Institute of Product Design & ManufacturingUniversiti Kuala Lumpur
Introduction to Computers        Computer hardwareInput, Output & peripheral devices       History of computers
Basic Components of a Computer SystemWhat is computer?An electronic device that can accept data (input),process the input ...
Basic Components of a Computer SystemOther definition:-• A machine that can be programmed to accept data  (input), process...
Information Age• Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age• Will continue into the current century
Cornerstones of our Economy    Forging a Computer-Based Society:•   Land•   Labor•   Capital•   Information
JobsForging a Computer-Based Society:• From physical to  mental• From muscle-power to  brain-power
A Computer in Your Future• Where used?  – Bank withdrawal  – Supermarket  – Drive the car• Do I need a Personal Computer? ...
Computer Literacy• Awareness  – Importance  – Versatility  – Pervasiveness in our society• Knowledge  – What are computers...
Is computer literacy enough?• Need to be computer literate to manipulate  a computer• Need to be computer fluent on comput...
Basic Information Technology                  Concept•   Information technology - the use of modern    technology to aid t...
History of Computers  • Man from centuries ago used a physical unit or sets    of units to represent numbers or quantities...
The Nature of ComputersCharacteristics        Results• Speed                • Productivity• Reliability          • Decisio...
Where Computers Are Used:        Graphics      Graphs and charts     Animated graphics     Visual walk-through
Where Computers Are Used:       Education• Teaching and  testing aid• Learning by doing• Computer-based  instruction
Where Computers Are Used:        Retailing• Bar codes for pricing  and inventory• Shipping
Where Computers Are Used:          Energy• Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium• Monitor the power network• Meter re...
Where Computers Are Used    :Law Enforcement• National  fingerprint files• National files on  criminal• Computer  modeling...
Where Computers Are Used:      Transportation • Cars • Run rapid transit systems • Load containerships • Track railroad ca...
Where Computers Are Used:        Money  • Record keeping  • Banking by phone  • Credit cards
Where Computers Are Used:       Agriculture• Billing            • Feed combinations• Crop information   • Livestock breedi...
Where Computers Are Used:       Government• Forecast weather• E-government• Process immigrants• Taxes• Registration: birth...
Where Computers Are Used:           The Home• Educational tool• Record keeping• Letter writing• Budgeting• Drawing and edi...
Where Computers Are Used:   Health and Medicine• Monitor patients• Electronic imaging• Diagnose illnesses• Tele-health
Where Computers Are Used:        Robotics• Perform jobs that are dangerous for  humans• Factory work
Where Computers Are Used: The Human Connection• Assist the disabled• Assist athletes by  monitoring their  movements
Where Computers Are UsedThe Sciences   Connectivity• Research     • Communication• Simulation   • Telecommuting
Where Computers Are UsedTraining           Paperwork• Airline pilots   • Junk mail• Railroad         • Term paper  enginee...
Computers are all around!•   Grocery store•   Schools•   Libraries•   Bank•   Mail•   MallsWe interact with computers ever...
What computers can’t do yet? Complex human activitiesWhat else? Can you think of          others?
Computer System    People    Software   Hardware
People• Computer programmer – person who  writes programs• Users or End-users – make use of the  computer’s capabilities
Software• Programs• Set of instructions that directs the  hardware to do a required task  and produce the desired results
Hardware:Basic Components of a Computer
Computer Components1. Input Devices       - examples: keyboard and the mouse       - data entered on the keyboard and temp...
Computer Components – cont.4. Output Devices       - most commonly used output devices are monitor and         printer    ...
How a Computer System Works                 Storage                                 InformationData       Input     Proces...
How a Computer System Works –              cont.Software- The instructions needed to direct the computer to  complete spec...
Computer Configuration and         ClassificationMicrocomputers- Also known as personal computers- Physical sizes : palmto...
Computer Configuration and        Classification – cont.Mainframe- Large computers with the capability to process  data at...
Central Processing Unit (CPU)- It is the heart of the computer, that is the microprocessor  chip.- A highly complex, exten...
CPU – cont.- CPU consists of two main units :-      1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)             - arithmetic operations e.g...
CPU – cont.                What happens in a CPU?- CU fetches instructions     - ALU executes from memory                 ...
CPU – cont.Memory  - also known as primary storage, primary memory,main           storage, internal storage, and mainmemor...
Function of Computer SystemData handling I      Input P      Process O      Output S      Storage
Processing: Batch vs. Interactive• 2 types of information processing  – Batch processing  – Interactive processing : Real ...
Input devices• Accept data or commands and convert  them to electronic form• Getting data into the computer  – Typing on a...
Output devices• Convert from electronic form to some other  form• May display the processed results• Usable information  M...
Input and Output Devices1. Input devices       - Common type of devices used are the keyboard and the       mouse       - ...
Input and Output Devices – cont.Digitizer        - A pad with a pen-like stylus.        - The tablet sends electronic sign...
Input and Output Devices – cont.Input devices– cont. Source data automation     the use of special equipment to collect da...
Input and Output Devices – cont.2. Output devices       - most common devices are monitor displays andprinters      - Two ...
Input and Output Devices – cont.Displays1. Flat Panel        - commonly used in laptop, notebook        - examples of flat...
Input and Output Devices – cont.Displays – cont.                                    Resolution Standard Graphic Add-on-Boa...
Input and Output Devices – cont.Printers  Two types of printers (according to printing methods)  Impact printers  -use a p...
Can you think of any other  input/output devices?
The ProcessorCentral Processing Unit (CPU)• Converts data to useful information• Interpret and execute instructions• Commu...
Two Types of Storage• Secondary storage    long-term storage• Primary storage or memory     temporary storage
Memory / Primary Storage• Temporary storage• Holds input to be processed• Holds results of processing• Contains the progra...
Secondary Storage• Long-term storage• Non-volatile
Secondary Storage Examples• Magnetic disks – read and written by  magnetic disk drive  – Hard disk  – Diskette• Optical di...
Magnetic Disk
Secondary Storage• It is needed because   – Main memory stores data temporarily   – Main memory space is limited   Benefi...
Computer System• Computer  – CPU  – Memory• Peripheral equipment  – Connected to the computer by a cable  – Input, output,...
Computer Network• Definition   – A system that uses communications equipment     to connect computers and their resources....
Home Connectivity• Connect home PC to other computers• Use modem to convert signals  between electronic (computer) and  an...
Internet•   Collection of networks•   No ownership•   No central source for services available•   No comprehensive index o...
Getting Connected• User’s computer must connect to a server• Server must communicate using TCP/IP• The user can purchase a...
Internet – What Can You Do?• WWW – World Wide Web• FTP – File Transfer Protocol• E-mail• UseNet• IRC – Internet Relay Chat...
World Wide Web• Browser – program that allows the user  to move around and explore the  Internet• Use the mouse to point a...
Classifications of Computers• Use the computer that fits your needs• Based upon  – Size  – Speed  – Cost  – Portability  –...
Personal Computers• Other names  – PC  – Microcomputer  – Home computer• Categories  – Low-end functional  – Fully powered...
Notebook Computers• Portable  – Lightweight  – Fits in a briefcase  – Battery operated• Laptop  – Larger  – Heavier• More ...
Handheld Computers• Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)  –   Scheduling  –   Addresses  –   Handwritten input  –   May offer ...
Other Types of ComputersMainframes  –   High speed  –   More expensive  –   Used to process large amounts of data quickly ...
Operating System and Its FunctionWhat is a software?- The instructions needed to direct the computer to  complete specific...
Operating System and Its Function             – cont. System Software - program controlling the actual operations of the c...
Operating System and Its Function                – cont.Definition of OS :-      A set of programs that control and superv...
Operating System and Its Function             – cont.• OS is made up of 2 programs;                                 Servic...
Operating System and Its Function             – cont.1. Control program          - three main functions  Resource allocati...
Operating System and Its Function                – cont.2. Service programs       - provides services to the user/programm...
Operating System and Its Function             – cont.                                        La                 m         ...
What an Operating System does?1. Checks the functionality of the computer’s hardware.   It generates an error message (by ...
MS-DOS DOS is the supervisor program of the computer It does all the followings    • Interface to peripherals – How to i...
MS-DOS – cont.• Using DOS prompt to get command from user• Examples for DOS operation     •   DOS version/prompt type     ...
TYPES OF OS Microsoft Windows (98,  2000, XP, Vista) Mac OS (X) Linux OS (Hundreds of  even thousands of distros  ex: R...
TYPES OF BROWSERS Mozilla Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari              Flock   Konqueror   FlockFirefox is ga...
Low and High Level                 LanguagesProgramming Language- a set of written symbols that instruct the computer  har...
Low and High Level Languages           – cont.     Low Level Language – cont.Machine Language- consists of entirely 1’s an...
Low and High Level Languages –            cont.     Low Level Language – cont.Assembly Language- also considered as Low Le...
Low and High Level Languages –            cont.     High Level Language- instructions resemble human language and mathemat...
Assembler, Compiler and       Interpreter                Assembler        Compiler/Interpreter(Source code)               ...
Assembler, Compiler and            Interpreter – cont.   Compiler- the source code will remain unchanged after the convers...
Importance of Backup – cont. Data is exposed to several threats.
Importance of Backup – cont.Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)How does UPS works?- it is connected in series with the comp...
Importance of Backup – cont.Components of UPS- one rectifier (charger) to convert AC to DC and to fully charge  the batter...
The Computer Virus CrisisThe elements of a computer virus :1. A set of instructions    - a program being made to disrupt o...
The Computer Virus Crisis –             cont.What are the damages of the virus to a computer system :1. Creates garbage in...
The Computer Virus Crisis–             cont.Types of anti-virus softwareThe Computer Virus Industry Association (CVIA) in ...
COMPUTER NETWORKINGNetwork : Computers connected together to             communicate amongthemselves.  Resource Sharing  F...
COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.- Computer network technology can be classified by the distance  the network technology is desig...
COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Local Area Network (LAN)     - Relatively small refers to the transmission media and       compu...
COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)        - The network is larger compared to LAN        - The area...
COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Wide Area Network (WAN)- The network is larger than MAN and LAN- It interconnect LAN of opposite...
Modem     Local Area Network                                                       Modem                          Router  ...
LAN COMPONENTSEvery LAN is made up of a standard set of components:
LAN TOPOLOGIESTopology:      The physical connection amongcomputers           within a network- the topology is the config...
Star             Ring       Bus
LAN PROTOCOLSProtocol : A set of rules to access the networkto send         data.  Two common LAN protocols
TRANSMISSION MEDIATransmission Media : The physical medium used for                         transmission.  Twisted        ...
TRANSMISSION MEDIA - Twisted         Pair CableJacket                                   Copper wire conductor         Colo...
TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Coaxial            Cable                           InsulationOuter plastic covering                  ...
TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Fiber             Optic Cable                                    Optical fiberProtective outersheath ...
TRANSMISSION MEDIA –     Microwave
TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Satellite
ANY QUESTIONS OR ADDITIONS?
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
introduction to information technology
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introduction to information technology

  1. 1. Institute of Product Design & ManufacturingUniversiti Kuala Lumpur
  2. 2. Introduction to Computers Computer hardwareInput, Output & peripheral devices History of computers
  3. 3. Basic Components of a Computer SystemWhat is computer?An electronic device that can accept data (input),process the input to useful information (process)according to a set of instructions, store theinstructions and the results of processing (storage),and produce the information (output).
  4. 4. Basic Components of a Computer SystemOther definition:-• A machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse• Process is directed by software but performed by the hardware
  5. 5. Information Age• Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age• Will continue into the current century
  6. 6. Cornerstones of our Economy Forging a Computer-Based Society:• Land• Labor• Capital• Information
  7. 7. JobsForging a Computer-Based Society:• From physical to mental• From muscle-power to brain-power
  8. 8. A Computer in Your Future• Where used? – Bank withdrawal – Supermarket – Drive the car• Do I need a Personal Computer? – Campaign: One Home, One PC – Many more use at work• Will I use a computer in my future career? – Almost every job will involve use of a computer Video: Future of Information Technology
  9. 9. Computer Literacy• Awareness – Importance – Versatility – Pervasiveness in our society• Knowledge – What are computers – How do computers work – Terminology• Interaction – Use some simple computer applications
  10. 10. Is computer literacy enough?• Need to be computer literate to manipulate a computer• Need to be computer fluent on computer concepts as a basis to build deeper knowledge• Computer fluency make one able to continue follow developments as computers continue to evolve
  11. 11. Basic Information Technology Concept• Information technology - the use of modern technology to aid the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and communication of information.• The various methods of delivering information are by the use of data, text, image, and voice for personal or organization needs.
  12. 12. History of Computers • Man from centuries ago used a physical unit or sets of units to represent numbers or quantities. • A number or a quantity can be represented by a physical thing, whether it is: a pebble an electrical relay a transistora mark on a bit of paper a bead of wire a mechanical gear wheel a vacuum tube
  13. 13. The Nature of ComputersCharacteristics Results• Speed • Productivity• Reliability • Decision making• Storage capability • Cost reduction
  14. 14. Where Computers Are Used: Graphics Graphs and charts Animated graphics Visual walk-through
  15. 15. Where Computers Are Used: Education• Teaching and testing aid• Learning by doing• Computer-based instruction
  16. 16. Where Computers Are Used: Retailing• Bar codes for pricing and inventory• Shipping
  17. 17. Where Computers Are Used: Energy• Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium• Monitor the power network• Meter reading
  18. 18. Where Computers Are Used :Law Enforcement• National fingerprint files• National files on criminal• Computer modeling of DNA
  19. 19. Where Computers Are Used: Transportation • Cars • Run rapid transit systems • Load containerships • Track railroad cars • Monitor air traffic
  20. 20. Where Computers Are Used: Money • Record keeping • Banking by phone • Credit cards
  21. 21. Where Computers Are Used: Agriculture• Billing • Feed combinations• Crop information • Livestock breeding and performance
  22. 22. Where Computers Are Used: Government• Forecast weather• E-government• Process immigrants• Taxes• Registration: birth, identity, car etc.
  23. 23. Where Computers Are Used: The Home• Educational tool• Record keeping• Letter writing• Budgeting• Drawing and editing pictures• Newsletters• Connecting with others
  24. 24. Where Computers Are Used: Health and Medicine• Monitor patients• Electronic imaging• Diagnose illnesses• Tele-health
  25. 25. Where Computers Are Used: Robotics• Perform jobs that are dangerous for humans• Factory work
  26. 26. Where Computers Are Used: The Human Connection• Assist the disabled• Assist athletes by monitoring their movements
  27. 27. Where Computers Are UsedThe Sciences Connectivity• Research • Communication• Simulation • Telecommuting
  28. 28. Where Computers Are UsedTraining Paperwork• Airline pilots • Junk mail• Railroad • Term paper engineers • Record keeping
  29. 29. Computers are all around!• Grocery store• Schools• Libraries• Bank• Mail• MallsWe interact with computers everyday!
  30. 30. What computers can’t do yet? Complex human activitiesWhat else? Can you think of others?
  31. 31. Computer System People Software Hardware
  32. 32. People• Computer programmer – person who writes programs• Users or End-users – make use of the computer’s capabilities
  33. 33. Software• Programs• Set of instructions that directs the hardware to do a required task and produce the desired results
  34. 34. Hardware:Basic Components of a Computer
  35. 35. Computer Components1. Input Devices - examples: keyboard and the mouse - data entered on the keyboard and temporarily stored in the computer’s memory and displayed on the monitor2. System Unit - contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of data to occur - consists of central processing unit, memory, (RAM and ROM) and other electronic components - CPU has a control unit and arithmetic/logic unit - RAM temporarily stores data and program instructions when they are processed
  36. 36. Computer Components – cont.4. Output Devices - most commonly used output devices are monitor and printer - Monitor :commonly as CRT or Flat Panel Display - Printer: Dot-Matrix, Ink-Jet etc.5. Secondary Storage Devices - also known as auxiliary storage devices - stores instructions and data when they are not being used by the system unit - Examples : floppy disk and hard disk drive
  37. 37. How a Computer System Works Storage InformationData Input Process Output
  38. 38. How a Computer System Works – cont.Software- The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks.• The CPU follows the step-by-step instructions in a program to complete the tasks from user.• Operating system is the system software that controls the basic, low-level hardware operations and file management.
  39. 39. Computer Configuration and ClassificationMicrocomputers- Also known as personal computers- Physical sizes : palmtop, desktop and tower case- Cheaper and smaller in sizeMinicomputer- Also known as departmental computers- Physical sizes : small to large cabinets- Support business application
  40. 40. Computer Configuration and Classification – cont.Mainframe- Large computers with the capability to process data at millions of instructions per second.- Physical size : partial to full room of equipmentSupercomputer- Most powerful and expensive computers- Vast quantities of data manipulation- Physical size : full room of equipment- No. of users : hundreds of users
  41. 41. Central Processing Unit (CPU)- It is the heart of the computer, that is the microprocessor chip.- A highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions.- CPU perform three main tasks :- • Perform arithmetic operations • Perform logic operations • Retrieval and storage of data
  42. 42. CPU – cont.- CPU consists of two main units :- 1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - arithmetic operations e.g. +, -, x, / - logic operations e.g. >, >=, ==, <,<= 2. Control unit - fetches instructions from memory - decode/translate instructions - executes the processing tasks - stores result in memory
  43. 43. CPU – cont. What happens in a CPU?- CU fetches instructions - ALU executes from memory arithmetic/logic- CU decodes/translates instruction instructions, directs -ALU stores results into necessary data to ALU memory
  44. 44. CPU – cont.Memory - also known as primary storage, primary memory,main storage, internal storage, and mainmemory - Consists of RAM and ROM 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) - volatile; means the data exists only when power is ON - two types of RAM, dynamic and static 2. ROM (Read Only Memory) - non-volatile; means data permanently stored in and cannot be changed
  45. 45. Function of Computer SystemData handling I Input P Process O Output S Storage
  46. 46. Processing: Batch vs. Interactive• 2 types of information processing – Batch processing – Interactive processing : Real time
  47. 47. Input devices• Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form• Getting data into the computer – Typing on a keyboard – Pointing with a mouse – Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader – Terminal
  48. 48. Output devices• Convert from electronic form to some other form• May display the processed results• Usable information Monitor or screen Printer • Text • Black and white • Numbers • Color • Symbols • Art • Photographs • Video
  49. 49. Input and Output Devices1. Input devices - Common type of devices used are the keyboard and the mouse - Standard type of keyboard is the QWERTY which has 86 keys (basic) and 101-102 keys (enhanced). - Mouse is a pointing device for effective use of computer interface. Trackball and touch pad are also considered as pointing devices.
  50. 50. Input and Output Devices – cont.Digitizer - A pad with a pen-like stylus. - The tablet sends electronic signals to the computer, displaying the image drawn.
  51. 51. Input and Output Devices – cont.Input devices– cont. Source data automation the use of special equipment to collect data at the source and send it directly to the computer. OCR Images MICR Bar code Hand Written
  52. 52. Input and Output Devices – cont.2. Output devices - most common devices are monitor displays andprinters - Two types of display; flat panel display and CRT display (Cathode Ray Tube) - Two categories of printers; impact and non-impact printers
  53. 53. Input and Output Devices – cont.Displays1. Flat Panel - commonly used in laptop, notebook - examples of flat panel; LCD, Gas Plasma2. CRT - produce best images for computers - two types of display; monochrome and color - monochrome; displays one color (green oramber) - color; four types:
  54. 54. Input and Output Devices – cont.Displays – cont. Resolution Standard Graphic Add-on-Boards (by pixels) CGA (Color Graphic Adapter) 640 x 200 EGA (Enhanced Graphic Adapter) 640 x 350 VGA (Video Graphic Array) 640 x 480 SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array) 1024 x 768
  55. 55. Input and Output Devices – cont.Printers Two types of printers (according to printing methods) Impact printers -use a physical contact with the paper to produce an image -e.g. dot matrix printer and line printer Non-impact printers -Place images on a paper without physically touching it -e.g. thermal, inkjet, laser printer
  56. 56. Can you think of any other input/output devices?
  57. 57. The ProcessorCentral Processing Unit (CPU)• Converts data to useful information• Interpret and execute instructions• Communicate with input, output and storage
  58. 58. Two Types of Storage• Secondary storage long-term storage• Primary storage or memory temporary storage
  59. 59. Memory / Primary Storage• Temporary storage• Holds input to be processed• Holds results of processing• Contains the programs to control the computer and manipulate input into output• Volatile
  60. 60. Secondary Storage• Long-term storage• Non-volatile
  61. 61. Secondary Storage Examples• Magnetic disks – read and written by magnetic disk drive – Hard disk – Diskette• Optical disks – read and written by optical disk drives – CD-ROM – DVD-ROM• Magnetic tape – read and written by magnetic tape drives – Primarily used for back-up
  62. 62. Magnetic Disk
  63. 63. Secondary Storage• It is needed because – Main memory stores data temporarily – Main memory space is limited Benefits of secondary storage  Space  Reliability  Convenience  Economic
  64. 64. Computer System• Computer – CPU – Memory• Peripheral equipment – Connected to the computer by a cable – Input, output, storage
  65. 65. Computer Network• Definition – A system that uses communications equipment to connect computers and their resources.• Types – Local area network (LAN) – connects computers in close proximity – Metropolitan are network (MAN) – connect computers between buildings in the same geographic area – Wide are network (WAN) – connects computers over great distances
  66. 66. Home Connectivity• Connect home PC to other computers• Use modem to convert signals between electronic (computer) and analog (voice) formats
  67. 67. Internet• Collection of networks• No ownership• No central source for services available• No comprehensive index of what information is available Connects Everyone! Individuals Libraries Businesses Research labs Organizations Government
  68. 68. Getting Connected• User’s computer must connect to a server• Server must communicate using TCP/IP• The user can purchase access to a server from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
  69. 69. Internet – What Can You Do?• WWW – World Wide Web• FTP – File Transfer Protocol• E-mail• UseNet• IRC – Internet Relay Chat• Bulletin Boards
  70. 70. World Wide Web• Browser – program that allows the user to move around and explore the Internet• Use the mouse to point and click on text and graphics• Web page• Web site• Home page
  71. 71. Classifications of Computers• Use the computer that fits your needs• Based upon – Size – Speed – Cost – Portability – Number of simultaneous users supported – Available software – Typical use
  72. 72. Personal Computers• Other names – PC – Microcomputer – Home computer• Categories – Low-end functional – Fully powered – Workstations – Net computer or net box (Web TV)• Desktop Models
  73. 73. Notebook Computers• Portable – Lightweight – Fits in a briefcase – Battery operated• Laptop – Larger – Heavier• More expensive that desktop models
  74. 74. Handheld Computers• Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) – Scheduling – Addresses – Handwritten input – May offer wireless e-mail and fax• PDA Phone – More power than PDA – Cellphone, GPS, MP3/MP4, Camera, Video, TV, Radio etc. – Runs various type softwares, serving various applications
  75. 75. Other Types of ComputersMainframes – High speed – More expensive – Used to process large amounts of data quickly – Support multiple users – Does server tasksSupercomputers – Fastest speed – Most expensive
  76. 76. Operating System and Its FunctionWhat is a software?- The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks.- Software can be categorized into two types :-
  77. 77. Operating System and Its Function – cont. System Software - program controlling the actual operations of the computer equipments - the operating system tells computer how to perform functions such as load, store, execute application program, transfer data between I/O devices and main memoryApplication Software- program that tells a computer how to produce information- examples of application software : Business, scientific, educational programs and etc.
  78. 78. Operating System and Its Function – cont.Definition of OS :- A set of programs that control and supervise acomputer system’s hardwarePurposes of OS :- • To manage the hardware for efficient utilization of computer resources • To interface between a user/an application program with the hardware
  79. 79. Operating System and Its Function – cont.• OS is made up of 2 programs; Service ProgramControlProgram
  80. 80. Operating System and Its Function – cont.1. Control program - three main functions Resource allocation allocate processor time, primary storage, input and output devices Job management to monitor, schedule and control programs for its efficient processing Data management -managing access to data for input of information to printers, disks/displays - all hardware components activities are controlled by the supervisor program
  81. 81. Operating System and Its Function – cont.2. Service programs - provides services to the user/programmer - services include language-translator programs and utility programs - language-translator program converts instructions from English-like language to machine-language to be executed by the computer - utility program performs loading, saving, copying, keeping track of files stored on a disk, preparing a formatted disk
  82. 82. Operating System and Its Function – cont. La m ngu ra Da og ag Pr ta e t. M Tr gm ty gm a ili ns bM t. Ut la Jo to r Supervisor lo cation rce Al Resou s Se r vice Other
  83. 83. What an Operating System does?1. Checks the functionality of the computer’s hardware. It generates an error message (by messages or beeps) if any components are found faulty.2. Then the OS control programs will load the supervisor program into the computer’s memory – booting3. Once the supervisor control program in memory, the system displays the prompt sign (C:>), indicating that it is ready to work
  84. 84. MS-DOS DOS is the supervisor program of the computer It does all the followings • Interface to peripherals – How to interpret input, how to process data, and how to produce output • Application launcher – Most programming software, games etc. use DOS prompt to run application • Utility provider – Manage disks and files, prepare disks for storage, copy files to a disk, to move or rename files, and to delete files
  85. 85. MS-DOS – cont.• Using DOS prompt to get command from user• Examples for DOS operation • DOS version/prompt type • Modify date/time • File and directory contents • Clearing a DOS screen • Going to subdirectory and back to root directory • Searching for specific files • Copy files from A drive / C drive
  86. 86. TYPES OF OS Microsoft Windows (98, 2000, XP, Vista) Mac OS (X) Linux OS (Hundreds of even thousands of distros ex: Red Hat, Ubuntu, Mandrake etc. Visit http://distrowatch.com/ for listing of Linux OS) Unix OS etc.
  87. 87. TYPES OF BROWSERS Mozilla Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Flock Konqueror FlockFirefox is gainingPopularity over IE
  88. 88. Low and High Level LanguagesProgramming Language- a set of written symbols that instruct the computer hardware to perform certain tasks- can be categorized as Low level Language and High Level Language Low Level Language - Language that has the tendency towards specific, delicate machine syntax - Machine Language and Assembly Language
  89. 89. Low and High Level Languages – cont. Low Level Language – cont.Machine Language- consists of entirely 1’s and 0’s that only the computer understands- depends on different, specific hardware designs- it executes very fast, but is time consuming and difficult to understand- only programmer who has the knowledge of the computer architecture is able to understand the language
  90. 90. Low and High Level Languages – cont. Low Level Language – cont.Assembly Language- also considered as Low Level Language because it still needs specific knowledge of hardware- it differs from machine language because of it uses mnemonic in spite of 1’s and 0’s to represent the operation codes- mnemonic code is an alphabetic abbreviation that is easy to remember- it produce programs very efficient, less storage usage and the execution is much faster
  91. 91. Low and High Level Languages – cont. High Level Language- instructions resemble human language and mathematical notation- no detail knowledge of computer hardware and internal operation of a computer- easier to learn because of the English-like language rather than understanding machine codes and instructions- E.g. FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C/C++
  92. 92. Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter Assembler Compiler/Interpreter(Source code) (Object code)
  93. 93. Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter – cont. Compiler- the source code will remain unchanged after the conversion but can be updated and changed, then compiled again- after it is compiled, then the object code can be executed-example of HLL program uses compiler is the C and C++ Interpreter- the interpreter will translate a program one line at a time, executing each line of the program after it is translated- if an error should occur during execution, the error must be rectified or solved before it can proceed to the next line- example of HLL program uses interpreter is the BASIC
  94. 94. Importance of Backup – cont. Data is exposed to several threats.
  95. 95. Importance of Backup – cont.Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)How does UPS works?- it is connected in series with the computer system- when power is interrupted, this result the UPS to function as a backup supply of power to the computer system- depends on the type of UPS, it will operate in 20 minutes or more- it is advisable to backup important data within the time limit to prevent any lost of data
  96. 96. Importance of Backup – cont.Components of UPS- one rectifier (charger) to convert AC to DC and to fully charge the battery- one battery to supply DC power to the inverter and the supported time are based on the number and size of batteries- one inverter to convert DC to AC- one static bypass switch to control the load from/to the power source to/from the battery and allows certain load to transfer tolerances needed by the computer and its peripherals
  97. 97. The Computer Virus CrisisThe elements of a computer virus :1. A set of instructions - a program being made to disrupt or interfere other programs2. Deliberately created - purposely created by humans or by itself3. Actively propagates - reproducing itself4. Infects other programs - contaminate or polluting different types of programs5. Able to do harm - can cause damage to others6. Able to evolve - developing, growing and changing in programs or systems
  98. 98. The Computer Virus Crisis – cont.What are the damages of the virus to a computer system :1. Creates garbage in your computer system that takes up space in the memory and into your diskettes2. Messing up files in their normal standard and altering some of the files3. Messing up the FAT (File Allocation Table) which contains information of where are the other datas stored on your disk4. Messing up the boot sector that can restrict your computer from being able to execute at all
  99. 99. The Computer Virus Crisis– cont.Types of anti-virus softwareThe Computer Virus Industry Association (CVIA) in the USAhas developed three basic categories of anti-virus software. To prevent initial To identify and infection remove viruses To detect infection
  100. 100. COMPUTER NETWORKINGNetwork : Computers connected together to communicate amongthemselves. Resource Sharing File Sharing Communication PCs’ Administration and Security
  101. 101. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.- Computer network technology can be classified by the distance the network technology is designed to span- There are three types of networking : Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)
  102. 102. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Local Area Network (LAN) - Relatively small refers to the transmission media and computer hardware - The area is not exceeding 10 KM - It only uses one type of transmission medium - It share resources within building or campus
  103. 103. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - The network is larger compared to LAN - The area covers a city of 10 to 100KM - It requires efficient hardware and transmissionmedia to cover these areas
  104. 104. COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.Wide Area Network (WAN)- The network is larger than MAN and LAN- It interconnect LAN of opposite sides of country or around the world- It covers huge geographical area in the world
  105. 105. Modem Local Area Network Modem Router Multiplexer Host ComputerLocal Area Network Front end Processor Multiplexer
  106. 106. LAN COMPONENTSEvery LAN is made up of a standard set of components:
  107. 107. LAN TOPOLOGIESTopology: The physical connection amongcomputers within a network- the topology is the configuration of the hardware and shows which pairs of nodes can communicate-there are three common types of topologies :- Star topology Ring topology Bus topology
  108. 108. Star Ring Bus
  109. 109. LAN PROTOCOLSProtocol : A set of rules to access the networkto send data. Two common LAN protocols
  110. 110. TRANSMISSION MEDIATransmission Media : The physical medium used for transmission. Twisted Types of TM Pair Cable Microwave Transmission Coaxial Cable Satellite Fiber Optic Transmission Cable
  111. 111. TRANSMISSION MEDIA - Twisted Pair CableJacket Copper wire conductor Colour-coded insulation
  112. 112. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Coaxial Cable InsulationOuter plastic covering Inner conductor
  113. 113. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Fiber Optic Cable Optical fiberProtective outersheath Glass covering Strength wires
  114. 114. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Microwave
  115. 115. TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Satellite
  116. 116. ANY QUESTIONS OR ADDITIONS?

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