The PowerPoint Presentation you are about to see was created by an award winning California college professor of English. It was first presented to audiences throughout that state in the early ‘90’s after she made startling discoveries explaining the change in her students in the late 70’s which worsened in the decade of the 80’s. This most recent PowerPoint version was created for Applied Scholastics International, a non-profit educational organization presenting educational services and materials based on the works of L.Ron Hubbard. “Applied Scholastics” means schooling and education put to practical use. Applied Scholastics celebrates its 40th Anniversary in 2012.
Having observed the lack of motivation, poor study habits and low reading skills of her students, she tested their reading and found, to her dismay, that most of them read 4-6 years below the college level. Then she took a study course through Applied Scholastics. She learned that the reason people give up study or become confused is the result of misunderstood words or symbols. (Go over pictures on screen.) So to remedy this situation, she began instructing her students at the start of each term on how to use the dictionary. Then she learned further that they knew no grammar and hadn’t the faintest idea of how to figure out the pronunciation of words. They didn’t know the letters of the alphabet were symbols for sounds. She suddenly realized that her students, and probably millions of others like them, didn’t know the basics traditionally taught as the heart of reading instruction. Without that, the majority of students were destined to have trouble with reading, pronouncing and spelling words which would impact on their entire educational experience. This led her to research the history of reading in America and, as a result, she found out much more than she wanted to know. The key discoveries of her research are presented here to you in this PowerPoint. These factors explained the poor study habits and low reading scores of her college students.
What does the word “reading” mean? Since this is the focus of today’s talk, it is important we understand both meanings of this word. To achieve the purpose of def. 1, you need to know the symbols of the language and what sounds they represent. This is part one of the reading process. Let’s read the sentence out loud together. Did any of you have difficulty pronouncing any of the words? How about dyslexia? Def.1 doesn’t say anything about understanding what was written. This is what def 2 addresses. For full comprehension of what you are reading, you would have to know the meaning of all the words, not just the sounds represented by the symbols.
(Read aloud.) Can you see how fully grasping the meaning of words can make a difference in your understanding of what was read?
(Read these definitions aloud.)
It looks like we have a functional illiterate here.
Literacy in 1910 (Read aloud.)
Literacy today. (Read Aloud) Has America been crippled by poor reading methods? These statistics, as well as those provided at the end of this PowerPoint, are constantly changing, unfortunately not for the better in most cases.
(Read aloud.) Do we have a crisis?
What happened between 1910 and now to create the literacy crisis?
The correct method for teaching an alphabetic language like English was dropped out.
Read aloud. What is the correct method for teaching an alphabetic language?
(Read these definitions aloud. Ask audience to give other examples of codes; ask them if, as children, they ever made up codes so adults wouldn’t understand what what they were communicating.)
Mastery of the English language letter/sound relationships symbolized by the alphabet is learned through a system called PHONICS. This is not rocket science. It is simple and an elementary school child can master it. There are 26 letters and 44 combinations of these letters (70 total) that represent 44 sounds. Once having learned these, a child or adult has mastered definition 1 of reading and is able to go on and expand literacy through understanding fully what the words and sentences mean, thus meeting the requirements of the second definition of reading.
Figuring out what sounds the letters represent and pronouncing them out loud or simply recognizing them silently is called decoding or reading. Putting sounds into letter symbols is called encoding or writing/spelling.
EXERCISE: Have audience members choose a partner. One takes the letters o, g and d (say the sounds and names of letters) and encodes them into a word on a piece of paper. The other partner then decodes them by reading the word.
Let’s look for a few minutes at the history of reading and why it has been granted so much importance in recent centuries.
For Martin Luther and his followers, being able to read was not simply a nice thing to do but a spiritual necessity. By reading the Bible, without an intermediary such as a priest, one was able to make a direct connection to God through the word.
The earliest documents in America for teaching reading, The New England Primer and the Hornbook, started by teaching children the sounds represented by letters. A primer is a beginning book with which to teach reading.
The hornbook was so named because a piece of clear material from an animal’s horn was placed over the printed matter and the wood to preserve it. On this hornbook, one sees the alphabet, basic sounds and the Lord’s prayer.
By the 18th century, and before and after the Revolutionary War, reading became vital to create literate citizens who could participate in and support a democratic government. (Read quote aloud.)
The spelling book which taught America to read (and spelling was taught, not reading itself for if you can spell, you can read.) was Webster’s Back Back Speller. While Webster was a very religious person, he was also a fierce patriot who fought in the Revolutionary War. He wanted Americans to learn their own version of English not that as taught in books from their adversary England. To this end, he created a famous dictionary, a grammar and a speller. (Read aloud and hold up a facsimile of the book if you have one.)
(Read aloud.) Although slaves were forbidden to learn to read, some managed to do so anyway and then free men followed.
In the 19th century, Webster’s spellers were gradually replaced in popularity by the McGuffey readers which started with phonics and presented a series of books of increasing difficulty for students to read. What a sixth grade student was reading then, many of our high school graduates could not handle today
(Read aloud) From the last part of the 19th century up to around 1930, America led the world in literacy progress.
(Read aloud.) Emancipation of African Americans and naturalization of large numbers of European immigrants brought a huge demand for literacy training.
Such programs such as Freedmen’s Schools, Moonlight Schools for illiterate native born whites and Steamer classes for immigrants met the growing hunger and demand to be able to read English.
(Read aloud.) What happened to change this forward thrust and create the decline we are witnessing today? What was the “ideological” takeover that occurred?” Ideological=body of beliefs supporting a political agenda.” Surprisingly, the big change started in Germany.
LEIPZIG GERMANY, WILHELM WUNDT, HIS STUDENTS and the SHIFT TO LOOK-SAY OR WHOLD WORD READING METHODS were responsible for changing significantly education in America. (Read aloud.)
(If time allows, read the entire statement; if not, just read the highlighted sections on this and subsequent slides.) In a few rapid decades of educational domination, Leipzig graduates and their followers changed the entire direction of education which included replacing the correct method of teaching English through phonics with an incorrect method called “look-say” or “Look and Say” “Whole Word” or Sight reading.
Students of Wundt and their offspring supported by Rockefeller millions came to dominate the most prestigious teacher training institution in the country, Columbia, and to control educational research, educational societies, and educational journals.
Memorizing what words look like is the system used in learning a language using picture symbols, such as Egyptian or Chinese. The English alphabet is not such a language. (Read aloud.) What happens when you replace what is correct and works with what is incorrect and doesn’t work?
(Read aloud.) Ask audience to name some products that have a certain technology in order to be produced. Examples: baking a cake, repairing a car, operating a computer, replacing a kidney, growing vegetables etc. (punch up) “ look-say” or sight reading of whole words is a false technology for teaching our alphabetic language and has resulted in confusion and defective products of millions of poor or non-readers in the U.S.
(Read aloud.) Why should one “guess,” when one can “know for sure”? How would you like your surgeon or pilot to be guessing while performing their duties?
In the 1960’s, phonics had vanished from American classrooms. The Federal Government began to move into the educational arena with funding for schools that were failing more and more in their task of educating children. Schools with more problem children got more funds.
Declining SAT scores in the 1970’s reflect the change in reading methods of the ‘50’s and 60’s at the same time that the government was trying to remedy the problem with more money for the schools The red line shows the increasing flow of federal funds and the black lines the decreasing SAT scores
Correct phonics methods were once the way reading was taught in America. As we just saw, these methods were replaced by Whole Word and Whole Language, methods that didn’t work for many, many children, resulting in an increasing number of incapacitated students, increasing federal funds, declining statistics and a continuing crisis for which no end seems in sight. Having created this monster problem, what has the educational establishment offered by way of solutions? How are the damages being repaired?
(If it is necessary, due to time constraints, to shorten the presentation, some of the following slides on Special Education and the drugging of children can be eliminated or just quickly scanned through emphasizing the statistics.) How about labeling students and getting federal funds for them to attend Special Education classes?
Whereas Special Education was originally reserved for those who were deaf, blind, crippled etc. it has become a collecting place for those who can’t read.
How about diagnosing and drugging children? The graph shows production of Ritalin in kilograms—100kg equals 220 lbs. So 1600 kg equals 252,000 lbs. This production has continued to increase. Not bad for the drug companies. In 2010, it was estimated that between 6-8 million children in the US were prescribed Ritalin. This number continues to increase.
In 2001, President Bush signed legislation known as No Child Left Behind. Among its purposes were: (Read aloud.)
To repair the damages of the past, these were some of the criteria required by NCLB of new programs going into the schools. (Read aloud.) These look good on paper but aside from increasing the amount of student testing and record keeping for teachers, have they resulted in a significant change in student reading competency?
(These can be used or the Presenter can ask people to come up to the board or flipchart and write out their own ideas of how to reverse the decline. Or members of the audience can pick partners and together figure out ways or remedying the situation which are then placed on the flip charts by one of each pair. If the first two points are not included in the items from the audience, the Presenter has to be sure they are included as vital to applying what they have learned in this talk.) (Very important would be stressing training in phonics and Study Tech which can be explained at this point. People should leave the talk having made a decision to do something at the grass roots level—Get trained and teach others. If you represent an Applied Scholastics group in your area, promote coming in and learning phonics immediately or go to Applied Scholastics Int in St. Louis to take a phonics course and to learn to detect and handle the three barriers to learning.) (Read slide aloud.)
Presenter Wrap up: In your own words thank audience for attending and invite them to share with the group how this presentation may have helped them to understand and to increase their desire to handle the reading crisis. Have them write Success Stories and hand them in. Pass out a written SURVEY to get audience feedback. Books should be on display and for sale from Applied Scholastics with special emphasis on phonics and reading courses and the basic Study Technology books.
Presenter Note: You may want to have the following Timeline and Bibliography pages printed out in advance to offer as handouts to your guests. Alternately, you may prefer to get their contact data and arrange to provide them upon request via email.
What happened to american reading
WhatHappened to American Reading?
(c) 2011. Bonnie Paull. All Rights Reserved. Illustration (c) 1992 L Ron Hubbard Library. Grateful acknowledgment is made to L. Ron Hubbard Library for permission to reproduce a selection from the copyrighted works of L. Ron Hubbard.
Purpose of Talk, Orientation to Terms and Current Crisis in school,“Of all the skills and subjects taughtnone is as important as reading. Indeed, one canreasonably say, as reading goes, so goes the lifeand career of the student. If you wish to cripple a person or a civilization what better way than to diminish literacy.” “The War Against Reading,” Bruce Deitrick Price.
Definition of terms Reading— 1. To be able to look at the letters of words,know what sounds they stand for and be able to put the sounds together silently or aloud. — 2. to look at words written down and understand the ideas that are being communicated. The purpose of reading is tofind out what someone else is communicating. Sentence: Some parents have been told their child has dyslexia.
Definition of terms “Dyslexia refers to an extraordinary difficulty identifying the printed word by normally intelligent children. It is widely held to be due to a defect in the child’s brain. However, a century of research has failedto establish the cause of dyslexia and has failed to prove anything whatsoever wrong with the brains of affectedchildren. Virtually all children who have seemed normalfrom birth to the first day of school, are normal and are capable of reading at an age/grade appropriate level.” “Whole Language, The Cause of Dyslexia,” by Dr. Fred A. Baughman, Jr., M.D.
Definition of termsLiteracy — the ability to read and write at the level towhich one has been educated. A student in the 9 th grade should be reading and writing at a 9 th grade level minimally. Illiteracy — ignorant of letters or books; untaught; unlearned. The inability to read or write simple sentences in any language. Functional illiteracy — a term used to describereading and writing skills that are inadequate to cope with the demands of everyday life. This term was coined by the U.S. Army during World War II.
Section IIThe ContinuingCrisis The Continuing Crisis in Reading and Education
Section IIThe ContinuingCrisis The Continuing Crisis in Reading and Education In 1910 the literacy rate was so high it was predicted that “the public schools will in a short time practically eliminate illiteracy.” NEA: The Trojan Horse in Education by Samuel L. Blumenfeld.
Section IIThe ContinuingCrisis The Continuing Crisis in Reading and Education America is dead last amongst 18 nations in literacy levels 1 child in 4 grows up not knowing how to read Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development shows 59% of American high school graduates between 16 and 25 are functionally illiterate
Section IIThe ContinuingCrisis The Continuing Crisis in Reading and Education Two thirds of students who cannot read proficiently by the end of the fourth grade will end up in jail or on welfare 85% of all juveniles who get caught up in the juvenile court system are functionally illiterate More than 60% of all prison inmates are functionally illiterate National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Section IIThe ContinuingCrisis The Continuing Crisis in Reading and Education 3 million children are classified as having “specific learning disabilities” and put in special education. 80% are so classified because they have not learned how to read. President’s Commission on Excellence in Education, 2001: A New Era: Revitalizing Special Education for children and their Families, July 1, 2002.
Section IIThe ContinuingCrisis Purpose of Talk, Orientation to Terms and Current Crisis He who does not know his History is doomed to repeat it. The purpose of this talk is to show that the literacy crisis began over a hundred years ago. And it was man-made. An informed parent, a dedicated church or community group that understands this history and can help a child learn to read and read to learn is truly empowered. Together we can reverse these statistics in our homes and neighborhoods without waiting for the bureaucracy of the federal government, the state or the public school systems to do so.
Section IIIThe Missing Link “… Jacques Barzun [writer and editor] has pointed out, ‘the discovery of the alphabet equals that of the wheel’ in importance to civilization.” The Conspiracy of Ignorance by Martin L. Gross
Section IIIThe Missing Link Phonics — A teaching method by which the person learns the relationship between the letters of the alphabet and the sounds they represent. Code — any system of symbols used for meaningful communication. System — a group of things or parts working together…to form a whole.
Section IIIIntroduction of Phonics 26 44 70 44
Section IIIThe Missing Link Decoding — figuring out the meaning of something written in code; figuring out the sounds the letters stand for in a word. Reading . Encoding — putting a message into code; figuring out what letters to use to stand for the spoken sounds of a word. Spelling.
Section IVReading as a religious activity inthe 16th and 17th centuries Martin Luther translated the Catholic Latin Bible into German. — The new Luther Bible was printed in 1534 andbecame an instant bestseller. To be able toread became very important for one could receive the Word of God directly and not be dependent on a Monk or Priest to translate from Latin.
Section IVReading as a religious activity inthe 16th and 17th centuries The New England Primer
Section IVReading as a religious activity inthe 16th and 17th centuries The Horn Book
Section IV Reading as a religious activity in the 16th and 17th centuries “The earliest methods of reading instruction followed astraightforward, two-step process. Teach the code, then have them read.” Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print by Marilyn Jager Adams
Section VReading as a political/patriotic activityin the 18th and 19th centuries “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free… it expects what never was and never will be.” — Letter (1816) to Colonel Charles Yancey by Thomas Jefferson
Section V Reading as a political/patriotic activity in the 18th and 19th centuries Noah Webster was known as “Schoolmaster to America” because of his dedication to the creation of a truly American English language and nationwide literacy. In 1782 he published his “Blue Back Speller” which sold between 60 and 100 million copies at $.16 each and is credited with teaching Americato read. In 1828 he published his famous dictionary.
Section V Reading as a political/patriotic activity in the 18th and 19th centuries In law generally, it was illegal toteach slaves to read or write. Somedid anyway. After the Nat Turnerrebellion in 1831, it was harder to teach reading and writing. The owners were afraid that it would permit them to read abolitionist literature and it might also lead to slave rebellion. Nat Turner was a literate slave.
Section VFamous students of Webster’sSpeller “Filled with the determination to read, I hit upon many expedients to accomplish that much desired end. The plan which I mainly adopted… was that of using as teachers my young white playmates… I used to carry almost constantly a copy of Webster’s Spelling-Book in my pocket, and when sent on errands, or when play time was allowed me, I would step aside with my young friends and take a lesson in spelling. I am greatly indebted to these boys…” Life and Times of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass
Section VFamous students of Webster’sSpeller “From the time that I can remember having any thoughts about anything, I recall that I had an intense longing to learn to read… I induced my mother to get hold of a book for me. How or where she got it I do not know, but in some way she procured an old copy of Webster’s “blue-black” spelling book… I began at once to devour this book, and I think that it was the first one I ever had in my hands. I had learned from somebody that the way to begin to read was to learn the alphabet…” Up from Slavery by Booker T. Washington
Section VFamous students of Webster’sSpeller “There they sat, nearly thirty of them, on the rough benches, their faces shading from a pale cream to a deep brown, the little feet bare and swinging, the eyes full of expectation, with here and there a twinkle of mischief, and the hands grasping Webster’s blue-back spelling-book.” The Souls of Black Folks by W. E. B. Dubois
Section VMcGuffey Readers 1836-1920 • McGuffey’s Third Eclectic Reader, 1879 120 million copies sold 1836-1960
Section VIReading — a passport intomainstream American culture President Abraham Lincoln created The Freedmen’s Bureau in March of 1865. It lasted until 1872 assisting the establishment of over 1000 schools throughout the South for ex-slaves eager for literacy and general education. “We had more than one thousand (1000) children, and seventy-five adults; and found time, after disciplining them, to hear the readers, to instruct the writers, and to teach the multitude from the blackboard. Again, today, we had a huge school of nine hundred. We divided the school into classes, and made assistant teachers of the advanced children.” - Lucy Chase to Anna Lowell, Richmond, April 20, 1865.
Section VI Reading — a passport into mainstream American culture 1865-1930Black educational achievement in the 50 yearsfollowing emancipation was substantial. Blackliteracy increased from 10% in 1880 to 50% in 1910.For a large population to transform itself fromvirtually unlettered [illiterate] to more than halfliterate in 50 years ranks as an accomplishmentseldom witnessed in human history. By 1930literacy for urban blacks was up to 93.8 %, 91.1 %forforeign born whites and 98.5 % for native-bornwhites.Wealth Redistribution, Race and Southern Public Schools 1880-1890by Kenneth Ng
Section VIReading — a passport into mainstreamAmerican culture 1865-1930 In 1910 the literacy rate was so high it was predicted that “the public schools will in a short time practically eliminate illiteracy.” NEA: The Trojan Horse in Education by Samuel L. Blumenfeld.
Section VIReading — a passport into mainstreamAmerican culture 1865-1930 “I have seen three Moonlight School generations studying the same books in one moonlight school.” – Anonymous
Section VI Reading — a passport into mainstream American culture 1865-1930“Sanity and enlightenment were built into American education inthe late 18 th century by the likes of Benjamin Franklin or the Quakersettlers who established important schooling systems throughout theMidwest. The seeds they and others planted produced a vast andadvanced network of schools and teacher training institutionsthroughout the U.S. This network did not reach everyone and therewere flaws . . .but the foundations were in place for an unprecedentednational education program. [This was not true in the rural Souththat was still recovering from the Civil War. Few schools existed forwhites or blacks.] What the country needed was bold educationalpolicy that built on those foundations—what it got was an ideologicaltakeover.”The Leipzig Connection by Paolo Lionni
Do not look whereyou fell, but where you slipped . African proverb
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. Wilhelm M. Wundt established the world’s first psychological laboratory in 1875 at Leipzig University in Leipzig, Germany, and what began was the study of man as a stimulus/response animal, not a spiritual being with free will. Wundt became known as the father of modern psychology which became a study of the brain and nervous system.
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. While at Lepzig, American student, James Cattell found that adults could recognize words without having to sound out each letter. He reasoned that words are not read letter by letter, but are perceived as “total word pictures.” Thus, little was to be gained by teaching the child sounds and letters as the first step to being able to read. ”…the way to teach children how to read would be to show them words and tell them what the words were.” This research led to the replacement of phonics with the “look-say “ or whole word reading method in American schools. The Leipzig Connection by Paolo Lionni
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. Arthur I. Gates and Edward Thorndike were two of Cattell’s psychology students at Columbia Teachers College. Both became very influential in the educational scene of the times . ”Artificial exercises, like drills on phonetics, multiplication tables, and formal writing movements are used to a wasteful degree. Subjects such as arithmetic, language and history include content that is intrinsically of little value.” The Leipzig Connection by Paolo Lionni “That it will the part of wisdom to curtail the phonetic instruction in the first grade very greatly is strongly implied; indeed it is not improbable that it should be eliminated entirely.” Why Johnny Can’t Read by Rudolph Flesch
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. G. Stanley Hall, another student of Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig and later first President of Clark University, wrote these words in 1911: “The knowledge illiterates acquire is probably a much larger proportion of it practical. It is possible, despite the stigma our age puts upon this disability, for those who are under it not only to lead a useful, happy, virtuous life, but to be really well educated in many other ways.” Samual L. Blumenfeld, NEA: The Trojan Horse in Education.
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. John Dewey, called the “Father of American Education” and a student of G. Stanley Hall, wrote these words in 1898: ”It is almost an unquestioned assumption, of educational theory and practice both, that the first three years of a child’s school life shall be mainly taken up with learning to read and write his own language.The plea for the predominance of learning to read in early school life because of the great importance attaching to literature seems to me a perversion.” “The Primary-Education Fetish by John Dewey as quoted in The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America by Charlotte Thomson Iserbyt
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. John Dewey was the founder of Progressive Education that molded public education as we know it today. He and his followers saw the schools as the way to create the new social order. They threw the baby out with the bath water, eliminating what was best and workable in American education, and substituting experiments based on animal psychology. Among their revolutionary changes to American education were the following:
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. a. De-emphasis of individual excellence and achievement. b. De-emphasis of a child’s individualistic traits in favor of his/her ability to get along with the group. c. Emphasis on educational methods that directed a child toward adjusting to the norms of society. d. Creation of social studies to replace the traditional studies of history, geography, and civics e. Replacing of direct and systematic instruction in phonics as the primary method to teach reading with the “look-say” whole word method. f. Shift of teachers traditional roles as educators to that of guides assisting with the socialization and adjusting of children’s behaviors to allow them to get along with the group. None Dare Call It Education by John A. Stormer and The Leipzig Connection by Paolo Lionni
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading source of funding for the takeover of American Education The main Takeover, 1875–1950. and destruction of successful phonics instruction came from John D. Rockefeller. By flowing thousands of dollars to Columbia University, which trained the country’s educational leaders, he hoped to change his public image from that of a greedy capitalist to humanitarian. For this purpose, the General Education Board was formed. Its head, Frederick T. Gates, wrote in 1913: “In our dream, we have limitless resources and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hand. The present educational conventions fade from our minds and, unhampered by tradition, we work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk. We shall not try to make these people or any of their children into philosophers or men of learning or of science. WE are not to raise up from among them authors, orators, poets, or men of letters. We shall not search for embryo great artists, painters, musicians. Nor will we cherish even the humbler ambition to raise up from among them lawyers, doctors, preachers, politicians, statesmen of whom we now have ample supply.” Quoted in The Leipzig Connection by Paolo Lionni
Section VI Wilhelm The Leipzig Connection and the Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. Wundt James Earl Russell James Cattell G. Stanley Hall (Received doctorate from (Wundt’s 1st assistant; (Wundt’s 1st American student Wundt in 1894; became Dean in 1898 became head of Prof. of Psychology at Johns Of Columbia Teachers College 1st Psychology Dept. at Hopkins University 1883-89. in 1898) Columbia Teachers College.) First pres. of Amer. Psych. Assoc.) John D. Rockefellar Edward Thorndike John Dewey (In 1902, responded to a ( In 1809. received Ph.D (Studied under G. Stanley . request from Russell in Educ. Psych for Hall and received for endowment funds animal experiments at his doctorate in 1884. Columbia TC.) Became Prof. of: Philosophy at Columbia Teachers College in 1905.)By 1912, Columbia University had become the 4 th largest Arthur I. Gates (Prof.of Ed Psych at CTC. graduate school in the U.S. 1920 authored key book “The Improvement of Reading.” By 1920, the takeover of American education was complete. William Gray Received his Masters of Art in 1914 at CTC.By 1950, phonics had vanished Author of most popular whole word, look/sayfrom the American public school Dick and Jane readers from 1930-1970.
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950.“With phonics first, you teach a child to read the wordfish by telling him about the sounds of f—‘ff’—i—shorti—sh—‘sh.’Then you tell him to blend the sounds fromleft to right to read the word:’fish.’”To teach by the ‘look-and-say’ system, you give thechild the picture of a fish with fish printed underneathand encourage him to memorize the group of letters thatmake up fish. Then you print the word again and againand hope the child will remember what the word fishlooks like and what it means.”Why Johnny Can’t Readby From Rudolph Flesch
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. I could never understand how anyone expected a child to learn to read by recognizing ‘sight’ words. Take away the pictures that illustrate the words and the familiar word sequence, and reading turns into guesswork. . .He or she isn’t taught the rules for vowel and consonant sounds, so the child can’t figure out new words independently . . . Over the years I saw that children became better readers and spellers when they learned by phonics.” Marva Collins’ Way by Marva Collins and Civia Tamarkin
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. “I think killing phonics was one of the greatest causes of illiteracy in the country.” — Dr. Seuss (Theodor Geisel) from a 1981 interview The Underground History of American Education by John Taylor Gatto
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. “Near failure-proof methods for teaching all children to read are already available. Continued failure of schools to employ these [phonics-first] programs is at best negligent and at worst malicious.” Dr. Barbara Bateman, University of Oregon, as quoted in Why Johnny Still Can’t Read by Rudolph Flesch
Section VIThe Leipzig Connection andthe Reading Takeover, 1875–1950 . "America, which until the 1930’s had the finest educational system in the world, ended up with the worst educational system in the industrialized world in a short period of fifty years.” The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America by Charlotte Thomson Iserbyt In 1954, at the time of the major decline of reading and education in America, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka, makes segregation of children in schools unconstitutional.
Section VI The Leipzig Connection and the Reading Takeover, 1875–1950. “Every action that results in a product has a certain technology*. One finds out about it or develops it. When one adopts false technology, he will then wind up with confusion as false technology will not deliver a product. It delivers a confusion...” – by L. Ron Hubbard *Technology - the way to do something in order to get the same result every time .(c) 2011. Bonnie Paull. All Rights Reserved. Quoted material by L Ron Hubbard (c) 1991 L Ron Hubbard Library. Grateful acknowledgment is made to L. Ron Hubbard Library for permission to reproduce a selection from the copyrighted works of L. Ron Hubbard. Photograph: (c) 1982 L. Ron Hubbard Library.
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language1970-2000 In the 1970’s, the pendulum on the teaching of reading swung again. Frank Smith, of the University of Victoria in British Columbia, and Kenneth Goodman, of the University of Arizona, spearheaded a movement away from the boring, repetitious Dick and Jane readersKennethGoodman to a different approach that has come to be known as WHOLE LANGUAGE. It was based on the false premise that reading and writing occur naturally as do talking and listening and do not have to be taught .
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language1970-2000 “Like most of the Establishment’s teaching fads, whole language was accepted with little examination.” The Conspiracy of Ignorance by Martin Gross
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language1970-2000“Always try to make sense of everything you read. •When you come to a word or phrase you don’t know,guess that it is a word or phrase that looks like theone in the text. If you can’t think of a word or phrasethat looks like the one in the text, choose somethingthat has the meaning you seem to need and read on. Ifyou must skip a word, say “blank” and go onreading. Try to guess the meaning of the word fromthe way it’s used. Use context clues.”– Barry Sherman, a reading consultant and supporter of whole language
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word toWhole Language1970-2000
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language—1970-2000
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language—1970-2000
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language1970-2000 “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war. As it stands, we have allowed this to happen to ourselves.” From the National Commission on Excellence in Education report, “A Nation at Risk” 1983.
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language1970-2000Some of the false teachings from the followers ofWilhelm Wundt, Whole Word and Whole Language:1. Man is a stimulus-response animal.2. Education should teach a child to adapt to hisenvironment.3. Children can best learn to read by seeing wholewords(stimulus) and pronouncing them from memory ofwhat the word looks like (response).
Section VIIIFrom Whole Word to Whole Language1970-2000Some of the false teachings from the Leipzig Connection,Whole Word and Whole Language:4. Reading and writing occur automatically as do speaking and listening.5. If you don’t know the meaning of a word, guess and goon.6. It is more important for children to feel good than to achieve competence.7. Drilling is boring drudgery.
Section IXAttempts to Repair the Damages Special Education and the Labeling of Children5,986,657 children aged 6-21 in 2006 Special Education programs nationwide under the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) $100 billion a yearCurrent enrollment of over 6 million IDEA students costs $100 billion a year, $17,000 per student.
Section IXAttempts to Repair the Damages Special Education and the Labeling of Children Handicapped and Learning Disabled The primary purpose of Congress original IDEA law in 1975 was- to provide a free and appropriate education for children with hearing, sight, speech and other physical handicaps.
Section IXAttempts to Repair the Damages Special Education and the Labeling of Children 3 million childrenin special education have a “specific learning disability.” In fact, this group has grown more than 300% since 1976. President’s Commission on Excellence in Education, 2001:A New Era: Revitalizing Special Education, July 1, 2002
Section IXAttempts to Repair the Damages Special Education and the Labeling of Children 473,000 teachers in special education in the United States. Demand for special education teachers is expected to rise faster than normal compared to other occupations. stat.bis.gov/ocos070.htm
Section IXAttempts to Repair the Damages Special Education and the Labeling of Children80%of those with “specific learningdisabilities,” are there simply because they haven’t learned how to read.
Section IXAttempts to Repair the Damages Special Education and the Labeling of Children Minority children are over-represented in some categories of special education. African-American children are twice as likely as whitechildren to be labeled mentally retarded or emotionally disabled and placed in special education. President’s Commission on Excellence in Education, 2001:A New Era: Revitalizing Special Education, July 1, 2002
Section IXAttempts to Repair the DamagesDrugging of Children100 kg = 220 pounds President’s Commission on Excellence in Education, 2001: A New Era: Revitalizing Special Education, July 1, 2002.
Section IXAttempts to Repair the DamagesDrugging of Children 1. Thomas Moore, author of Prescriptions for Disaster said that the current use of drugs like Ritalin is taking “appalling risks” with a generation of kids. The drug is given, he said, for “short-term control of behavior—not to reduce any identifiable hazard to health. Such large-scale chemical control of human behavior has not been previously undertaken in our society outside of nursing homes and mental institutions.”
Section IX Attempts to Repair the Damages Drugging of Children1. Since 1987, when Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was added to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), there has been a 900% increase in the number of children diagnosed with ADHD and a 665% percent increase in the production of cocaine- like stimulants for children. “Common Psychiatric Drugs and Their Effects” a White Paper by the Citizens Commission on Human Rights and U.S. Dept. of Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2008
Section IX Attempts to Repair the Damages Drugging of Children3. With a significant departure from medical diagnosis, psychiatric diagnoses are devoted to categorization of symptoms only, not the observation of actual physical disease. None of the diagnoses are supported by scientific evidence of biological disease or mental illness of any kind. Children with Medicaid were more likely than uninsured or privately insured children to be diagnosed with ADHD. “Common Psychiatric Drugs and Their Effects” a White Paper by the Citizens Commission on Human Rights and U.S. Dept. of Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2008
Section IX Attempts to Repair the Damages Drugging of Children“Did the doctor test your child for a thyroid disorder?“Did your doctor test for heavy metal toxicities?“Did your doctor talk to you about your child’s allergies?“Did your doctor even mention nutrition or possible foodsensitivities?“Did your doctor ask you if your child’s IQ had been tested?“… and if he was gifted?”“Probably not.”From Committee on Government Reform U.S. House of Representatives—statement of the Honorable Dan Burton“Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Are we Over-Medicating Our Children”Sept. 26, 2002
Section IX Attempts to Repair the DamagesNo Child Left Behind 2001-July2009The ‘No Child Left Behind’ (NCLB) Act of 2001 was intended toclose the achievement gap among all students and ensure highacademic standards. It is up for reauthorization amid a great dealof debate about which parts of it have succeeded and which havefailed.“. . . the first thing about NCLB that will be changed… is itsname, as the current one has become toxic… There needs to be a setof national standards for students… instead of the currentsystem in which each state has its own; and the standards needto be set high enough that students who meet themare genuinely prepared for college.”U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan
Section IXAttempts to Repair the DamagesNo Child Left Behind 2001-Present • Research-based methodologies • Accountability • Quantifiable results • Strategies proven to be workable
Section IX Attempts to Repair the Damages No Child Left Behind 2001-July 2009 At grade 4, the averagereading score remained the same in 2007 and 2009, but was higher than the scores in earlier assessment years from 1992 to 2005.At grade 8 , the average readingscore in 2009 was one point higher than in 2007 and four points higher than in 1992, but was notconsistently higher than in all the assessment years in between.
Section IXAttempts to Repair the Damages Do you think the damages have been repaired? “Of all the skills and subjects taught in school, none is as important as reading. Indeed, one can reasonably say, as reading goes, so goes the life and career of the student. If you wish to cripple a person or a civilization what better way than to diminish literacy.” “The War Against Reading,” Bruce Deitrick Price.
Section IXWhat Can You Do to Reversethe Reading Decline? “To be successful, children need to learn both code and content knowledge.” Susan B. Neuman, “Sparks Fade, Knowledge Stays,” Amercian Educator, Fall, 2010
Section IXWhat Can You Do to Reversethe Reading Decline? You can ensure that your children and those in your community become proficient readers and “literate adults” who can succeed in school and in life.1. Learn phonics yourself and teach it to others (the code)2. Learn to identify and handle the main barriers to learning for full comprehension of content as taught in Study Technology, the science of how to learn researched and developed by L. Ron Hubbard
Section IXWhat Can You Do to Reversethe Reading Decline? You can ensure that your children and those in your community become proficient readers who can succeed in school and in life.1. Read to the children3. Assist with reading/writing tasks5. Be a reading/writing role model
Section IXWhat Can You Do to Reversethe Reading Decline?6. Read signs and labels with children2. Have books available in the home, church and community center8. Take children to the library9. Converse more. Command less.10. Have dictionaries available for children of different ages11. Be a dictionary user role model
Section IX What Can You Do to Reverse the Reading Decline? > Learn > Read to to Read Learn “School is where one should learn to study and where children can be prepared to come to grips with reality, to learn to handle it with competence and be readied to take over tomorrow’s world.” – L. Ron Hubbard “In a global economy, where the most valuable skill you can sell is your knowledge, a good education is no longer just a pathway to opportunity. It is a prerequisite.” – President Barack Obama(c) 2011. Bonnie Paull. All Rights Reserved. Quoted material by L Ron Hubbard (c) 1981, 2005 L Ron Hubbard Library. Grateful acknowledgment is made to L. Ron Hubbard Library for permission to reproduce a selection from the copyrighted works of L. Ron Hubbard.
TIMELINE 1865--1913 Freeing of the slaves and the largest European immigration into the U.S. President Lincoln initiates and Congress approves the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen andAbandoned Lands with an appropriation of 5 million dollars to set up and operate Freedmen’s Schools for African Americans in the South, 1865-1872. Over 3000 schools in the South. 1879 Wilhelm Wundt establishes first experimental psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany 1898-1915 Leipzig graduates take over Columbia Teachers College and their first department of Psychology. Columbia Teachers’ College rockets to 4 th largest graduate school in the country.U.S. Bureau of Education finds 22 out of a thousand children between the ages of 10 and 14- slightly over 2%- were illiterate (many had never gone to school)From a study done by the U.S. Bureau of Education reported in School and Society. Jan. 30. 1915 Cora Wilson Stewart sets up Moonlight Schools to teach reading to illiterate children and adults in Kentucky. First use of the slogan “Each one teach one.”
1920-1930 Look and Say –Phonics called “heartless drudgery.” American Reading teachers replace the workable reading method of teaching the alphabetic code and begin to teach children to guess and memorize the meanings of the tens of thousands of words they would see in print. No new phonics readers published.“Dick and Jane” readers, written by leading reading professors, bring in 3 million annually to publishers. Dr. Samuel T. Orton, a physician who worked with brain-damaged children, finds dyslexia appearing in normal children for the first time. Warns that the change in reading methods is creating this situation. 1930’s Remedial reading, unknown in the U.S. before, appears in schools for the first time. National Right to Read Foundation: “Illiteracy and Incurable Disease or Education Malpractice?” Look and Say method in nearly all public schools in the U.S.Followers of John Dewey, known as “Progressivists,” move ahead with their plan to use the schools to create a “new social order.” By 1934, they control most of the teacher training institutions in the country and take control of the National Education Association.
1950’s Reading takeover complete.By 1953, Wundtian psychology has reached out from Columbia Teachers College and impacted on most of the public schools in the land. 20% of all public school teachers graduated and one fourth of all superintendents, one third of all Presidents and Deans of accredited teacher training schools have received advanced degrees there. From Lawrence A. Cremin, David A. Shannon, and Mary Evelyn Townsend, A History of Teachers College Columbia University as referenced in The Leipzig Connection by Paolo Lionni. Rudolph Flesch publishes Why Johnny Can’t Read.Frank Laubach establishes “Laubach Literacy” programs around the county using the phonics method. Many libraries offer these programs with the return of the slogan “Each One Teach One.”Brown Vs. the Board of Education —school integration occurs at the time of the major decline of American reading and education in America. Ritalin is first approved for use in 1955. In 1957, children started being labeled with "hyperkinetic impulse disorder,” with stimulant drugs being the recommended treatment.
1960’s “Mental Health” enters the school scene. The emotional condition of students becomes more important than academic learning. The downward spiral in reading, writing and mathematical skills accelerates. Professor and researcher Jeanne Chall of Harvard publishes the landmark text Learning toRead: the Great Debate in which she supports the teaching of phonics first for young children.She connects drop in Sat scores in 60’s to the reading instruction of Look and Say 10 years earlier in first grade. Establishment of the Reading Reform Foundation to get phonics back in the schools.1965-- ESEA—The federal government enters education with passage of The Elementary and Secondary Education Act. This marks the end of local school control and the beginning of nationalization.Establishment of the Reading Reform Foundation to get direct instruction in phonics back in the schools. 1970’sWhole Language is introduced via Professors Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman—Students encouraged to guess at the meaning of words and to invent their own spelling. Up until the 70’s 85% of all US classrooms using Look and Say. By 1971, Dick and Janereaders, the most popular Look and Say readers published by Scott, Foresman, were entirely phased out replaced by Whole Language programs.McCurdy, J. &Speech, D., “Student Skills decline unequalled in history,” Los Angeles Times, 15 August 1976
1975 The Federal Government’s Individuals with Disabilities Education Act—IDEA. The word “handicapped” was changed to “learning disabled” including children who were restless or interrupted in class and avalanche of students suddenly find themselves labeled “special education.” Schools can receive up to 25% of their funding from this source. National Library of Education, U.S. Dept. of Education 1980’s Rudolph Flesch publishes “Why Johnny Still Can’t Read.”State departments of education are receiving between 60-75% of their operating budgets from the U.S. Dept. of Education. “ A Nation at Risk” is published by The National Commission on Excellence in Education condemning the erosion of the educational foundations of our society by “a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a nation and as a people.” The number of children diagnosed with ADHD reaches 500 thousand.
1990’s The Scholastics Aptitude Tests are recalibratedNational Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports of reading scores showed that in inner city schools, predominately minority children, 47% of 4 th graders scored “below basic” reading levels, a form of semi-literacy. 40 % or 2 in 5 of all 4 th graders nationwide were reading poorly. National Center for Educational Statistics, U. S. Dept. of Education, 1994-1995 Millions of American high school students are not receiving adequate preparation for college level work. 1 in 7 college graduates have marginal literacy skills. National Center for Educational Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Education 42 million adults are functionally illiterate in U.S. (cannot read phone books or voting ballots) National Center for Educational Statistics, U. S. Dept.of Education Martin L. Gross. The Conspiracy of Ignorance, pp. 72-73
2000 to Present President George W. Bush signs into law the “No Child Left Behind Act.” (2001)“If we provide all children with scientifically-based reading instruction delivered by well- trained teachers, many will never need special education.” Rod Paige, U.S. Secretary of Education under George W. BushOver 400,000 special education teachers in the U.S., a profession expected to increase faster than normal compared to other occupations. 80% of children labeled with “specific learning disabilities” have not learned to read. Diagnoses of ADHD grows to between 5 and 7 million. More than 8 million American children are prescribed powerful drugs for so-called educational and behavioral problems.Results from No Child Left Behind show minimal improvement in student literacy skills.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Marilyn Jager. Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. Chanpagne, Illinois: University of Illinois, 1990. Baughman, Fred A, Jr., M.D. “Whole Language, The Cause of Dyslexia.” Applied Scholastics International News Bulletin #1 (1996): 1-2. Blumenfeld, Samuel L. NEA: The Trojan Horse in Education. St. Paul, Minnesota: Paradigm Publishing, 1984. Chall, Jeanne S. Learning to Read: The Great Debate. New York: McGraw Hill. 1967 Dewey, John. “My Pedagogic Creed.” The School Journal, Volume LIV, Number 3 (January 16, 1897): 77-80.Douglass, Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. New York: The Macmillan Company; London: Collier Macmillan LTD. 1962. Dubois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folks. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & CO. 1903. Flesch, Rudolf. Why Johnny Can’t Read. New York: Harper & Row. 1955. Flesch, Rudolf. Why Johnny Still Can’t Read. New York: Harper & Row. 1981.Gatto, John Taylor. The Underground History of American Education. New York: Oxford Village Press. 2000. Gross, Martin L. The Conspiracy of Ignorance: The Failure of American Schools. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Inc. 1999.
BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued) Higgs, Robert, "Accumulation of Property by Southern Blacks before World War I," American Economic Review, September 1982.Hubbard, L. Ron. Learning How to Learn. St. Louis, Mo: Effective Education Publishing. 2006. Tech . Hubbard Communications Office Policy Letter June 22, 1974.Iserbyt, Charlotte Thomson. The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America. Ravenna, Ohio: Conscience Press. 1999. Lionni, Paolo. The Leipzig Connection. Sheridan, Oregon: Delphian Press. 1988.Malcolm X as told to Haley, Alex. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Ballentine Books. 1965. Moore, Thomas. Prescriptions for Disaster. NY, New York: Simon & Schuster. 1998. Ng, Kenneth. Wealth Redistribution, Race and Southern Public Schools, 1880-1910. Education Policy Analysis Archives Volume 9 Number 16 (May 13, 2001). Price, Bruce Dietrick. The War Against Reading. Improve-Education.Org. June 2009. Stormer, John A. None Dare Call It Education. Florissant, Missouri: Liberty Bell Press. 1998. Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery. New York: Dodd. Mean and Company. 1965