solar radiation

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solar radiation

  1. 1. DESIGN OF A SOLAR RADIATION SENSOR USING SOLAR CELL LILY SULASTRI MOHD MUHSIN 0133250 PROJECT SUPERVISOR: ASST. PROF. DR. RIZA MUHIDA 9 DECEMBER 2005
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>BACKGROUND </li></ul><ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>METHODOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>WORKPLAN FOR PROJECT 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul>
  3. 3. BACKGROUND <ul><li>A solar radiation sensor or pyranometer is an instrument that measures total solar radiation ( in watts per meter square) both direct and diffuse solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the solar radiation and its interaction with the atmosphere and the earth's surface is important because atmospheric circulation is driven by solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover solar radiation can be use to forecast weather and others </li></ul>Fig. 1 The Solar Radiation Graph
  4. 4. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>Example of Solar Radiation Sensor available in the market: </li></ul><ul><li>1. SO9800B SOLAR RADIATION SENSOR (SIAP BOLOGNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the global solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>(W/m^2) both the energy direct and </li></ul><ul><li>diffused radiation of the sun </li></ul><ul><li>The sensor is a silicon photovoltaic cell </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessor based circuit </li></ul><ul><li>(simulate using computer) </li></ul><ul><li>The distance between the sensor and the data logger can be up to 1 km </li></ul><ul><li>The sensor is factory calibrated </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul>
  5. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW <ul><li>2. 80-SPC SOLAR RADIATION PYRANOMETER (PACIFIC DATA </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEMS PTY LTD) </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the global solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>The sensor is a photovoltaic cell sealed </li></ul><ul><li>in epoxy resin </li></ul><ul><li>Need a 3m cable to connect to the data </li></ul><ul><li>acquisition equipment </li></ul><ul><li>This instrument is robust, weather-proof </li></ul><ul><li>and is mounted on a single piece of 25 mm </li></ul><ul><li>thick Plexiglass </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive ($555 equivalent to RM1550) </li></ul>
  6. 6. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Need a cable to connect from the sensor to the data </li></ul><ul><li>acquisition equipment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Not portable </li></ul><ul><li>3. Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>How to solve: </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the wireless measurement system that use FM </li></ul><ul><li>transmitter and FM radio receiver </li></ul><ul><li>2. Can be apply in a wider range </li></ul><ul><li>3. The use of cable is not required and it will be portable </li></ul><ul><li>4. Less expensive </li></ul>
  7. 7. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>The main objective of this project is to design a solar radiation sensor using solar cell </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of this project is to obtain the final output graph of the solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Basically the objectives are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. To use solar cell as sensor in building the solar radiation sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. To design a solar radiation sensor that powered from a small solar panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. To apply wireless measurement system using FM transmitter and FM radio receiver </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Solar Radiation Sensor Block Diagram </li></ul>SOLAR CELL (SENSOR) SIGNAL CONDITIONING (OP AMP INVERTING) V/F CONVERTER FM TRANSMITTER FM RADIO COMPUTER (FINAL GRAPH) ANTENNA ANTENNA Measure the voltage drop across a small resistance connected to the solar cell Op amp inverting amplifier can amplify the current from the solar cell so that it produces a voltage in a more usable range V/F converter convert measured variable information, Vin from the signal conditioning into a variable frequency FM Transmitter can transmit sound to a FM radio and FM radio receives sound from the FM transmitter Basically FM transmitter and FM radio will have the same frequency PV PANEL CHARGING CONTROLLER CIRCUIT BATTERY
  9. 9. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>SOLAR CELL (SENSOR) </li></ul><ul><li>TOP VIEW FRONT/SIDE VIEW </li></ul>0.6 cm 3 cm solar cell 7.5 cm <ul><li>Hemisphere glass </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively strong </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically inactive material </li></ul><ul><li>Hard wearing </li></ul><ul><li>Inert </li></ul>3.5 cm 5 cm 7.5 cm <ul><li>Plastic base </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic do not absorb heat </li></ul><ul><li>Semi crystalline material </li></ul><ul><li>(opaque and white) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight </li></ul><ul><li>The dimension of the solar </li></ul><ul><li>cell is 0.6 cm wide and 5.1 cm </li></ul><ul><li>height </li></ul><ul><li>However the dimension of the </li></ul><ul><li>solar cell that will be use to </li></ul><ul><li>build the solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>sensor is 0.6 cm wide and </li></ul><ul><li>3 cm height </li></ul>The current, I of the solar cell must be measured using following equations: I = Iph - Id - Ir Iph = Isho ( S / 1000) + Jo ( T – Tref ) Id = Io [ exp ( q [ V + Rs I ] / nkT ) – 1 ] Io = Ido ( T / Tref ) 3 exp [ q Eg ( [ 1 / Tref ] – [ 1 / T ] ) / nk ] Ir = ( V + Rs I) Rsh
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>SIGNAL CONDITIONING (OP AMP INVERTING) </li></ul><ul><li>The operational amplifier use is the UA741CN </li></ul>Transfer function: Vout = - 10000 Vin Vout = - R2 Vin R1 Fig. 3 Signal Conditioning Circuit using Orcad Capture Fig. 2 Signal Conditioning Circuit Vout
  11. 11. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>V/F CONVERTER </li></ul>Theoretical transfer function: ƒout = 1999.174 Vin Experiment transfer function: ƒout = 1925 Vin Fig. 5 V/F Converter Circuit using Orcad Capture Fig. 4 V/F Converter Circuit ƒ out = m Vin + c
  12. 12. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>FM TRANSMITTER AND </li></ul><ul><li>FM RADIO </li></ul><ul><li>When I speak through the </li></ul><ul><li>microphone, I can hear my </li></ul><ul><li>voice on the radio </li></ul><ul><li>The frequency is 96 MHz </li></ul>Fig. 6 FM Transmitter Circuit RF coil L1 0.1 μF (104) C6 27 pF C5 5 pF C4 0.001 μF (102) C3 0.01 μF (103) C2 0.1 μF (104) C1 Trimmer (frequency adjust) VC 9018 (NPN) Q2 9013 (NPN) Q1 390 Ω R5 47 kΩ R4 10 kΩ R3 1 MΩ R2 22 kΩ R1 Description Components
  13. 13. METHODOLOGY <ul><li>COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>The result from the FM radio is then being transfer to the computer using sound card for analysis (simulation using LabVIEW) </li></ul><ul><li>The result will undergo Fast Fourier Transform (FFT): </li></ul><ul><li>(1) </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the value of frequency can be obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Then the value of voltage can be obtained using equation 2 below: Vin = ƒout </li></ul><ul><li> 1925 (2) </li></ul><ul><li>After that, make a relationship between the value of voltage and solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>The output will be sampled in certain duration of time and the </li></ul><ul><li>value of solar radiation will be recorded in a table </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the output graph of the solar radiation can be obtained </li></ul>
  14. 14. WORKPLAN FOR PROJECT 2 Table 1 Workplan for Project 2 Task 1: Circuit development Task 2: Building the solar radiation sensor Task 3: Analysis, simulate and testing circuit Task 4: Report writing and submission Task 5: Prepare for the presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Wk 14 Wk 13 Wk 12 Wk 11 Wk 10 Wk 9 Wk 8 Wk 7 Wk 6 Wk 5 Wk 4 Wk 3 Wk 2 Wk 1 Task
  15. 15. CONCLUSION <ul><li>The initial design of the solar radiation sensor had been done </li></ul><ul><li>The signal conditioning, V/F converter and FM transmitter circuit had been constructed and this circuit will be use to obtain the graph of solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>From the design, experiment, testing, calculation and observation that have been done throughout my project 1 in designing the solar radiation sensor using solar cell and obtaining the solar radiation graph, it is possible to continue for my project 2 </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE END… ANY QUESTION?

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