FUTURE OF BIOCHIPS
Bio + Chip = Biochip
Bio: stands for any biological entity eg:
Chip: a computer chip.
Biochip: Small-scale device, analogous
to an integrated circuit, constructed of
or used to analyze organic molecules
associated with living organisms.
The development of biochips has long history
starting with early work on the underlying
sensor technology. A glucose sensor developed
in 1962 by Clark and colleague Lyons which
utilized glucose oxidase molecules embedded
in a dialysis membrane.
The biochips technology was originally
developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries.
THE BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY
The biochip system is Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) system.
The multiple technologies needed to make a
successful biochip —
Sensing chemistry: to sense the biologial
Microarraying: the dense, two-dimensional grid of
biosensors deposited on a flat substrate, which
may either be passive (e.g. silicon or glass) or active.
Signal processing: Transduction must be done to
translate the actual sensing event into a format
understandable by a computer,which then enables
additional analysis and processing to produce a
final, human-readable output.
SIZE: the size of biochips is the size of an
uncooked rice.It ranges from 2 inches to 12 inches.
COMPONENTS: the major parts of biochips areTRANSPODER- the actual biochip implant.Passive transpoder
i.e. no batteries required.Four parts of transpoder are:1.Computer microchip-stores a unique 10 to 15 digits long
identification number.ID number encoded via a laser
onto the surface of the microchip before assembly.
2.Antenna coil-simple, coil of copper wire around a
ferrite or iron core.Receives and sends signals from
3.Tuning Capacitor- stores the small electrical charge
sent by the reader which activates the transponder to send
back the ID number encoded.Capacitor is tuned to the
same radio frequency as the reader to establish
communication between the two.
4. Glass Capsule- houses the microchip, antenna coil and
capacitor. A small capsule measuring 11 mm in length and
2 mm in diameter.Made soda lime glass.After assembly,
the capsule is air tight sealed.
READER - consists of an "exciter" coil which
creates an electromagnetic field that,via radio
signals, provides the necessary energy to activate
the implanted biochip.The reader also carries a
receiving coil that receives the ID number sent
back from the activated implanted biochip. The
reader also contains the software and
components to decode the received code and
display the result.
The biochip is inserted into the subject with a
hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and
simple,comparable to common vaccines. Anesthesia is
not required nor recommended.
WORKING OF BIOCHIPS
The reader generates a low-power electromagnetic
field via radio signals
Implanted biochip gets activated
Biochip sends ID code back to the reader via radio
Reader amplifies the received code, converts it to
digital format and displays it on LCD
With a biochip tracing of a person/animal
anywhere in the world is possible
A biochip can store and update financial,
medical,demographic data, basically everything
about a person
Biochips really are potent in replacing passports,
cash and medical records.
A biochip leads to a secured Ecommerce Systems
They can perform thousands of biological reactions
and operations in few seconds.
Biochip as Glucose Detector
Biochip as an Blood Pressure sensor
Biochip as Oxygen sensor
TO RESCUE THE SICK.
TO IDENTIFY PERSON UNIQUELY.
IN MONITORING HEALTH CONDITIONOFINDIVIDUALS
IN WHICH THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY EMPLOYED.
THEY CAN PERFORM THOUSANDS OF BIOLOGICAL
REACTIONS,OPERATIONS IN FEW SECONDS.
THEY RAISE CRITICAL ISSUESOF
THEY MARK THE END OF HUMAN FREEDOM AND
THEY MAY NOT BE SUPPORTED BY LARGE % OF
THERE IS A DANGER OF TURNING EVERY
MAN,WOMEN AND CHILD INTO A CONTROLLED
THEY CAN BE IMPLANTED INTO ONES BODY
WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE.
FUTURE OF BIOCHIPS
If people feel that they loose their privacy because
of Biochips, they may resist use of it.
But if they feel that it could help in a lot of ways
like detecting , monitoring and curing of diseases
they can use them intensively.
So it is users of chip who determine its future .
Biochips are fast, accurate, miniaturized and can be
expected to become economically advantageous
attributes that make them analogous to a computer
chip. One expects to see an accelerated trend of
ultra miniaturization and eventual harmonization of
technologies ,so that dominant fabrication strategies
will emerge. Since the potential applications are
vast, both for research and clinical use, the potential
markets for biochips will be huge, a powerful driving
force for their continued development.