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  1. 1. The Digestive system<br />The Digestive system<br />By: Malerie Vega<br />Medical terminology<br />BIO 120 Presentation 8<br />
  2. 2. The Colon <br />The Anal Sphincter is the ring of muscle that controls the anal opening. This opening is the anus.<br />The ascending colon is the section following domen<br />The cecum is the first portion of the colon. It is a blind pouch off the beginning of the large intestine. The appendix grows out of the end of the cecum<br />Defecation is the evacuation of feces which is food that can not be digested so it is evacuated from the rectum<br />The descending colon is the section of the colon that descends the left side of the abdomen <br />
  3. 3. The Colon <br />The rectum is at the end of the digestive tube that holds feces.<br />Sigmond colon is the final section of the colon <br />The transverse colon is the section that crosses the upper abdomen from right to left.<br />Vermiform appendix is a small out growth out of the cecum the purpose or the function is unknown<br />
  4. 4. Parts of the Colon<br />The ascending colon travels up the right side of the abdomen.<br />The transverse colon runs across the abdomen.<br />The descending colon travels down the left abdomen.<br />The sigmond colon is a short curving of the colon, just before the rectum. <br />
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  6. 6. Function of the Colon <br />The colon removes water, salt, and some nutrients forming stool. <br />Muscles line the colon’s walls, squeezing its contents along. <br />Billions of bacteria coat the colon and its contents, living in a healthy balance with the body. <br /> <br />
  7. 7. Specifications of the Colon<br />The colon absorbs water from the sludge while transporting it toward the rectum. In the process, the colon may also absorb harmful materials. The longer it takes for waste to pass through the colon, the greater the chance of absorbing such materials.<br />You can tell how long waste sits in your colon by how often you poop so, the more you poop, and the faster your colon is processing material.<br />The small intestine sucks the nutrients out of what you eat and then pours the leftover sludge into the cecum. This sludgy waste then moves from the cecum to the colon for further processing.<br />The large intestine connects with the small intestine to the north and freedom (open air) to the south. It begins with the cecum and ends with the anus.<br />
  8. 8. Specifications of the Colon continued<br />The large intestine is the same thing as the large bowel. The main components of the large intestine include the cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal, and anus.<br />The cecum is about six centimeters (cm) long and 7.5 cm wide. The ileum (of the small intestine) dumps waste material into the cecum and the cecum passes it on to the colon, specifically the ascending colon. It doesn't do so through a little tube; the cecum is continuous with the colon.<br />The appendix helps support the immune system in two ways. It helps tell lymphocytes where they need to go to fight an infection and it boosts the large intestine's immunity to a variety of foods and drugs. <br />The rectum is about eight inches long and serves, basically, as a warehouse for poop.<br />
  9. 9. Description of the Colon<br />The rectum has little shelves in it called transverse folds. These folds help keep stool in place until you're ready to go to the bathroom. When you're ready, stool enters the lower rectum, moves into the anal canal, and then passes through the anus on its way out.<br />The anal canal is the last stop for poop and then when someone decides it's time (or the body decides for them), poop leaves the rectum, passes through the anal canal, and exits the body through the anus.<br />The anal canal is 2.5 - 4 centimeters long, depending on the person. Its upper half is comprised of anal columns, vertical folds of tissue. Its lower half is comprised of anal valves, folds of tissue that connect the bottoms of the anal columns together. The pectinate line runs underneath the anal valves. <br />The anus is the end of the line at this part the feces is then pushed out of the anus<br />
  10. 10. Some Colon Conditions <br />Hemorrhoids: These are probably the most common cause of visible blood in the lower digestive tract, especially blood that appears bright red. Hemorrhoids are enlarged veins in the anal area that can rupture and produce bright red blood, which can show up in the toilet or on toilet paper. <br />Colon Bleeding: (Hemorrhage) Multiple potential colon problems can cause bleeding. Rapid bleeding is visible in the stool, but very slow bleeding might not be. <br />
  11. 11. The Esophagus<br />The peristalsis is the wave like muscular movement in the wal of the digestive system tube<br />Anatomically and functionally, the esophagus is the least complex section of the digestive tube. <br />The esophagus begins as an extension of the pharynx in the back of the oral cavity. It then courses down the neck next to the trachea, through the thoracic cavity, and penetrates the diaphragm to connect with the stomach in the abdominal cavity.<br />
  12. 12. The Esophagus<br />. First, instead of the muscular tunic being entirely smooth muscle, as it is in the stomach and intestines, the wall of the esophagus contains a variable amount of striated muscle. <br /> The esophagus is routinely exposed to rough and abrasive foodstuffs, like fragments of bone, fibrous plant leaves and Doritos. <br />
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  14. 14. The EsophagusContinued<br />When relaxed, as it is during swallowing, this muscle pulls the larynx forward and aids in routing food into the esophagus instead of the larynx. The lower esophageal sphincter is the muscle that surrounds the esophagus just as it enters the stomach.<br />Normally, the upper and lower sphincters are closed except during swallowing, which prevents constant entry of air from the oral cavity or reflux of stomach contents. <br />
  15. 15. Dissorders of the Esophagus <br />heartburn and gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). In both cases, the lower sphincter does not close properly, allowing acid from the stomachto reflux back into the esophagus, causes a burning sensation in the chest or throat (heartburn) or additional signs such as coughing, coughing or a sensation of choking.<br />
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  17. 17. Oral cavity <br />The oral cavity consist of many smaller parts like the cheeks or gingiva which are the gums. <br />The opening is formed by the lips food is broken down by using the teeth and a little help from saliva.<br />the tongue is the muscle that contain the taste buds that let you taste anything that enters the oral cavity <br />The palate is the roof of your mouth were the uvula the soft pendulum like object in the back of the mouth this is used for speech and is the location of the gag reflex<br />
  18. 18. The Stomach <br />The Antrum is the tapered distal end of the stomach.<br />The cyme is the semi soft liqued that is a mixture of food and digestive fluid that passes from the stomach into the small intestine<br />The fundus is the domed upper part of the organs such as the stomach or uterus.<br />Hydrochloric acid secrets from the stomach to help with digestion.<br />