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  1. 1. Sky Bus - A paradigm shift in Urban Transportation M. MayurAbstract: Sky bus is a modern suspended railway invented by Indian technologist, Er. B RajaRam. It is an eco – friendly, noise free and economical operation, which makes it interestingnot only in cities in India, but also in different cities in Europe and America. Sky Bus fallsunder tramway category, according to the Constitution of India. Since it operates along andparallel to existing roadways and within municipal limits, it is excluded from the IndianRailway Act. Sky bus is economical than metro rails and other means when consideredwithin the city limits, in the view of transportation and safety.
  2. 2. What is Sky Bus? Challenges of transportation: Sky bus is a suspended railway 1. Urban space remains frozensystem, can never capsize nor collide dueto its design and construction technique. 2. Population shifting to urbanThis is noise free, pollution free and habitats, resulting in masseconomical with no points and crossings. transit capacityIn short, sky bus is “A unique mass transitsystem which than can be put up within 3. Should be free from pollutionany two years in any crowded andcongested city for safe transportation 4. Should be affordable bywithout loss of time.” common people 5. With point to point connectivity 6. Better quality of travel: a. Air conditioned b. Virtually no wait service c. Safer than existing systems – in view of value of human life. Though, some of the challenges are met by other means ofWhy sky bus is safe? transportation, Sky Bus is efficient in meeting all the above specified The present Railway Technology requirements and challenges andused in metros, suffer from a fundamental serves the defect of derailment andseparation of travelling coach from the Some of Salient points of Skyrailway track, falling down on the ground Bus:killing people. So long as wheels are onrail, the coach runs, but failure of rails, 1. Sky bus is innovative solutionobstruction or even heavy wind force can to the problems of derailmentscreate a dangerous situation. But when and collisions of conventionalwheels climb the 25 to 30 mm flange, go metros.over the rail and derailment occurs. Such 2. The core functionality ofcapsizing can kill people inside the coach dynamics of suspended coachesas well as those on the road below. has been tested and proven according to international safety norms in the year 2004.
  3. 3. 3. The costs also are demonstrated is unique advantage of Sky to be most competitive. Hence Bus. Rs. 50 crores + / - per route kilometer is practical 12. Employment is also provided in commercial cost for executing the construction purpose of Sky a sky bus project. Bus @ 250 persons for every 10 km.4. Each and every technology element included in sky bus 13. Coaches are made maintenance project is tested and proven in free in case of Sky Bus system. live harsh environments and all 14. The advantage of Sky Bus is the test limits exist in safer that polycarbonate sheets are boundaries that are laid down fixed around it to take care of by international standards. any vandal activity.5. Sky bus comes to state with no 15. The Sky Bus is fully – financial risk to Government, computerized: being financially viable. a. Self – identification in6. Sky bus may be constructed need for attention , within 24 months and people will be travelling in sky bus. b. Need based maintenance with very7. It is affordable for a common high degree of man with least rate possible, reliability , according to the city constructed, including air c. Minimized cost for the conditioned travel, pollution bogies and track is free and high quality of life maintenance free. protection for people. 16. The Sky Bus costs about 25008. The construction and execution crores for a length of 50km, but of sky bus occurs with least current elevated metro option disturbance to daily city life. using conventional railway system costs about 5000 crores,9. No demolition of existing which is nearly 2 times the cost structures is needed, and no of construction of Sky Bus. extra land is to be utilized.10. Adds additional urban space every at 9000 m2/per km between stations, a special feature distinguishing sky bus.11. Transportation of goods can be handled by the Sky Bus, which
  4. 4. Fact about Sky Bus: His inventions cover Railway Technologies, Anti – collision devices, Sky Bus is the technology Sky Bus.breakthrough that India has achieved. SkyBus is an improved Railway Technology, He is Mr. B. Raja Ram, theeliminating the problems of existing metro inventor of Sky Bus Technology.rail systems like derailments, collisions,capsizing and crushing people, which they He holds degrees namely Bachelorsuffered for decades. of Engineering, Master of Technology, Fellow of National Academy ofWhy Sky Bus is so popular? Engineering, Fellow of Institution of Engineers. He is a member of Indian If it is invented by a student, or a Railway Service of Engineers.research scientist who has no experience inany railway field or no knowledge of He is the recipient of prestigiousrailway sciences, then it may be not so FICCI national award forpopular. OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE BASED INDUSTRIES, But it is invented by such person, as adjudged by Justice Bhagawatiwho is a bureaucrat, engineer, scientist, Committee.manager and inventor. The inventor is firstclass first Distinction EngineeringGraduate and an M. Tech from prestigiousIIT Kharagpur. He served a decade inrailway open line in various capacities,another decade in railway research atRDSO & IIT, worked in abroad as aconsultant till 1990. He is involved in Konkan Railwayproject from the beginning i.e., 1990. Thenhe was promoted to cader ManagingDirector and Director of many projectsrelated to Konkan Railway CorporationLimited (KRCL) till January 2005. He has own original contributionsof new theories regarding rail – wheel andtrack – vehicle interactions, which are Mr. Raja Ram Bojjirecognized and published by many WorldForums. Life member of He has several patents (nearly 50),around the globe, and in India for his Computer Society ofvaluable inventions. India
  5. 5. He believes it is in the realm ofreality to make food, travel,communication and dwelling virtually freeto all humans on the plant through boldapplication of science and technology toinfrastructure development. He wants India to lead the worldin transportation, with Sky BusTechnology, which makes railwaysystems safer and financially affordable byeven a common man.Technology of Sky Bus: The basic concept of SkyBus is derived from the concept of Sky-Wheels presented in 1989 at WorldCongress for Railway Research. In the Sky Bus technology, themedian in the middle of road is used toraise columns to support 9.4 m wideconcrete box 2.4 m high, which housessky-guides and a powered bogie and canrun on the sky-guides at speed up to 100kmph .The coaches are suspended from thebogie frame running overhead and thus aredesigned for lighter crush loads ascompared to normal railway coaches.Tremendous savings are achieved insystems design.
  6. 6. Advantages of Sky Bus over other In the view of Safety:modes: 1. Sky Bus is derailment proofThese advantages are categorized in and by design can never getdifferent kinds: separated for the railway tracks, so there is no capsizing of 1. Performance coaches. 2. Safety 2. Sky Bus is protected from 3. Land & Protection to existing collisions, as it travels at higher buildings levels than roads. 4. Capital and running costs In the view of Land & Protection to existing structures: 5. Construction 1. Sky Bus has short stations of 6. Charges 50m length, adequate for next 50 – 75years of traffic growth, 7. Financial viability combining the local bus stop.In the view of Performance: 2. Occupies only the road divider 1. Sky bus can be scalable to with 1m wide pillars, the Sky handle 20K to 80K pphpd, bus is travelling about 6m which mono – rail and metro above the roads. rail cannot. 3. The Sky Bus can be designed 2. Sky Bus handles cargo for the to take 20m radius curvature, city – in containers as well as hence no buildings will be trucks as a whole lifted and affected which are following delivered to required points. So existing roads. truck pollution is eliminated. 4. These can reach the places, Existing metro’s cannot. Mono where buses can reach, but the – rails cannot even be point is somewhat at a distance compared. higher in level. 3. Speeds are same and somewhat 5. If Sky Bus unit of 20m length better than railways i.e., 100 is designed, then it can carry kmph to 110 kmph, depending 300 – 430 pphpd, while other on inter – station distances. metros cannot. 6. Least land utilization, almost nothing compared to others is needed. 7. Even the depot areas etc., Sky Bus can make use of space
  7. 7. above existing Bus depots – In the view of Charges: without fresh land acquisition. 1. At Rs. 250.00 only, per person 8. Sky Bus is a railway per 500 km of air – condition technology, with maximum travel anywhere to anywhere, feasibility options like Bus – in a month, it is affordable for while other metro options regular city commuter. cannot help in this. 2. Minimum entry charges are ofIn the view of Capital and Running Rs. 5.00 only will apply andCosts: floating or occasional users will be charged Rs. 2.00 per km. 1. The capital cost per km of double line route, including 3. Other modes of transportation, rolling – stock and train control do not offer such low rates. is Rs. 50 crores on average + / - 10%. In the view of Financial Viability: 1. Fare – box collections coupled 2. Maintenance costs are much lower in the Sky Bus – with commercial exploitation at components are smaller, tracks the additional urban space are maintenance – free, the created by Sky Bus, produces a coach bodies are designed to be 15 – 20% return to the investor. maintenance – free. 2. The Sky Bus returns the capital 3. The energy in Sky Bus, is used of construction within 7 to 10 to carry more people than in years. Metro Rails, which carries 3. “The Sky Bus construction more dead loads. goes on without GovernmentIn the view of Construction: funding component”. 1. Sky Bus uses factory produced Components of Sky Bus: pre – fabricated technologies The system Sky Bus with post tensioning and causes consists of several conventional and some least disturbance to the daily new proven technologies, which makes the life of city during construction. Sky bus more efficient. These are designed 2. It takes around 24 months to so that to keep the sky bus moving without complete because of minimum any defect and to give the passengers the problems of land and parallel ultimate comfort along with other activities of pre – fabricated luxurious facilities which they cannot get structures. in the local buses or in trains. 3. Other metro rails take 5 to 7 years in construction.
  8. 8. Components are: a. Sky Way b. Sky Bogies c. Sky Coaches d. Sky Stations e. Traverser arrangements at terminalsSky Way: Sky Bogie: 1. In the middle of the road way, 1. Standard two axle bogies used pile foundations support 1 m in metros for speeds of 100 dia column approx. 8m high, kmph are used, which gain and spaced at 15m all along the speed up to a maximum of 160 road way. kmph of standard gauge. 2. The Sky way consists of a 2. Linear induction motor concrete box structure carried technology is incorporated, over a series of piers at a height with 3 phase AC motors with of 8m above the existing road regenerative power capability. level. 3. Braking - bogie mounted. 3. In short, Sky Way is the way in which the Sky Bus travels a. Disc Brakes are along the road, but at higher provided. level. b. Emergency mechanical 4. Sky Way consists of two rails brakes are also fixed with appropriate provided, in case of any fastenings with in concrete box emergency. support and guide the Sky Bogie.
  9. 9. Sky Station: 1. Unlike conventional mass transit systems, Sky Bus needs smaller stations. 2. Totally computerized control, access control is also electronic by prepaid cards being swipedSky Coaches: in. 1. Double walled light shells with 3. Stations act as only access wide large windows are facility, and not as passenger suspended from the sky bogies. holding area. 2. Air – conditioned and with Traverser: automatic doors are provided. 1. Traverser is the system which 3. Audio visual information is automatically shifts the Sky provided to passengers, for Bus units for balancing the easy understanding of sky loads / changing routes too as stations. well as shift units to depot lines etc… 4. Special 4m wide or 2m x 2m wide sliding doors are provided For Designing purpose: for quick entry and exit of Even in case of designing, the Sky passengers. Bus is easier to design in structural point 5. Each pair carries 300 persons. of view. 6. Service is possible in every 30 The design loads are: seconds or one minute. a. Weight of bogie : 5t
  10. 10. b. Tare weight of coach : 6.5 t hence is safer than existing rail – based system. c. Passenger load : 9t 4. The system is noise – free, pollution – free with d. Weight of equipment : 2t 18000pphpd to scalable to e. Axle load : 12 t 72000 pphpd as required. f. Total for a bogie : 24 t 5. It is a unique mass transit system which can be put up within two years in any crowded and congested city. 6. In addition to moving people, Sky Bus can carry 20 ft containers, boosting its capacity utilization to double that of other existing systems.Description of Sky Bus: 1. Heavy 52 / 60 kg /m rails placed at standard gauge floating in elastic medium and damped by inertia of measured mass held at 8m x 2m box enclosure, supported over a 1m dia columns placed at 15m distance from each other. 2. The fixed structure at 8m height above road level is aesthetically pleasing and there is no concern of claustrophobic feeling for road users. 3. Aesthetic and eco – friendly, the Sky Bus can never derail, capsize nor collide, by design as well as by construction,
  11. 11. Working Principle of Sky BusOur Country’s Technology, Sky Bus is an improved railway technology. It can carry 18K to 72K pphpd, with 100kmph and air – conditioned travel.The two problems suffered by railway technology are derailment and separation of travelling coach from the rails. As long as the wheels are on the rails, the coach runs. But failure of rails / obstruction by a heavy wind force may create dangerous situations. When the wheels climb 25 to 30 mm flange, then derailment occurs.
  12. 12. If derailment occurs, then there is nothing to hold the coach, then the coach just topples. Such falling of coach can kill people inside the coach and also people on the road, if any.EVOLUTION OF SKY BUS TECHNOLOGY Suppose a standard railway coach running on a railway track…
  13. 13. The under frame with standard railway wheel – set running on a railway track… The under frame remains the same, railway wheels run on the same track, coach is firmly attached to under frame positively The under-frame with wheels and railway traction motors & railway track enclosed in the concrete box- travel on the railway track , carrying the coach below outside the concrete box- now the coach and the track are positively held together- cannot escape from rails! between the rail guidance system and the Bus Coaches- with 400%.Safety Measures: • The railway bogies in conventional • Compared to conventional railway system have propensity to lose systems, the centre of gravity of control on derailment, but the mass being carried on the additional safety in Sky Bus bogie wheels is brought down to be is that we have derailment closer to the wheel support. Hence arresters, which prevents the wheel dynamic safety is many times from jumping off the rails. So we improved. are ensuring that there is no • In conventional railway wind can derailment. Safety factor built into topple the trains. In Sky Bus wind multiple suspenders. cannot topple- there is positive link In Future:
  14. 14. After the successful test run to really solve the urban transport crisis.of the sky bus in its test track in Madgaon The Sky Bus metro is one singleGoa, The Indian Railway has recognized technology which can change the face ofits work efficiency and found it as the our cities, take out almost 10 million roadfuture of mass communication in the urban vehicles in the cities and make the citiesareas. The Sky bus has proved its livable, improving quality of life and attract and sustain economic activity to generate wealth.effectiveness in various sectors in all thetests it has gone through. Hence the Skybus has proposed by the Railwaydepartment in following citiesof India, Ahmedabad, Pune, Kochi,Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Pondicherry,Ranchi, Shimla, Thane, Bhubaneswar,Bangalore, Chennai Coimbatore Delhi,Goa, Gurgaon and Hyderabad.Conclusion: The Sky bus is the technologybreakthrough that India has achieved. Skybus is an improved railway technology,eliminating the problems of existing metrorail systems, like, derailments collisions,and capsizing crushing people. Oldconventional railway men, who remainedbasically operating and maintenanceexperts, may take a little time toappreciate, but the fact remains. Sky bus isan improved railway technologyeliminating their fears of derailments andcapsizing from which they suffered fordecades! Financially Sky bus Metro makesurban transport a dream come true foradministrators- virtually free gift to peoplewithout Government fund in What needs to be done is toeliminate the doubting Thomas in ourminds, and adopt the Sky bus, if we want