Efficiency<br />*Construction emissions are not included in the baseline. 15-18 million metric tons corresponds to 0.7-0.8% of U.S. transport GHGs. **These values are from the Moving Cooler Study. The DOT report did not quantify these strategies as more work is underway at FHWA.<br />
    162. 162. Reduce carbon-intensive travel activity<br />
    163. 163. How much can transportation strategies reduce GHG? <br />Presents base case + 3 scenarios for transportation GHG reductions <br />Base case: +28% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050<br />Low scenario: -17% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050<br />Mid scenario: -35% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050<br />High scenario: -65% in transportation GHG, 2010-2050<br />High scenario: rapid tech progress, aggressive emission standards, 80 mpg for cars, transition to electric and hydrogen vehicles well underway by 2050, auto feebates, carbon pricing, eco-driving, land use policies, congestion pricing, PATP auto insurance, automated highways in 2050 on major routes, etc.<br />GHG reductions are roughly equal from (a) vehicle efficiency; (b) low-carbon fuel; and (c) all other strategies combined.<br /><br />reducing-ghg-emissions-from-transportation<br />
    164. 164. TRB Special Report 307<br />TRB Special Report 307 examines the potential for policies to yield major changes in transportation energy use and emissions trends by policy measures targeting cars and light trucks, medium and heavy trucks, and commercial airliners. According to the committee that produced the report, it will take more than tougher fuel economy standards for U.S. transportation to significantly cut national petroleum use over the next half century. It will likely require a combination of measures that foster consumer and supplier interest in vehicle fuel economy, alternative fuels, and a more efficient transportation system. <br /><br />
    165. 165. More than Vehicles and Fuels: Achieving 70% LDV GHG Reduction by 2050 requires 100 mpgge LDV Fleet + 10% Operational Efficiency + Lower VMT Growth (1%/year)<br />
    166. 166. Unconventional vehicles meet over 40% of U.S. light-duty vehicle sales in 2035<br />U.S. light car and truck salesmillions <br />Projections<br />History<br />Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011<br />
    167. 167. Solar Panels for Highway Lighting – Oregon DOT<br />594 solar panels produce 122,000 KWH/year to light interchange<br />Avoids nearly 43 metric tons of GHG/year from normal electricity<br />$1.28 M project in operation for over a year<br />PPP of OR DOT, PGE, and US Bank, using state and federal tax credits<br />Could be a model for other DOTs<br />ORDOT planning 2 additional projects<br /><br />
    168. 168. Washington State: West Coast Green<br /> (Electric) Highway<br />WSDOT is using a PPP to provide “Quick Charge” stations for electric vehicles along I-5 corridor<br />$1.32 million seed funding from US DOT grant<br />Target completion of EV stations: 10/31/11<br />9 stations along I-5 and SR-2, from OR border to Canadian border <br />Coordination with Oregon DOT and, eventually, California<br />Pooled fund study opportunity: Strategies and Best Practices to Support Commercialization of EV and Infrastructure<br /><br />
    169. 169. Summary<br />Many strategies are needed to reduce transport GHG. No silver bullet. Will need full mix of strategies including:<br /><ul><li>Maximize energy efficiency of current vehicle technology
    170. 170. Decarbonize vehicles and fuels world-wide
    171. 171. Adopt pricing measures to reward conservation and tech innovation
    172. 172. Push “eco driving” and system/speed management
    173. 173. Adopt more efficient land use
    174. 174. Support carpools & vanpools, biking, walking, transit use, trip chaining, telecommuting
    175. 175. Adopt low carbon, energy-conserving strategies in construction, maintenance, and agency operations
    176. 176. Retrofit legacy fleets to reduce PM and black carbon
    177. 177. Implement wide-ranging freight technology and logistics improvements</li></li></ul><li>Sustainable Transport & Climate Change Team<br />Mike Culp, Team Leader,<br />John Davies,, GHG emissions analysis, modeling, performance measures<br />Connie Hill Galloway,, sustainability, brownfields and hazardous waste sites<br />Heather Holsinger,, sustainability, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, energy<br />Rob Hyman,, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis<br />Rob Kafalenos,, adaptation, energy<br />Becky Lupes,, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, NEPA<br />Diane Turchetta,, GHG emissions analysis, energy<br />FHWA Highways and Climate Change Website:<br /><br />
    178. 178. Adaptation<br />“Actions by individuals or systems to avoid, withstand, or take advantage of current and projected climate changes and impacts. Adaptation decreases a system’s vulnerability, or increases its resilience to impacts.”<br />--Pew Center on Climate Change<br />The potential effects on transportation fall into three main categories:<br /><ul><li>Sea level effects
    179. 179. Storm effects
    180. 180. Temperature effects</li></li></ul><li>Flooded roadways in Houston<br />Why be Concerned about Climate Change Impacts?<br /><ul><li>Design life of transportation infrastructure: decades or longer
    181. 181. As climate changes, our infrastructure will need to evolve to handle new conditions
    182. 182. Each region has unique transportation assets, and faces different vulnerabilities and risks
    183. 183. What are the State’s risks?</li></li></ul><li>Climate Change Impacts of Greatest Relevance for Transportation<br />• Increases in very hot days and heat waves,<br />• Increases in Arctic temperatures,<br />• Rising sea levels,<br />• Increases in intense precipitation events, and<br />• Increases in hurricane intensity<br />
    184. 184. Potential Climate Changes and Transportation Impacts<br />Increases in very hot days and heat waves<br />Operations: limit construction activity due to health and safety concerns<br />Infrastructure: thermal expansion, pavement integrity<br />Increases in intense precipitation events<br />Operations: Traffic disruptions, evacuation route flooding<br />Infrastructure: Roadway flooding, road washout, landslides/mudslides, scouring.<br />
    185. 185. Implications for Design<br /><ul><li>Changes in bridge height
    186. 186. Changes in bridge foundation and superstructure
    187. 187. Changes in materials specifications
    188. 188. Changes in suspended and cable-stay bridges to withstand more severe wind and turbulence
    189. 189. Changes in culvert design, capacity, and location
    190. 190. Changes in slope design
    191. 191. Changes in pavement drainage systems</li></li></ul><li>Implications for Operations<br /><ul><li>Pavement rutting and rail buckling
    192. 192. Longer construction season
    193. 193. Closures and detours due to rock slides, soil erosion, flooding
    194. 194. Speed reductions
    195. 195. Flooding of culverts
    196. 196. Change in weight restrictions
    197. 197. More grass cutting/less snow plowing
    198. 198. Work crew limitations during severe heat periods</li></li></ul><li>TRB SR 290<br />Climate change will affect transportation primarily<br />through increases in several types of weather and climate extremes, such as very hot days; intense precipitation events; intense hurricanes; drought; and rising sea levels, coupled with storm surges<br />and land subsidence. <br />The impacts will vary by mode of transportation<br />and region of the country, but they will be widespread and costly in both human and economic terms and will require significant changes in the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of transportation systems.<br />State and local governments and private<br />infrastructure providers should incorporate climate change into their long-term capital improvement plans, facility designs, maintenance practices, operations, and emergency response plans<br />
    199. 199. SR 290 Finding<br />The past several decades of historical regional climate patterns commonly used by transportation planners to guide their operations and investments may no longer be a reliable guide for future plans. <br />In particular, future climate will include new classes<br />(in terms of magnitude and frequency) of weather and climate extremes, such as record rainfall and record heat waves, not experienced in modern times . .<br />
    200. 200. TRB Special Report 290 <br /><ul><li>Design standards will need to be evaluated.
    201. 201. Transportation planners will need to consider climate change and its effects on infrastructure investments.
    202. 202. Planning timeframes may need to extend beyond the next 20 or 30 years.
    203. 203. Institutional arrangements for transportation planning and operations will need to be changed to incorporate cross jurisdictional and regional cooperation.</li></li></ul><li>SR 290 Recommendation<br />Recommendation 1: <br />Federal, state, and local governments, in collaboration with owners and operators of infrastructure such as ports and airports and private railroad and pipeline companies, should inventory critical transportation infrastructure in light of climate change projections to determine whether, when, and where projected climate changes in their regions might be consequential.<br />
    204. 204. FHWA Climate Change Adaptation Activities<br />108<br />Ohio Climate Change Workshop<br />July 19, 2011<br />Diane Turchetta<br />FHWA, Office of Natural Environment<br />
    205. 205. FHWA and Climate Change Adaptation<br />Goal: systematic consideration of climate change vulnerability and risk in transportation decision making<br />Systems level (Metropolitan, Statewide planning) & individual projects, as appropriate <br />Motivations<br />Internal: protect integrity of transportation investments, safety<br />External: CEQ guidance on addressing climate change in NEPA and Adaptation Planning<br />Interdisciplinary cooperation is key to effort<br />Represents cooperative effort of multiple offices in FHWA, U.S. DOT, AASHTO, AMPO, and partnerships with science agencies such as USGS<br />109<br />
    206. 206. Overview of FHWA Climate Change Adaptation Resources and Activities<br />Providing information, outreach; developing and promoting use of tools and methodologies; application<br />FHWA Agency-wide Adaptation Working Group – draft strategy underway<br />Potential Impacts of Global Sea Level Rise on Transportation Infrastructure: Mid-Atlantic Focus (2008)<br />Two Workshops on Impacts of Global Climate Change on Hydraulics, Hydrology, and Transportation with CTE at NC State University (2005 and 2006)<br />Regional Climate Change Effects: Useful Information for Transportation Agencies [Climate Effects Typology] (2010)<br />FHWA/AASHTO State DOT climate Change Workshops<br />Vulnerability and risk assessment conceptual model (2010) and associated Pilots (ongoing)<br />Gulf Coast Study: Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure <br />Phase 1 – Gulf-wide (2008); Phase 2 – Mobile, AL (ongoing) <br />Adaptation peer exchanges (2008, 2009, 2011, etc.)<br />110<br />
    207. 207. FHWA Agency-Wide Adaptation Work<br />Climate Change Adaptation Working Group formed in 2009 to discuss adaptation considerations in the highway context with representatives from across FHWA offices:<br />Planning, Environment, and Realty<br />Infrastructure<br />Operations<br />Safety<br />Federal Lands Highways<br />Developed draft adaptation strategy to outline:<br />Key climate adaptation areas in which FHWA will focus its attention<br />How FHWA intends to help transportation agencies adapt <br />111<br />
    208. 208. Regional Climate Change Effects (2010) <br />Report synthesizes information on climate change projections for transportation decision makers<br />Snapshot: Summarizes recent science <br />Projected changes by region <br />Annual, Seasonal Temperature (change in oF)<br />Seasonal Precipitation (% change)<br />Where information exists:<br />Sea level rise, Storm activity <br />Also includes information at local, state scales<br />Received assistance from climate experts at NOAA, USGS, DOE, etc.<br />112<br /><br />
    209. 209. Projections of Regional Temperature<br />Projections of near-term, mid-term, end-of-century are provided for each region within the report using:<br /><ul><li>USGCRP data (Tables, Appendix B figures)
    210. 210. Report also includes results of other studies</li></ul>113<br />
    211. 211. Projected Increases in Annual Temperature<br />114<br />
    212. 212. How Can This Information Be Applied?<br />Inform planning efforts with a consistent set of projections<br />Help understand which parts of the planning area may be susceptible to sea level rise, for example<br />Starting point for discussion of potential future changes – but information too broad / uncertain to make definitive decisions on specific projects<br />Can inform consideration of vulnerability of key assets<br />Projections by definition are somewhat uncertain<br />Regional projections mask differences within a region<br />Use of this information may vary by specialty (e.g., engineering, planning, etc.) and location<br />115<br />
    213. 213. Vulnerability/Risk Assessment Conceptual Model<br />Goal: Help transportation decision makers identify vulnerable assets and adaptation strategies<br />most exposed to the threats from climate change; and/or <br />could result in the most serious consequences as a result of those threats <br />Conceptual model completed<br />Pilots - Use by State DOTs and MPOs (2010-2011)<br />Update the conceptual model<br />116<br /><br />
    214. 214. 117<br />Vulnerability/Risk Assessment Conceptual Model<br />Develop inventory of infrastructure assets<br />Gather climate data<br />Assess vulnerability and risk of assets to projected climate change<br />Analyze, prioritize adaptation options<br />Monitor and revisit<br />
    215. 215. Climate Change Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Pilot Locations<br />WASHINGTON<br />NEW JERSEY<br />Central New Jersey<br />New Jersey Coastal<br />Hampton Roads<br />VIRGINIA<br />CALIFORNIA<br />Oahu<br />San Francisco<br />HAWAII<br />
    216. 216. Pilot: New Jersey DOT<br />Study Areas:<br />New Jersey Coastal<br />Central New Jersey<br />Partners: <br />New Jersey DOT<br />North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority, <br />South Jersey Transportation Planning Organization,<br />Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, <br />New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection<br />119<br />
    217. 217. Pilot: Washington State DOT<br />Statewide geographic scope<br />Studying WSDOT owned and managed facilities potentially at risk to a range of impacts:<br />Sea-level rise inundation areas<br />Rivers and stream channel migration, melt effects<br />Extreme temperature effects<br />Drought threats to wetland creation, mitigation sites, roadside vegetation, soil moisture/flux, invasive species, worker health, wildfire<br />Precipitation changes- threats to slope stabilization, stormwater management, erosion control, landslides, “road survivability”<br />Wildfire – safety, emergency response<br />120<br />
    218. 218. Pilot: Virginia DOT<br />Focus on Hampton Roads<br />Asset Management, Security Perspective<br />Partners: <br />Virginia Transportation Research Council (VDOT) <br />Hampton Roads Planning District Commission, <br />UVA Center for Transportation Studies,<br />UVA Center for Risk Management of Engineering Systems, <br />Hampton Roads Transportation Planning Organization<br />121<br />
    219. 219. Pilot: Oahu MPO<br />Scope: Island of Oahu, HI<br />Consultant will perform risk assessment of identified transportation assets<br />Public input meetings<br />Partners: <br />Oahu MPO<br />HI DOT<br />HI Dept. of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism<br />HI State Civil Defense<br />City and County of Honolulu<br />U. of HI Center for Island Climate Adaptation and Policy<br />The Pacific Disaster Center<br />People’s Advocacy for Trails Hawaii<br />122<br />
    220. 220. Pilot: Metropolitan Transportation Commission<br />Focus on San Francisco Bay<br />Complements a NOAA funded sub-regional project<br />Partners: <br />MTC, <br />CalTrans District 4, <br />San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission,<br />NOAA, <br />Association of Bay Area Governments, <br />Bay Area Air Quality Management District<br />123<br />
    221. 221. Gulf Coast Project Examines Issues at Metropolitan Scale<br />Phase 1<br />Overview of climate change impacts on transportation infrastructure in central Gulf Coast (completed 2008)<br />Phase 2<br />Focus on one metropolitan area – Mobile, AL<br />Development of adaptation tools and strategies that will be transferable to other areas<br />Timeframe: 2010-2013<br />124<br />
    222. 222. 125<br />Gulf Coast StudyHighways Vulnerable to Relative Sea Level Rise<br />Baseline (Present Day)<br />4 Feet of Sea Level Rise<br />SAP 4.7<br />Source: Cambridge Systematics analysis of U.S. DOT Data.<br />
    223. 223. Gulf Coast 2 Study: Task Objectives<br />Task 1: Identify critical assets in Mobile<br />Task 2: Climate impacts<br />Develop climate information<br />Assess sensitivity of assets to climate stressors<br />Task 3: Determine vulnerability of critical assets<br />Broad assessment of vulnerability<br />In-depth vulnerability assessment of some of the most critical assets<br />Task 4: Develop risk management tool(s)<br />Task 5: Coordination with Planning Authorities and the Public<br />Ongoing<br />Task 6: Information dissemination and publication<br />126<br />
    224. 224. Climate Change Adaptation Peer Exchanges<br />Peer Exchanges conducted in 2008 and 2009<br />Involved representatives of state DOTs and FHWA Division Offices to discuss climate change adaptation approaches with staff from FHWA Headquarters and AASHTO<br />Identified common barriers to adaptation efforts:<br />Information gaps (e.g., mapping and scenario modeling, funding opportunities)<br />Knowledge gaps (e.g., state legislature, environmental permitting agencies, developers, the public)<br />Lack of coordination (with federal and state agencies)<br />Lack of understanding of how to link existing efforts to adaptation strategies<br />Three peer exchanges planned for 2011-2012<br />127<br />
    225. 225. What Are Possible Adaptation Responses?<br />Accommodate: Maintain and manage<br />Absorb increased maintenance / repair costs<br />Improve real-time response to severe events<br />Strengthen structures / protect facilities<br />Design changes when rebuilding / new investment<br />Promote buffers, sea walls, etc.<br />Relocate / avoid<br />Move key facilities<br />Site new facilities in less<br /> vulnerable locations<br />Abandon and Disinvest <br />Enhance redundancy<br />Identify system alternatives<br />128<br />
    226. 226. STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING THE IMPACTS OF SURFACE TRANSPORTATION ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE<br />AASHTO, 2009<br />Based on risk assessments, efforts to reduce risks could include:<br /><ul><li>retrofitting vulnerable facilities;
    227. 227. developing contingency plans in case of the interruption of transportation services;
    228. 228. ensuring emergency evacuation plans are in place and take climate risks into account;
    229. 229. identifying/protecting open space and wetlands to act as a buffer during severe precipitation;
    230. 230. ensuring future transportation facilities are designed and sited to minimize climate risks; and
    231. 231. maximizing efforts to reduce GHG emissions that contribute to climate change. </li></li></ul><li>What are likely climate change effects you expect in Ohio?<br />And what might we do about them?<br />
    232. 232. Sustainable Transport & Climate Change Team<br />Mike Culp, Team Leader,<br />John Davies,, GHG emissions analysis, modeling, performance measures<br />Connie Hill Galloway,, sustainability, brownfields and hazardous waste sites<br />Heather Holsinger,, sustainability, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, energy<br />Rob Hyman,, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis<br />Rob Kafalenos,, adaptation, energy<br />Becky Lupes,, adaptation, GHG emissions analysis, NEPA<br />Diane Turchetta,, GHG emissions analysis, energy<br />131<br />
    233. 233. Lessons Learned (so far)<br />Interdisciplinary cooperation is key<br />Need to include science information, engineering specifications, planning processes, etc.<br />Multi-disciplinary stakeholder communication is not easy<br />Understand existing decision-making processes and frameworks<br />Embrace the uncertainty<br />Must be comfortable with range of climate projections<br />Not all climate trends are clear<br />Community priorities are an integral part of a climate vulnerability assessment <br />Impacts and concerns will vary by region – no one-size-fits-all answers<br />132<br />
    234. 234. Task 1: Identify Critical Transportation Systems<br />For each mode, which assets are “critical” to Mobile area<br />Determine subset of transportation network for vulnerability assessment and adaptive measures<br />Develop a process applicable to multiple transportation modes<br />Conduct a careful review of relevant transportation models<br />Collect data on relevant attributes of each asset<br />Develop GIS layers of critical transportation assets, for later study tasks<br />133<br />
    235. 235. Task 2: Projected Climate Data<br />USGS providing statistically downscaled projections for T and P<br />4 to 7 Climate models (PCM, Hadley, …)<br />3 emission scenarios (A1fi, A2, B1); 3 time horizons out to 2100<br />Secondary variables calculated from daily T and P, e.g., 24-hr precip with 5%/yr prob<br />Sea level rise analysis<br />Range of recent global SLR scenarios used<br />Accounts for local subsidence<br />Storm Surge Modeling – ADCIRC<br />Range of storm intensities<br />Output includes surge distribution and dynamics<br />Wave Modeling – STWAVE<br />Inputs from ADCIRC output and boundary conditions<br />Outputs include key aspects of wave energy<br />Exposure of transportation systems will be assessed using a GIS analysis<br />134<br />
    236. 236. Participants will be assigned to small groups to address the following Task/Questions:<br /> Develop approach for consideration of climate change in your transportation planning process.  <br /> Please address the following questions as part of your approach:<br />What is your overall strategy or approach for addressing climate change?<br />What new (or expanded) activities would you undertake related to climate change?  <br />How would you communicate or engage with your stakeholders on this issue? <br />How would climate change efforts be documented?<br />What new partners would you look to involve in your efforts?<br />What barriers do you anticipate?<br />
    237. 237. Wrap-Up and Adjourn<br /><ul><li>Identify next steps in taking this information back to your agency and incorporating it into future transportation planning efforts.
    238. 238. What are your top 3 take aways from today?</li></ul> <br /> <br />