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Re-speaking and Localization Luigi  Muzii
Evolution of the Language Market <ul><li>Conference interpreting is shrinking </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual market is in a...
Translation Strategies Foreignising Localization Non-translation Transfer Subtitling Voice-over Dubbing New text
Localization <ul><li>A complex process  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not exclusively pertaining to software </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Media Convergence <ul><li>New challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media-rich content are changing localization </li></ul></ul...
Integration <ul><li>Audio and video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sports and newsro...
Non-linear Processes <ul><li>The audio component is only one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five main components </li></ul></ul><ul...
Subtitling Media-rich Content for the Web <ul><li>Still rare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made on a shoestring budget </li></ul><...
Making Multimedia Accessible <ul><li>Video and multimedia products are required to be captioned and audio-described </li><...
Closed vs. Open Captioning <ul><li>Closed captions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate from the video image </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Technology <ul><li>Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. </li></ul>
Collaborative Subtitling <ul><li>Quality requirements, pricing structures, and business practices limit the industry to 1%...
Real-time Captioning for the Web <ul><li>Few real-time multimedia technologies have native support for captioning </li></u...
Caption Template Generation Systems <ul><li>Audio and video analysis to identify caption end-points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Progress <ul><li>A technology is a real progress when it is available to anyone. </li></ul>
dotSUB.com http://stage.dotsub.com/films/commonsense/index.php?autostart=true&language_setting=none_
dotSUB.com <ul><li>Web-based, point-and-shoot-camera technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great potential </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Space, the final frontier <ul><li>Voxonic  proprietary software to replicate a specific voice in any language </li></ul><u...
Low-cost  Speech Recognition <ul><li>Medical Dictation and Transcription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>StructuRad StudyManager </l...
Tower of Babel <ul><li>Created at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed in New Scientist  ...
Automation of (On-line) Closed Captioning <ul><li>Small and well-defined domains (news, sports and politics) </li></ul><ul...
Automatic Subtitle Generation <ul><li>Integration of speech and language technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASR for the tr...
Corpora Support <ul><li>Large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic speech reco...
Subtitle Workflow <ul><li>Automatic addition to task list of events requiring subtitling </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking each a...
Re-speaking for Real-time Subtitling  <ul><li>Steadily increasing demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially for the hard of ...
Training of Interpreters <ul><li>Still focusing on language acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proficiency </li></ul></ul><...
Conclusions <ul><li>Hearing-impaired supporting technologies can help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic solution to the m...
Re-speak This! Ka mate, Ka mate! Ka ora, Ka ora! Ka mate, Ka mate! Ka ora, Ka ora! Tenei te tangata puhuruhuru Nana i tiki...
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Re-speaking and localization

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Presentation for the first international seminar on New Technologies in Real Time Subtitling Intralingual, held at the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies in Translation, Languages ​​and Cultures (Dipartimento di Studi Interdisciplinari su Traduzione, Lingue e Culture) of the University of Bologna on November 17, 2006 in Forlì.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Re-speaking and localization

  1. 1. Re-speaking and Localization Luigi Muzii
  2. 2. Evolution of the Language Market <ul><li>Conference interpreting is shrinking </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual market is in an upward trend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging Translation Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web localization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media-rich content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment prevails, edutainment is rising </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumable short-term editorial projects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia localization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video game localization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive media with non-linear text structure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written text and spoken dialogues of both technical and creative nature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gameplay </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Story </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Game culture and related media </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Translation Strategies Foreignising Localization Non-translation Transfer Subtitling Voice-over Dubbing New text
  4. 4. Localization <ul><li>A complex process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not exclusively pertaining to software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Artistic” manipulation of content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Media Convergence <ul><li>New challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media-rich content are changing localization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources, skills, processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizing costs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Streamline and optimization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Integration <ul><li>Audio and video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sports and newsroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio, television, teletext </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Off-line and online post production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio and video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2D and 3D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual sets </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution network feeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media recording </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archiving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated online/near-online </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Non-linear Processes <ul><li>The audio component is only one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five main components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each one influencing the others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The order of localization is driven by time, functional and production constraints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Localization processes run parallel to each other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Subtitling Media-rich Content for the Web <ul><li>Still rare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made on a shoestring budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High cost vs. investment shrinkage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled staff and special hardware resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Making Multimedia Accessible <ul><li>Video and multimedia products are required to be captioned and audio-described </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-Time Captioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closed captions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate from the video image </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open captions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Added to the video image and broadcasted as part of it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visible to all viewers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative tracks describing the current scene or setting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Closed vs. Open Captioning <ul><li>Closed captions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate from the video image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optionally displayed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decoder needed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For hearing impaired </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Open captions added to the video image and broadcasted as part of it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible to all viewers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For translated dialog </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Technology <ul><li>Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Collaborative Subtitling <ul><li>Quality requirements, pricing structures, and business practices limit the industry to 1% of assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology can open up another niche for language workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networked (translation) projects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing the process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Real-time Captioning for the Web <ul><li>Few real-time multimedia technologies have native support for captioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time captions delivered through different technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel to multimedia software/hardware </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated applications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In streaming video a delay occurs between when the media is captured and when it displays to the end user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Remote) CART (Communication Access Real-time Translation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the web as searchable for multimedia content as it is searchable for text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Content Description Interface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard for describing multimedia content data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMIL ( Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MAGpie (Media Access Generator) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcast/Electronic News Room (ENR) captioning </li></ul>
  14. 14. Caption Template Generation Systems <ul><li>Audio and video analysis to identify caption end-points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty time-coded captions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caption time-codes identified by audio-breaks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic segmentation techniques </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Progress <ul><li>A technology is a real progress when it is available to anyone. </li></ul>
  16. 16. dotSUB.com http://stage.dotsub.com/films/commonsense/index.php?autostart=true&language_setting=none_
  17. 17. dotSUB.com <ul><li>Web-based, point-and-shoot-camera technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A video testimonial transcribed, translated into English and posted on the web in less than 20 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-coding of subtitles with a few keyboard commands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Space, the final frontier <ul><li>Voxonic proprietary software to replicate a specific voice in any language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten minute sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The voice is broken into phonemes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A second speaker mimics the first speaker’s vocal patterns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The two voices are then aligned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Low-cost Speech Recognition <ul><li>Medical Dictation and Transcription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>StructuRad StudyManager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HL7* interfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ All-in-one” technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech recognition-assisted transcription </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictation playback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macro-enriched reporting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>* Health Level Seven, Inc., an all-volunteer, not-for-profit organization involved in development of international healthcare standards
  20. 20. Tower of Babel <ul><li>Created at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed in New Scientist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users can silently mouth a word in their own language for it to be translated and read out in another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes attached to the neck and face detect movements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A computer works out the sounds and builds them up into words </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like watching a television program that has been dubbed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two prototypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese into English </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English into Spanish/German </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Automation of (On-line) Closed Captioning <ul><li>Small and well-defined domains (news, sports and politics) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents with limited lead-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation of soundtrack for speech location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text organized into individual captions for display and reading rate adjustment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of video image for caption synchronization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Automatic Subtitle Generation <ul><li>Integration of speech and language technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASR for the transcription of audio streams into text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtitling production from audio transcriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine translation and translation memory </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Corpora Support <ul><li>Large vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic speech recognition in off-line closed-captioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least a one-million-word text corpus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segmented and transcribed speech utterances for each typical genre </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic complexity requires acoustic models </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise-tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very concentrated core set of frequently used words </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Subtitle Workflow <ul><li>Automatic addition to task list of events requiring subtitling </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking each and every subtitling task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live and pre-prepared subtitle events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation to subtitlers and dates assignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status of all tasks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feature set to each user </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subtitle file asset management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File re-use and subtitle search </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Re-speaking for Real-time Subtitling <ul><li>Steadily increasing demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially for the hard of hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice recognition for live subtitling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Far from 100% efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance can degrade markedly as the complexity of acoustic data increases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A “re-speaker” is necessary to process information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major events and news reports </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A new niche for specialized interpreters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Training of Interpreters <ul><li>Still focusing on language acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audible speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking with a minimum of hesitation </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Conclusions <ul><li>Hearing-impaired supporting technologies can help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic solution to the multiple constraints of multimedia localization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional approach </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Re-speak This! Ka mate, Ka mate! Ka ora, Ka ora! Ka mate, Ka mate! Ka ora, Ka ora! Tenei te tangata puhuruhuru Nana i tiki mai whakawhiti te ra! A hupane, kaupane A hupane, kaupane whiti te ra!

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