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Introduction to Architecture
Definition of Architecture
Elements of architecture
Space defining elements
Opening in space defining elements
Spatial relationship
Spatial organization
Primary forms
Transformation of forms

Introduction to Architecture
Definition of Architecture

1.
2.
3.
4.

Originated from the Greek word Architekton
Archi – great tekton – builder
Architecture is the art and science of building
It is the conscious creation of utilitarian spaces with the
deliberate use of material
5. Architecture should be technically efficient and aesthetically
pleasing.

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of Architecture
PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE
Point

zero dimension . Indicates position in space.

Line

1 d – point extended becomes a line. With
properties of length , direction & position.

Plane

2 d -line extended becomes a plane with
properties of length , width , shape , surface ,
orientation , position.

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of Architecture
Volume – 3 d

- a plane extended
becomes a volume with
properties and length ,
width , depth , form ,
space, surface ,
orientation , position.
Introduction to Architecture
Elements of Architecture
Plane –
1. Shape is the primary identifying
characteristics of a plane.
2. Supplementary properties are
Surface, color , pattern , texture ,
affecting visual weight and
stability.
3. Plane serves to define the limits
or boundaries of a volume.
Introduction to Architecture
Elements of Architecture
Volume –
Points or
vertices

Lines or edges –
2 planes meet
Planes or
surfaces

f
Form is the primary identifying characteristics of a volume.
Established by shapes & interrelationship of planes.
A volume can be solid space displaced by mass or void contained by planes.
Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
In architecture we manipulate three generic types of planes
Munich
Olympic
stadium

Overhead plane
Ceiling plane or
roof plane
Wall plane

Vital for enclosure of
architecture space . Active in
our field of vision

Base plane
With ground plane the building
can merge , rest firmly or be
elevated above it.
Introduction to Architecture

Modern interior

Precast construction
house
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Base plane
Elevated plane
Depressed plane
f

Overhead plane
roof plane
ceiling plane

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Vertical Linear
elements –define the
edges of volume of
space
Single vertical plane articulates the space
which it fronts

f

L- shaped plane –
generates a volume of
space from its center
outward as a diagonal.

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
parallel plane - define the volume
of space in between that is oriented
axially towards open end.
U shaped plane – defines the
volume that is primarily oriented
towards the open ends.
Planes closure – vertical plane on
all
Sides establish boundaries of an
Introverted and influence the field
of space around enclosure.
Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Base plane

•Seems to be figured out when there is a perceptible change
in color , texture .
•With edge definition
•With surface articulation – eg carpet , lawn , paving etc.

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Elevated Base plane
•Elevating creates a specific domain
•If surface characteristics continues up across the elevated plane ,
then the elevated one will appear part of surrounding plane.
•If edge conditions is articulated by a change in form ,color , texture
, then the field will become a distinct plateau ,that is separated
from surroundings.

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Elevated Base plane – spatial & visual continuity
Edge is well defined .
Spatial continuity interrupted.
Spatial continuity
Visual continuity maintained.
maintained. physical access required stairs for physical
accommodated
access.

Introduction to Architecture

Visual and spatial continuity is
interrupted. Elevated plane
isolated from ground level.
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Elevated plane
-

•it can be result form site conditions or constructed to
elevate a building from surroundings to enhance its
image in landscape.
•Used to differentiate the scared buildings or it defines
any important typology.
•Elevated plane can define a transitional space between
exterior and interior.
•A section floor plane can be elevated to establish a
zone of space with in the large space.
Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Elevated plane
-

Villa
savoye ,
Paris

Acropolis
athens

Introduction to Architecture

CEPT , Canteen
Area.
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Depressed Base plane – spatial & visual continuity
Vertical surface of depression
establishes boundaries

By contrasting form , geometry or orientation

Remains an
integral part
Introduction to Architecture

The space is
distinct

Separates
Elements of form defining space
Horizontal plane
Depressed plane
Steps
down –
introvert
nature

Steps up –
extrovert
nature

Introduction to Architecture

Depressed areas in
topography of site – stage for
outdoor arenas and
amphitheater .
Depression benefits sightlines
, sense of having , acoustical
quality.
Elements of form defining space
OVERHEAD PLANE

 it is similar to the trees . It
gives sense of enclosure.
 -Overhead plane define a
filed of space between itself
and ground plane.
 Edges of the overhead plane
define the boundaries of
this field.
 Vertical linear elements ,
edges of overhead plane ,
elevated base plan and
depressed base plane aid in
visually establishing the
limits of the defined space
and reinforce the volume.
Introduction to Architecture

Valencia Opera House, Spain

Salamanca House, NewZealand
Elements of form defining space
OVERHEAD PLANE
 Offers protection. Determines overall form
 It is determined by the materials &
-structural form.
 the roof plane can visually express how the
pattern of structural members resolve forces
and transfer loads.
 The roof planes can be the major space
defining element of the building and visually
organizes a series of forms and spaces
beneath the canopy.

Tensile Roof
University of phoenix , Arizona,
Indoor stadium. Retractable roof.
Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Roof PLANE
Can be hidden from view by
wall or merge.
Can be single or many
Can extend outward as
overhang
Can be elevated to allow breeze
to pass through
Overall form can be endeavored
with a distinctly planar quality by
opening with vertical or
horizontal edges.

Introduction to Architecture

Dynamic Tower , UAE

Arena Zaqreb, Croatia
Elements of form defining space
ROOF PLANE
-

Glass House, New Canaan,
Connecticut, designed by Philip
Johnson, 1949.

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Ceiling PLANE
Can reflect the form of the structural system.
Can be detached from roof plane, suspended , underside of an
overhead. Can be lowered / raised to articulate spaces.
Can be manipulated to define and articulate spaces.
Can be manipulated to define and articulate zone of spaces.
Form , color , texture and pattern of the ceiling plane can be
manipulated to improve the quality of light / sound / directional quality.
Form can be manipulated to control the quality of light , sound /
within a space.
Raised to let in Light
Lowered

Introduction to Architecture
Elements of form defining space
Ceiling PLANE

Light wave ceiling plane

-

UAE , Airport.
Introduction to Architecture

Restaurant Rosso ,
ISrael
Elements of form defining space
Single vertical plane
A vertical plane has frontal qualities. It has two surfaces
or faces which it fronts on and establish two distinct spatial
fields
They can differ in form , color or texture to articulate
different spatial conditions.
The height of the vertical plane relative to our body
height and eye level is the critical factor that effects the
ability of the plane to visually describe spaces.
f

Introduction to Architecture
Single vertical plane

This vertical wall divides the
campus and forest area.

The wall
establishes
different
spatial quality

JNCASR ,BUILDING , DESIGNED BY CHARLES COREA , BANGALORE
Introduction to Architecture
Single vertical plane

Provides sense of
f
Provides little or no
enclosure. It allows
sense of enclosure. It
visual continuity
defines the edges of
spatial field
Introduction to Architecture

Separates
one space
from another

Full sense of
enclosure
Linear elements
Vertical linear elements such as columns ,
obelisks and towers have been used
throughout history to commemorate
significance events or establish particular
points in space or to organize spaces around
it.
Vertical linear elements can also define a
transparent volume of spaces.
 marks the corners and edges of spaces.
Linear members that possesses the
necessary material strength can perform
structural functions.
They can express movement across space.
Stand as column supports for entablature.
Columns and beams together form a 3d
framework for architectural space.
Introduction to Architecture

Column of Marcus Aurelius , Rome

Obelisks in Vatican city
Linear elements
marks the corners and
edges of spaces.
Linear members that
possesses the necessary
material strength can perform
structural functions. They
can express movement across
space.
Stand as column supports
for entablature.
Columns and beams
together form a 3d
framework for architectural
space.

Hagia Sophia ,Istanbul

Parthenon , Greece
Introduction to Architecture

Domino house , Lecorbusier
Linear elements
A row of column supporting an entablature – a
colonnade is often used to define the public face or
façade of a building –
advantages
a. Being penetrated easily for entry.
b.Offers a degree of shelter from the elements
c.Forms a semi transparent screen the unifies
individual building form behind it.
d.Columns can define the edges of an exterior
space.
e.Articulate the edges of building mass in space.
f.Trellis or pergola can provide a moderate degree
of definition and enclosure for outdoor spaces.
g.Allow light and breeze to penetrate.

Colonnade in ST.Peters Square

IIMB , CORRIDOR , B.V.Doshi
Introduction to Architecture
Openings in space defining elements
Openings are required for visual and spatial
continuity.
Openings determine patterns of movement
( door)
Openings allow light to penetrate the space
( window)& illuminate the surface of a room.
They offer views from the room / interior
to exterior.
They establish visual relationship between
rooms and adjacent spaces.
They provide natural ventilation.
Depending on size , number and location
they can weaken the enclosure.

Introduction to Architecture
PRIMARY SOLIDS

•SPHERE
•CYLINDER
•CONE
•PYRAMID
•CUBE

Introduction to Architecture
PRIMARY SOLIDS

•SPHERE

Introduction to Architecture
CUBOID

CUBE

Introduction to Architecture
•PYRAMID

Introduction to Architecture
DOME
• Dome of St.Peter’s Basilica
CONE
• Dome of St.Peter’s Basilica
CYLINDER
Sphere
•Sphere is body that consists of
regular , continuous surface.
•It has no lines , edges or
corners
•Neither horizontal or vertical
emphasis
•It is a form which is closed
within itself.

Introduction to Architecture
Visual effect
•Pure convex form externally
•Presents impenetratable ,
uninviting appearance.
•It displays visual quality of
repulsion .
•Has no points of interest to
focus
•Defined by vague outline of
circle , whole mass appears as
immense dot.
Introduction to Architecture

SPHERE BUILDING , SHANGHAI

FLOATING PAVILION FOR SHANGHAI
Emotional effect
•Lack of concentration
•Restleness
•Diffuseness
•This diffuseness also
characteristics the external
space surrounding the sphere.
•Total effect on observer. Is
lack of sense of orientation

Introduction to Architecture

SPHERE BUILDING , SHANGHAI

FLOATING PAVILION FOR SHANGHAI
Inside the sphere
•There is a dramatic change
inside.
•The bounding surface is
continually concave.
•It opens to the observer.
•Invites attention.
•Attraction is from all sides
•This results in equilibrium of
forces.
•Center of this equilibrium is
center of sphere .the center is
imaginary.
Introduction to Architecture
Emotional effect

•It arouses sensations of
Concentration , repose and
orientation.

HOUSE IN SWEDEN

Introduction to Architecture
Derivatives of sphere – Hemisphere
•Cut horizontally in half.
•Cut portion forms an
edge , circular in plan.
•The dome and the edge
portion give the visual
character

Introduction to Architecture
Lucky Coin' Building , china
the world's most unusual structure - a cylindrical coin-shaped building that is currently
being constructed on the banks of the Pearl River.

Introduction to Architecture
Al Dar Headquarters | MZ Architects
PLACED IN ARCHITECTURE
the circular shape in architecture:
The Circle symbolizes unity, stability, rationality. It is also the symbol of infinity, without
beginning or end, perfection, the ultimate geometric symbol. It represents a completeness
which encompasses all space and Time.
Introduction to Architecture
Hemisphere
A sphere cut horizontally in half.
The cut portion forms an edge , ciruclar in
plan.
The dome and edge portion gives the
visual character.
Visual effect
•Diffuse quality in the sphere , but
continuity is terminated at rim.
Emotional effect
•A sense of circular movement set up by
the rim.
•While sphere leads to disorientation
hemisphere leads to circular movement.
Introduction to Architecture
•Location: Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh
Founded By: Maurya Emperor Ashoka
Founded
In: 3rd
century
BC
Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site
• It is a simple hemispherical brick
structure, which has been built over the
relics of Lord Buddha. Surrounding the
main Sanchi Stupa is a path, used for
circumambulation.

Introduction to Architecture
Internally
•One concave surface and other flat
•Interior is circular in shape.
•The attention to the observer will be to the
center. Which can be visually identified.
•But the experiences a sense of movement is
Associated with the edge.
Inverted hemisphere
•If the base is flattened it would be
horizontal arena towards the which
attention is focused.
•This would be idea for viewing a
centrally activity such as sporting
events.
Introduction to Architecture

Roman arena
OPENINGS

•Interrupt continuity of the domical
surface.
•Decrease the visual impact .
•Weakens rim.
•Separation of internal and external
spaces is less.
•Center of interior visible form
outside draws observers to the
interior.
•From the interior , outside catches
the attention.
•Hence the attention constantly
fluctuates between inside and outside
leading to mild visual excitement.
Introduction to Architecture

Australian Academy of Science building in
Canberra
•Surface quality invites.
•Spatial quality repulses.
•Space is emotional uncomfortable.
•A space is suitable for a stage.
•Space for audience seating with
attention towards screen.
•Frame or gateway emphasizing an
axis.

Introduction to Architecture
The St. Louis Gateway Arch is Missouri is one of Missouri’s oldest
public memorials and the tallest monument of its kind in the
United States. The Gateway Arch is 630 feet tall and 630 feet
wide at its widest point.
Introduction to Architecture

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Basic Theory of Architecture

  • 2. Definition of Architecture Elements of architecture Space defining elements Opening in space defining elements Spatial relationship Spatial organization Primary forms Transformation of forms Introduction to Architecture
  • 3. Definition of Architecture 1. 2. 3. 4. Originated from the Greek word Architekton Archi – great tekton – builder Architecture is the art and science of building It is the conscious creation of utilitarian spaces with the deliberate use of material 5. Architecture should be technically efficient and aesthetically pleasing. Introduction to Architecture
  • 4. Elements of Architecture PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE Point zero dimension . Indicates position in space. Line 1 d – point extended becomes a line. With properties of length , direction & position. Plane 2 d -line extended becomes a plane with properties of length , width , shape , surface , orientation , position. Introduction to Architecture
  • 5. Elements of Architecture Volume – 3 d - a plane extended becomes a volume with properties and length , width , depth , form , space, surface , orientation , position. Introduction to Architecture
  • 6. Elements of Architecture Plane – 1. Shape is the primary identifying characteristics of a plane. 2. Supplementary properties are Surface, color , pattern , texture , affecting visual weight and stability. 3. Plane serves to define the limits or boundaries of a volume. Introduction to Architecture
  • 7. Elements of Architecture Volume – Points or vertices Lines or edges – 2 planes meet Planes or surfaces f Form is the primary identifying characteristics of a volume. Established by shapes & interrelationship of planes. A volume can be solid space displaced by mass or void contained by planes. Introduction to Architecture
  • 8. Elements of form defining space In architecture we manipulate three generic types of planes Munich Olympic stadium Overhead plane Ceiling plane or roof plane Wall plane Vital for enclosure of architecture space . Active in our field of vision Base plane With ground plane the building can merge , rest firmly or be elevated above it. Introduction to Architecture Modern interior Precast construction house
  • 9. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Base plane Elevated plane Depressed plane f Overhead plane roof plane ceiling plane Introduction to Architecture
  • 10. Elements of form defining space Vertical Linear elements –define the edges of volume of space Single vertical plane articulates the space which it fronts f L- shaped plane – generates a volume of space from its center outward as a diagonal. Introduction to Architecture
  • 11. Elements of form defining space parallel plane - define the volume of space in between that is oriented axially towards open end. U shaped plane – defines the volume that is primarily oriented towards the open ends. Planes closure – vertical plane on all Sides establish boundaries of an Introverted and influence the field of space around enclosure. Introduction to Architecture
  • 12. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Base plane •Seems to be figured out when there is a perceptible change in color , texture . •With edge definition •With surface articulation – eg carpet , lawn , paving etc. Introduction to Architecture
  • 13. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Elevated Base plane •Elevating creates a specific domain •If surface characteristics continues up across the elevated plane , then the elevated one will appear part of surrounding plane. •If edge conditions is articulated by a change in form ,color , texture , then the field will become a distinct plateau ,that is separated from surroundings. Introduction to Architecture
  • 14. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Elevated Base plane – spatial & visual continuity Edge is well defined . Spatial continuity interrupted. Spatial continuity Visual continuity maintained. maintained. physical access required stairs for physical accommodated access. Introduction to Architecture Visual and spatial continuity is interrupted. Elevated plane isolated from ground level.
  • 15. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Elevated plane - •it can be result form site conditions or constructed to elevate a building from surroundings to enhance its image in landscape. •Used to differentiate the scared buildings or it defines any important typology. •Elevated plane can define a transitional space between exterior and interior. •A section floor plane can be elevated to establish a zone of space with in the large space. Introduction to Architecture
  • 16. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Elevated plane - Villa savoye , Paris Acropolis athens Introduction to Architecture CEPT , Canteen Area.
  • 17. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Depressed Base plane – spatial & visual continuity Vertical surface of depression establishes boundaries By contrasting form , geometry or orientation Remains an integral part Introduction to Architecture The space is distinct Separates
  • 18. Elements of form defining space Horizontal plane Depressed plane Steps down – introvert nature Steps up – extrovert nature Introduction to Architecture Depressed areas in topography of site – stage for outdoor arenas and amphitheater . Depression benefits sightlines , sense of having , acoustical quality.
  • 19. Elements of form defining space OVERHEAD PLANE  it is similar to the trees . It gives sense of enclosure.  -Overhead plane define a filed of space between itself and ground plane.  Edges of the overhead plane define the boundaries of this field.  Vertical linear elements , edges of overhead plane , elevated base plan and depressed base plane aid in visually establishing the limits of the defined space and reinforce the volume. Introduction to Architecture Valencia Opera House, Spain Salamanca House, NewZealand
  • 20. Elements of form defining space OVERHEAD PLANE  Offers protection. Determines overall form  It is determined by the materials & -structural form.  the roof plane can visually express how the pattern of structural members resolve forces and transfer loads.  The roof planes can be the major space defining element of the building and visually organizes a series of forms and spaces beneath the canopy. Tensile Roof University of phoenix , Arizona, Indoor stadium. Retractable roof. Introduction to Architecture
  • 21. Elements of form defining space Roof PLANE Can be hidden from view by wall or merge. Can be single or many Can extend outward as overhang Can be elevated to allow breeze to pass through Overall form can be endeavored with a distinctly planar quality by opening with vertical or horizontal edges. Introduction to Architecture Dynamic Tower , UAE Arena Zaqreb, Croatia
  • 22. Elements of form defining space ROOF PLANE - Glass House, New Canaan, Connecticut, designed by Philip Johnson, 1949. Introduction to Architecture
  • 23. Elements of form defining space Ceiling PLANE Can reflect the form of the structural system. Can be detached from roof plane, suspended , underside of an overhead. Can be lowered / raised to articulate spaces. Can be manipulated to define and articulate spaces. Can be manipulated to define and articulate zone of spaces. Form , color , texture and pattern of the ceiling plane can be manipulated to improve the quality of light / sound / directional quality. Form can be manipulated to control the quality of light , sound / within a space. Raised to let in Light Lowered Introduction to Architecture
  • 24. Elements of form defining space Ceiling PLANE Light wave ceiling plane - UAE , Airport. Introduction to Architecture Restaurant Rosso , ISrael
  • 25. Elements of form defining space Single vertical plane A vertical plane has frontal qualities. It has two surfaces or faces which it fronts on and establish two distinct spatial fields They can differ in form , color or texture to articulate different spatial conditions. The height of the vertical plane relative to our body height and eye level is the critical factor that effects the ability of the plane to visually describe spaces. f Introduction to Architecture
  • 26. Single vertical plane This vertical wall divides the campus and forest area. The wall establishes different spatial quality JNCASR ,BUILDING , DESIGNED BY CHARLES COREA , BANGALORE Introduction to Architecture
  • 27. Single vertical plane Provides sense of f Provides little or no enclosure. It allows sense of enclosure. It visual continuity defines the edges of spatial field Introduction to Architecture Separates one space from another Full sense of enclosure
  • 28. Linear elements Vertical linear elements such as columns , obelisks and towers have been used throughout history to commemorate significance events or establish particular points in space or to organize spaces around it. Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of spaces.  marks the corners and edges of spaces. Linear members that possesses the necessary material strength can perform structural functions. They can express movement across space. Stand as column supports for entablature. Columns and beams together form a 3d framework for architectural space. Introduction to Architecture Column of Marcus Aurelius , Rome Obelisks in Vatican city
  • 29. Linear elements marks the corners and edges of spaces. Linear members that possesses the necessary material strength can perform structural functions. They can express movement across space. Stand as column supports for entablature. Columns and beams together form a 3d framework for architectural space. Hagia Sophia ,Istanbul Parthenon , Greece Introduction to Architecture Domino house , Lecorbusier
  • 30. Linear elements A row of column supporting an entablature – a colonnade is often used to define the public face or façade of a building – advantages a. Being penetrated easily for entry. b.Offers a degree of shelter from the elements c.Forms a semi transparent screen the unifies individual building form behind it. d.Columns can define the edges of an exterior space. e.Articulate the edges of building mass in space. f.Trellis or pergola can provide a moderate degree of definition and enclosure for outdoor spaces. g.Allow light and breeze to penetrate. Colonnade in ST.Peters Square IIMB , CORRIDOR , B.V.Doshi Introduction to Architecture
  • 31. Openings in space defining elements Openings are required for visual and spatial continuity. Openings determine patterns of movement ( door) Openings allow light to penetrate the space ( window)& illuminate the surface of a room. They offer views from the room / interior to exterior. They establish visual relationship between rooms and adjacent spaces. They provide natural ventilation. Depending on size , number and location they can weaken the enclosure. Introduction to Architecture
  • 36. DOME • Dome of St.Peter’s Basilica CONE
  • 37. • Dome of St.Peter’s Basilica CYLINDER
  • 38. Sphere •Sphere is body that consists of regular , continuous surface. •It has no lines , edges or corners •Neither horizontal or vertical emphasis •It is a form which is closed within itself. Introduction to Architecture
  • 39. Visual effect •Pure convex form externally •Presents impenetratable , uninviting appearance. •It displays visual quality of repulsion . •Has no points of interest to focus •Defined by vague outline of circle , whole mass appears as immense dot. Introduction to Architecture SPHERE BUILDING , SHANGHAI FLOATING PAVILION FOR SHANGHAI
  • 40. Emotional effect •Lack of concentration •Restleness •Diffuseness •This diffuseness also characteristics the external space surrounding the sphere. •Total effect on observer. Is lack of sense of orientation Introduction to Architecture SPHERE BUILDING , SHANGHAI FLOATING PAVILION FOR SHANGHAI
  • 41. Inside the sphere •There is a dramatic change inside. •The bounding surface is continually concave. •It opens to the observer. •Invites attention. •Attraction is from all sides •This results in equilibrium of forces. •Center of this equilibrium is center of sphere .the center is imaginary. Introduction to Architecture
  • 42. Emotional effect •It arouses sensations of Concentration , repose and orientation. HOUSE IN SWEDEN Introduction to Architecture
  • 43. Derivatives of sphere – Hemisphere •Cut horizontally in half. •Cut portion forms an edge , circular in plan. •The dome and the edge portion give the visual character Introduction to Architecture
  • 44. Lucky Coin' Building , china the world's most unusual structure - a cylindrical coin-shaped building that is currently being constructed on the banks of the Pearl River. Introduction to Architecture
  • 45. Al Dar Headquarters | MZ Architects PLACED IN ARCHITECTURE the circular shape in architecture: The Circle symbolizes unity, stability, rationality. It is also the symbol of infinity, without beginning or end, perfection, the ultimate geometric symbol. It represents a completeness which encompasses all space and Time. Introduction to Architecture
  • 46. Hemisphere A sphere cut horizontally in half. The cut portion forms an edge , ciruclar in plan. The dome and edge portion gives the visual character. Visual effect •Diffuse quality in the sphere , but continuity is terminated at rim. Emotional effect •A sense of circular movement set up by the rim. •While sphere leads to disorientation hemisphere leads to circular movement. Introduction to Architecture
  • 47. •Location: Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh Founded By: Maurya Emperor Ashoka Founded In: 3rd century BC Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site • It is a simple hemispherical brick structure, which has been built over the relics of Lord Buddha. Surrounding the main Sanchi Stupa is a path, used for circumambulation. Introduction to Architecture
  • 48. Internally •One concave surface and other flat •Interior is circular in shape. •The attention to the observer will be to the center. Which can be visually identified. •But the experiences a sense of movement is Associated with the edge. Inverted hemisphere •If the base is flattened it would be horizontal arena towards the which attention is focused. •This would be idea for viewing a centrally activity such as sporting events. Introduction to Architecture Roman arena
  • 49. OPENINGS •Interrupt continuity of the domical surface. •Decrease the visual impact . •Weakens rim. •Separation of internal and external spaces is less. •Center of interior visible form outside draws observers to the interior. •From the interior , outside catches the attention. •Hence the attention constantly fluctuates between inside and outside leading to mild visual excitement. Introduction to Architecture Australian Academy of Science building in Canberra
  • 50. •Surface quality invites. •Spatial quality repulses. •Space is emotional uncomfortable. •A space is suitable for a stage. •Space for audience seating with attention towards screen. •Frame or gateway emphasizing an axis. Introduction to Architecture
  • 51. The St. Louis Gateway Arch is Missouri is one of Missouri’s oldest public memorials and the tallest monument of its kind in the United States. The Gateway Arch is 630 feet tall and 630 feet wide at its widest point. Introduction to Architecture