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Application of Fiber 
Reinforced Concrete (FRC) 
Prepared by - Mustafa K. Sonasath 
CEPT University 
PT-301513
Contents 
 History. 
 Introduction. 
 Why Fibers are used? 
 Toughening Mechanism. 
 Type of fibers. 
 Mechanical properties of FRC. 
 Structural behavior of FRC. 
 Factors affecting properties of FRC. 
 Advantages and Disadvantages of FRC. 
 Applications of FRC. 
 Case Study. 
 Conclusion. 
 References.
History 
 The use of fibers goes back at least 3500 years, when 
straw was used to reinforce sun-baked bricks in 
Mesopotamia. 
 Horsehair was used in mortar and straw in mud bricks. 
 Abestos fibers were used in concrete in the early 1900. 
 In the 1950s, the concept of composite materials came 
into picture. 
 Steel , Glass and synthetic fibers have been used to 
improve the properties of concrete for the past 30 or 40 
years. 
 Research into new fiber-reinforced concretes continues 
even today.
Introduction 
 Concrete containing cement, water , aggregate, and 
discontinuous, uniformly dispersed or discrete fibers is 
called fiber reinforced concrete. 
 It is a composite obtained by adding a single type or a 
blend of fibers to the conventional concrete mix. 
 Fibers can be in form of steel fibers, glass fibers, natural 
fibers , synthetic fibers, etc.
Why Fibres are used? 
 Main role of fibers is to bridge the cracks that develop in 
concrete and increase the ductility of concrete elements. 
 There is considerable improvement in the post-cracking 
behavior of concrete containing fibers due to both plastic 
shrinkage and drying shrinkage. 
 They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus 
reduce bleeding of water. 
 Some types of fibers produce greater abrasion and shatter 
resistance in concrete. 
 Imparts more resistance to Impact load.
Toughening mechanism 
 Toughness is ability of a material to absorb energy and 
plastically deform without fracturing. 
 It can also be defined as resistance to fracture of a 
material when stressed.
Contd. 
Reference: Cement & Concrete Institute 
http://www.cnci.org.za
Contd. 
Source: P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, 
and Materials, Third Edition, Fourth Reprint 2011
Types of Fibers: 
Steel fibers Glass fibers
Carbon Fibers Cellulose Fibers
Synthetic Fibers: 
Polypropylene Nylon Fibers 
Fibers
Natural Fibers: 
Coir Hay
Steel fibers 
 Aspect ratios of 30 to 250. 
 Diameters vary from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm. 
 High structural strength. 
 Reduced crack widths and control the crack widths tightly, thus 
improving durability. 
 Improve impact and abrasion resistance. 
 Used in precast and structural applications, highway and airport 
pavements, refractory and canal linings, industrial flooring, 
bridge decks, etc.
Glass Fibers 
 High tensile strength, 1020 to 4080 N/mm2 
 Generally, fibers of length 25mm are used. 
 Improvement in impact strength. 
 Increased flexural strength, ductility and resistance to thermal 
shock. 
 Used in formwork, swimming pools, ducts and roofs, sewer 
lining etc.
Synthetic fibers 
 Man- made fibers from petrochemical and textile industries. 
 Cheap, abundantly available. 
 High chemical resistance. 
 High melting point. 
 Low modulus of elasticity. 
 It’s types are acrylic, aramid, carbon, nylon, polyester, 
polyethylene, polypropylene, etc. 
 Applications in cladding panels and shotcrete.
Natural fibers 
 Obtained at low cost and low level of energy using local 
manpower and technology. 
 Jute, coir and bamboo are examples. 
 They may undergo organic decay. 
 Low modulus of elasticity, high impact strength.
Types of Fibers 
Types Tensile Strength Young's Modulus Ultimate Elongation Specific Gravity 
( Mpa ) ( 103 Mpa ) ( % ) 
Steel 275 - 2758 200 0.5 - 35 2.50 
Glass 1034 - 3792 69 1.5 - 3.5 3.20 
Asbestos 551 - 965 89 - 138 0.60 1.50 
Rayon 413 - 520 6.89 10 - 25 1.50 
Cotton 413 - 689 4.82 3 -10 1.10 
Nylon 858 - 827 4.13 16 - 20 0.50 
Polypropylene 551 - 758 3.45 24 1.10 
Acrylic 206 - 413 2.06 25 - 45 0.90
Mechanical Properties of FRC 
 Compressive Strength 
The presence of fibers may alter the failure mode of cylinders, 
but the fiber effect will be minor on the improvement of 
compressive strength values (0 to 15 percent). 
 Modulus of Elasticity 
Modulus of elasticity of FRC increases slightly with an increase in 
the fibers content. It was found that for each 1 percent increase 
in fiber content by volume, there is an increase of 3 percent in 
the modulus of elasticity. 
 Flexure 
The flexural strength was reported to be increased by 2.5 times 
using 4 percent fibers.
 Splitting Tensile Strength 
The presence of 3 percent fiber by volume was reported to 
increase the splitting tensile strength of mortar about 2.5 times 
that of the unreinforced one. 
 Toughness 
For FRC, toughness is about 10 to 40 times that of plain concrete. 
 Fatigue Strength 
The addition of fibers increases fatigue strength of about 90 
percent. 
 Impact Resistance 
The impact strength for fibrous concrete is generally 5 to 10 
times that of plain concrete depending on the volume of fiber.
Structural behaviour of FRC 
 Flexure 
The use of fibers in reinforced concrete flexure members increases 
ductility, tensile strength, moment capacity, and stiffness. The fibers 
improve crack control and preserve post cracking structural 
integrity of members. 
 Torsion 
The use of fibers eliminate the sudden failure characteristic of plain 
concrete beams. It increases stiffness, torsional strength, ductility, 
rotational capacity, and the number of cracks with less crack 
width. 
 High Strength Concrete 
Fibers increases the ductility of high strength concrete. Fiber 
addition will help in controlling cracks and deflections.
 Shear 
Addition of fibers increases shear capacity of reinforced concrete 
beams up to 100 percent. Addition of randomly distributed fibers 
increases shear-friction strength and ultimate strength. 
 Column 
The increase of fiber content slightly increases the ductility of 
axially loaded specimen. The use of fibers helps in reducing the 
explosive type failure for columns. 
 Cracking and Deflection 
Tests have shown that fiber reinforcement effectively controls 
cracking and deflection, in addition to strength improvement. In 
conventionally reinforced concrete beams, fiber addition 
increases stiffness, and reduces deflection.
Factors affecting the Properties of FRC 
 Volume of fibers 
 Aspect ratio of fiber 
 Orientation of fiber 
 Relative fiber matrix stiffness
Volume of fiber 
 Low volume fraction(less than 1%) 
Used in slab and pavement that have large exposed 
surface leading to high shrinkage cracking. 
 Moderate volume fraction(between 1 and 2 percent) 
Used in Construction method such as Shortcrete & in 
Structures which requires improved capacity against 
delamination, spalling & fatigue. 
 High volume fraction(greater than 2%) 
Used in making high performance fiber reinforced 
composites.
Contd. 
Source: P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, 
Properties, and Materials, Third Edition, Fourth Reprint 2011
Aspect Ratio of fiber 
 It is defined as ratio of length of fiber to it’s diameter 
(L/d). 
 Increase in the aspect ratio upto 75, there is increase in 
relative strength and toughness. 
 Beyond 75 of aspect ratio, there is decrease in aspect 
ratio and toughness. 
Type of 
concrete 
Aspect ratio Relative 
strength 
Relative 
toughness 
Plain concrete 
with 
randomly 
Dispersed fibers 
0 1.0 1.0 
25 1.50 2.0 
50 1.60 8.0 
75 1.70 10.50 
100 1.50 8.50
Orientation of fibers 
 Aligned in the direction of load 
 Aligned in the direction perpendicular to load 
 Randomly distribution of fibers 
It is observed that fibers aligned parallel to applied 
load offered more tensile strength and toughness 
than randomly distributed or perpendicular fibers.
LoLaodad d Diirreeccttioinon 
Parallel Perpendicular Random
Relative fiber matrix 
 Modulus of elasticity of matrix must be less than of fibers 
for efficient stress transfer. 
 Low modulus of fibers imparts more energy absorption 
while high modulus fibers imparts strength and stiffness. 
 Low modulus fibers e.g. Nylons and Polypropylene fibers. 
 High modulus fibers e.g. Steel, Glass, and Carbon fibers.
Advantages of FRC 
 High modulus of elasticity for effective long-term 
reinforcement, even in the hardened concrete. 
 Does not rust nor corrode and requires no minimum cover. 
 Ideal aspect ratio (i.e. relationship between Fiber diameter 
and length) which makes them excellent for early-age 
performance. 
 Easily placed, Cast, Sprayed and less labour intensive than 
placing rebar. 
 Greater retained toughness in conventional concrete mixes. 
 Higher flexural strength, depending on addition rate. 
 Can be made into thin sheets or irregular shapes. 
 FRC possesses enough plasticity to go under large 
deformation once the peak load has been reached.
Disadvantages of FRC 
 Greater reduction of workability. 
 High cost of materials. 
 Generally fibers do not increase the flexural strength of 
concrete, and so cannot replace moment resisting or 
structural steel reinforcement.
Applications of FRC 
 Runway, Aircraft Parking, and Pavements. 
For the same wheel load FRC slabs could be about one half the 
thickness of plain concrete slab. FRC pavements offers good 
resistance even in severe and mild environments. 
It can be used in runways, taxiways, aprons, seawalls, dock areas, 
parking and loading ramps. 
 Tunnel Lining and Slope Stabilization 
Steel fiber reinforced concrete are being used to line 
underground openings and rock slope stabilization. It eliminates 
the need for mesh reinforcement and scaffolding. 
 Dams and Hydraulic Structure 
FRC is being used for the construction and repair of dams and 
other hydraulic structures to provide resistance to cavitation and 
severe erosion caused by the impact of large debris.
 Thin Shell, Walls, Pipes, and Manholes 
Fibrous concrete permits the use of thinner flat and curved 
structural elements. Steel fibrous shortcrete is used in the 
construction of hemispherical domes. 
 Agriculture 
It is used in animal storage structures, walls, silos, paving, etc. 
 Precast Concrete and Products 
It is used in architectural panels, tilt-up construction, walls, 
fencing, septic tanks, grease trap structures, vaults and 
sculptures.
 Commercial 
It is used for exterior and interior floors, slabs and parking areas, 
roadways, etc. 
 Warehouse / Industrial 
It is used in light to heavy duty loaded floors. 
 Residential 
It includes application in driveways, sidewalks, pool construction, 
basements, colored concrete, foundations, drainage, etc.
Fiber Reinforced Concrete Normal Reinforced concrete 
• High Durability • Lower Durability 
• Protect steel from Corrosion • Steel potential to corrosion 
• Lighter materials • Heavier material 
• More expensive • Economical 
• With the same volume, the 
strength is greater 
• With the same volume, the 
strength is less 
• Less workability • High workability as compared 
to FRC.
Application of FRC in India & Abroad 
 More than 400 tones of Steel Fibers have been used in the 
construction of a road overlay for a project at Mathura (UP). 
 A 3.9 km long district heating tunnel, caring heating pipelines 
from a power plant on the island Amager into the center of 
Copenhagen, is lined with SFC segments without any 
conventional steel bar reinforcement. 
 Steel fibers are used without rebars to carry flexural loads at a 
parking garage at Heathrow Airport. It is a structure with 10 
cm thick slab. 
 Precast fiber reinforced concrete manhole covers and frames 
are being widely used in India.
Case Study 
 Providing and laying 40 mm steel fibre reinforced cement 
concrete in pavement (in panels having area not more than 
1.5 sqm) consisting of steel fibre @ 40kg per cubic meter of 
concrete and cement concrete mix of 1:1.95:1.95 over 
existing surface. 
 Since in the executed item, the thickness was to be restricted, 
the stone aggregates used were of 10 mm size and below 
however, in case of the concrete of more than 75 mm 
thickness, stone aggregates of 20 mm grading can be used. 
 The fibre reinforced concrete has been provided in small 
panels considering the workability.
Pavement with steel fibre reinforced concrete
Experiment 
Aim: To understand the effect of incorporation of polypropylene 
and steel fibers together in the hardened state of concrete. 
Material Specification: 
Cement 
 Type: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 
 Grade: 53 
Fine Aggregates: 
 Source: Sabarmati River (Gandhinagar) 
 Grading: Zone-II
Coarse Aggregates: 
 Size: 10mm (maximum) 
 Specific Gravity: 2.79 
 Water Absorption: 1.19 % 
Admixture: 
 Name: Sikament NN (SP) 
 Type: Super Plasticizer
Steel Fibres: 
 Type = SHAKTIMAN MSC 6050 
 Shape = Round Crimped Fiber 
 Diameter = 0.60 mm 
 Length = 50 mm 
 Aspect ratio = 83.33 (Tolerance D/L= + 10 %) 
 Tensile strength = 1100 N/mm2 
Polypropylene Fibres: 
 Company = NINA Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (Ahmedabad ) 
 Type = FIBREMESH 150 E3 
 Shape = Monofilament Polypropylene Fibres 
 Diameter = 0.08 mm 
 Length = 12 mm 
 Aspect ratio = 150
Following are the tables showing mix design for 
the 50 kg of Cement for different w/c ratios 
W/c ratio 0.65 % 
Cement 50 Kg 
Water 32.5 Liters 
C.A. (10 mm) 169.32 Kg 
F.A. 123.95 Kg 
PPF (0.5%) 0.63 Kg 
PPF (1.0%) 1.28 Kg 
PPF (1.5%) 1.91 Kg 
SF (0.6%) 6.69 Kg 
SF (1.2%) 13.4 Kg
W/c ratio 0.5 % 
Cement 50 Kg 
Water 25 Liters 
C.A. (10 mm) 117.72 Kg 
F.A. 97.32 Kg 
PPF (0.5%) 0.52 Kg 
PPF (1.0%) 1.05 Kg 
PPF (1.5%) 1.57 Kg 
SF (0.6%) 5.49 Kg 
SF (1.2%) 10.98 Kg
W/c ratio 0.42 % 
Cement 50 Kg 
Water 23.8 Liters 
C.A. (10 mm) 107.62 Kg 
F.A. 94.86 Kg 
PPF (0.5%) 0.46 Kg 
PPF (1.0%) 0.94 Kg 
PPF (1.5%) 1.4 Kg 
SF (0.6%) 4.9 Kg 
SF (1.2%) 9.81 Kg
Mixing of polypropylene and 
steel fibres reinforced concrete: 
The sequence for casting is as follows for FRC: 
50 % quantity of coarse aggregates 
PPF or SF or Both the fibres in 20% quantity 
Remaining 50% coarse aggregates 
Another PPF or SF or Both fibres in 20% quantity 
50% quantity of sand 
Another PPF or SF or Both fibres in 20% quantity 
Remaining 50% quantity of sand 
Another PPF or SF or Both fibres in 20% quantity 
Cement 
Remaining 20% of PPF or SF or Both fibres 
Water
Compressive strength 
Only Steel fibers •Increase by 5-70% 
• Reduction in strength due 
to balling effect 
Only PP fibers 
• Reduction in strength by 1- 
26% due to balling effect 
Both steel and 
PP fibers
 Increase in compressive strength of concrete: 
 Specimens without any 
fibers after compression 
test 
 Specimens with fibers 
after compression test
Tensile strength 
Only Steel fibers •Increase by 50-140% 
Only PP fibers •Increase by 5-50% 
• Increase by 60-200% 
Both steel and 
PP fibers
 Increase in tensile strength of concrete: 
 Specimens without any 
fibers after split tensile 
test. 
 Specimens with fibers 
after slip tensile test.
Impact strength 
Only Steel fibers • Increase by 25-150% 
Only PP fibers • Increase by 50-100% 
• Increase by 125-200% 
Both steel and PP 
fibers
 Increase in impact strength of concrete: 
 Specimens without any 
fibers after compression 
test 
 Specimens with fibers 
after compression test
Shear strength 
Only Steel fibers • Increase by 150-200% 
Only PP fibers • Increase by 22-125% 
• Increase by 25-220% 
Both steel and PP 
fibers
 Increase in shear strength of concrete: 
 Specimens without any 
fibers after shear test. 
 Specimens with fibers 
after shear test.
Cost analysis 
Type of 
fiber Percentage 
Weight Per 
Cum of 
concrete (Kg) 
Cost per 
kg(Rs) 
Cost per 
Cum of 
concrete(Rs) 
PPF (0.5%) 0.005 4.2 150 630 
PPF (1.0%) 0.01 8.5 150 1275 
PPF (1.5%) 0.015 12.73 150 1909 
SF (0.6%) 0.006 44.62 50 2231 
SF (1.2%) 0.012 89.37 50 4468.5
GFRC project at 
Trillium Building 
Woodland Hills, 
California
Footbridge in 
Fredrikstad, 
Norway
SFRC used at 
Tehri Dam, 
Uttarakhand
Conclusion 
 The total energy absorbed in fiber as measured by the area 
under the load-deflection curve is at least 10 to 40 times 
higher for fiber-reinforced concrete than that of plain 
concrete. 
 Addition of fiber to conventionally reinforced beams 
increased the fatigue life and decreased the crack width 
under fatigue loading. 
 At elevated temperature SFRC have more strength both in 
compression and tension. 
 Cost savings of 10% - 30% over conventional concrete flooring 
systems.
References 
 K.Srinivasa Rao, S.Rakesh kumar, A.Laxmi Narayana, 
Comparison of Performance of Standard Concrete and Fibre 
Reinforced Standard Concrete Exposed To Elevated 
Temperatures, American Journal of Engineering Research 
(AJER), e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936, Volume-02, Issue- 
03, 2013, pp-20-26 
 Abid A. Shah, Y. Ribakov, Recent trends in steel fibered high-strength 
concrete, Elsevier, Materials and Design 32 (2011), pp 
4122–4151 
 ACI Committee 544. 1990. State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber 
Reinforced Concrete.ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 
5, American Concrete Institute, Detroit,MI, 22 pp
Contd. 
 P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, 
Properties, and Materials, Third Edition, Fourth Reprint 2011, pp 
502-522 
 ACI Committee 544, Report 544.IR-82, Concr. Int., Vol. 4, No. 
5, p. 11, 1982 
 Hanna, A.N., PCA Report RD 049.01P, Portland Cement 
Association, Skokie, IL, 1977 
 Ezio Cadoni ,Alberto Meda ,Giovanni A. Plizzari, Tensile 
behaviour of FRC under high strain-rate,RILEM, Materials and 
Structures (2009) 42:1283–1294 
 Marco di Prisco, Giovanni Plizzari, Lucie Vandewalle, Fiber 
Reinforced Concrete: New Design Prespectives, RILEM, 
Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1261-1281
Fibre Reinforced Concrete

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Fibre Reinforced Concrete

  • 1. Application of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) Prepared by - Mustafa K. Sonasath CEPT University PT-301513
  • 2. Contents  History.  Introduction.  Why Fibers are used?  Toughening Mechanism.  Type of fibers.  Mechanical properties of FRC.  Structural behavior of FRC.  Factors affecting properties of FRC.  Advantages and Disadvantages of FRC.  Applications of FRC.  Case Study.  Conclusion.  References.
  • 3. History  The use of fibers goes back at least 3500 years, when straw was used to reinforce sun-baked bricks in Mesopotamia.  Horsehair was used in mortar and straw in mud bricks.  Abestos fibers were used in concrete in the early 1900.  In the 1950s, the concept of composite materials came into picture.  Steel , Glass and synthetic fibers have been used to improve the properties of concrete for the past 30 or 40 years.  Research into new fiber-reinforced concretes continues even today.
  • 4. Introduction  Concrete containing cement, water , aggregate, and discontinuous, uniformly dispersed or discrete fibers is called fiber reinforced concrete.  It is a composite obtained by adding a single type or a blend of fibers to the conventional concrete mix.  Fibers can be in form of steel fibers, glass fibers, natural fibers , synthetic fibers, etc.
  • 5. Why Fibres are used?  Main role of fibers is to bridge the cracks that develop in concrete and increase the ductility of concrete elements.  There is considerable improvement in the post-cracking behavior of concrete containing fibers due to both plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage.  They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water.  Some types of fibers produce greater abrasion and shatter resistance in concrete.  Imparts more resistance to Impact load.
  • 6. Toughening mechanism  Toughness is ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.  It can also be defined as resistance to fracture of a material when stressed.
  • 7. Contd. Reference: Cement & Concrete Institute http://www.cnci.org.za
  • 8. Contd. Source: P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials, Third Edition, Fourth Reprint 2011
  • 9. Types of Fibers: Steel fibers Glass fibers
  • 11. Synthetic Fibers: Polypropylene Nylon Fibers Fibers
  • 13. Steel fibers  Aspect ratios of 30 to 250.  Diameters vary from 0.25 mm to 0.75 mm.  High structural strength.  Reduced crack widths and control the crack widths tightly, thus improving durability.  Improve impact and abrasion resistance.  Used in precast and structural applications, highway and airport pavements, refractory and canal linings, industrial flooring, bridge decks, etc.
  • 14. Glass Fibers  High tensile strength, 1020 to 4080 N/mm2  Generally, fibers of length 25mm are used.  Improvement in impact strength.  Increased flexural strength, ductility and resistance to thermal shock.  Used in formwork, swimming pools, ducts and roofs, sewer lining etc.
  • 15. Synthetic fibers  Man- made fibers from petrochemical and textile industries.  Cheap, abundantly available.  High chemical resistance.  High melting point.  Low modulus of elasticity.  It’s types are acrylic, aramid, carbon, nylon, polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, etc.  Applications in cladding panels and shotcrete.
  • 16. Natural fibers  Obtained at low cost and low level of energy using local manpower and technology.  Jute, coir and bamboo are examples.  They may undergo organic decay.  Low modulus of elasticity, high impact strength.
  • 17. Types of Fibers Types Tensile Strength Young's Modulus Ultimate Elongation Specific Gravity ( Mpa ) ( 103 Mpa ) ( % ) Steel 275 - 2758 200 0.5 - 35 2.50 Glass 1034 - 3792 69 1.5 - 3.5 3.20 Asbestos 551 - 965 89 - 138 0.60 1.50 Rayon 413 - 520 6.89 10 - 25 1.50 Cotton 413 - 689 4.82 3 -10 1.10 Nylon 858 - 827 4.13 16 - 20 0.50 Polypropylene 551 - 758 3.45 24 1.10 Acrylic 206 - 413 2.06 25 - 45 0.90
  • 18. Mechanical Properties of FRC  Compressive Strength The presence of fibers may alter the failure mode of cylinders, but the fiber effect will be minor on the improvement of compressive strength values (0 to 15 percent).  Modulus of Elasticity Modulus of elasticity of FRC increases slightly with an increase in the fibers content. It was found that for each 1 percent increase in fiber content by volume, there is an increase of 3 percent in the modulus of elasticity.  Flexure The flexural strength was reported to be increased by 2.5 times using 4 percent fibers.
  • 19.  Splitting Tensile Strength The presence of 3 percent fiber by volume was reported to increase the splitting tensile strength of mortar about 2.5 times that of the unreinforced one.  Toughness For FRC, toughness is about 10 to 40 times that of plain concrete.  Fatigue Strength The addition of fibers increases fatigue strength of about 90 percent.  Impact Resistance The impact strength for fibrous concrete is generally 5 to 10 times that of plain concrete depending on the volume of fiber.
  • 20. Structural behaviour of FRC  Flexure The use of fibers in reinforced concrete flexure members increases ductility, tensile strength, moment capacity, and stiffness. The fibers improve crack control and preserve post cracking structural integrity of members.  Torsion The use of fibers eliminate the sudden failure characteristic of plain concrete beams. It increases stiffness, torsional strength, ductility, rotational capacity, and the number of cracks with less crack width.  High Strength Concrete Fibers increases the ductility of high strength concrete. Fiber addition will help in controlling cracks and deflections.
  • 21.  Shear Addition of fibers increases shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams up to 100 percent. Addition of randomly distributed fibers increases shear-friction strength and ultimate strength.  Column The increase of fiber content slightly increases the ductility of axially loaded specimen. The use of fibers helps in reducing the explosive type failure for columns.  Cracking and Deflection Tests have shown that fiber reinforcement effectively controls cracking and deflection, in addition to strength improvement. In conventionally reinforced concrete beams, fiber addition increases stiffness, and reduces deflection.
  • 22. Factors affecting the Properties of FRC  Volume of fibers  Aspect ratio of fiber  Orientation of fiber  Relative fiber matrix stiffness
  • 23. Volume of fiber  Low volume fraction(less than 1%) Used in slab and pavement that have large exposed surface leading to high shrinkage cracking.  Moderate volume fraction(between 1 and 2 percent) Used in Construction method such as Shortcrete & in Structures which requires improved capacity against delamination, spalling & fatigue.  High volume fraction(greater than 2%) Used in making high performance fiber reinforced composites.
  • 24. Contd. Source: P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials, Third Edition, Fourth Reprint 2011
  • 25. Aspect Ratio of fiber  It is defined as ratio of length of fiber to it’s diameter (L/d).  Increase in the aspect ratio upto 75, there is increase in relative strength and toughness.  Beyond 75 of aspect ratio, there is decrease in aspect ratio and toughness. Type of concrete Aspect ratio Relative strength Relative toughness Plain concrete with randomly Dispersed fibers 0 1.0 1.0 25 1.50 2.0 50 1.60 8.0 75 1.70 10.50 100 1.50 8.50
  • 26. Orientation of fibers  Aligned in the direction of load  Aligned in the direction perpendicular to load  Randomly distribution of fibers It is observed that fibers aligned parallel to applied load offered more tensile strength and toughness than randomly distributed or perpendicular fibers.
  • 27. LoLaodad d Diirreeccttioinon Parallel Perpendicular Random
  • 28. Relative fiber matrix  Modulus of elasticity of matrix must be less than of fibers for efficient stress transfer.  Low modulus of fibers imparts more energy absorption while high modulus fibers imparts strength and stiffness.  Low modulus fibers e.g. Nylons and Polypropylene fibers.  High modulus fibers e.g. Steel, Glass, and Carbon fibers.
  • 29. Advantages of FRC  High modulus of elasticity for effective long-term reinforcement, even in the hardened concrete.  Does not rust nor corrode and requires no minimum cover.  Ideal aspect ratio (i.e. relationship between Fiber diameter and length) which makes them excellent for early-age performance.  Easily placed, Cast, Sprayed and less labour intensive than placing rebar.  Greater retained toughness in conventional concrete mixes.  Higher flexural strength, depending on addition rate.  Can be made into thin sheets or irregular shapes.  FRC possesses enough plasticity to go under large deformation once the peak load has been reached.
  • 30. Disadvantages of FRC  Greater reduction of workability.  High cost of materials.  Generally fibers do not increase the flexural strength of concrete, and so cannot replace moment resisting or structural steel reinforcement.
  • 31. Applications of FRC  Runway, Aircraft Parking, and Pavements. For the same wheel load FRC slabs could be about one half the thickness of plain concrete slab. FRC pavements offers good resistance even in severe and mild environments. It can be used in runways, taxiways, aprons, seawalls, dock areas, parking and loading ramps.  Tunnel Lining and Slope Stabilization Steel fiber reinforced concrete are being used to line underground openings and rock slope stabilization. It eliminates the need for mesh reinforcement and scaffolding.  Dams and Hydraulic Structure FRC is being used for the construction and repair of dams and other hydraulic structures to provide resistance to cavitation and severe erosion caused by the impact of large debris.
  • 32.  Thin Shell, Walls, Pipes, and Manholes Fibrous concrete permits the use of thinner flat and curved structural elements. Steel fibrous shortcrete is used in the construction of hemispherical domes.  Agriculture It is used in animal storage structures, walls, silos, paving, etc.  Precast Concrete and Products It is used in architectural panels, tilt-up construction, walls, fencing, septic tanks, grease trap structures, vaults and sculptures.
  • 33.  Commercial It is used for exterior and interior floors, slabs and parking areas, roadways, etc.  Warehouse / Industrial It is used in light to heavy duty loaded floors.  Residential It includes application in driveways, sidewalks, pool construction, basements, colored concrete, foundations, drainage, etc.
  • 34. Fiber Reinforced Concrete Normal Reinforced concrete • High Durability • Lower Durability • Protect steel from Corrosion • Steel potential to corrosion • Lighter materials • Heavier material • More expensive • Economical • With the same volume, the strength is greater • With the same volume, the strength is less • Less workability • High workability as compared to FRC.
  • 35. Application of FRC in India & Abroad  More than 400 tones of Steel Fibers have been used in the construction of a road overlay for a project at Mathura (UP).  A 3.9 km long district heating tunnel, caring heating pipelines from a power plant on the island Amager into the center of Copenhagen, is lined with SFC segments without any conventional steel bar reinforcement.  Steel fibers are used without rebars to carry flexural loads at a parking garage at Heathrow Airport. It is a structure with 10 cm thick slab.  Precast fiber reinforced concrete manhole covers and frames are being widely used in India.
  • 36. Case Study  Providing and laying 40 mm steel fibre reinforced cement concrete in pavement (in panels having area not more than 1.5 sqm) consisting of steel fibre @ 40kg per cubic meter of concrete and cement concrete mix of 1:1.95:1.95 over existing surface.  Since in the executed item, the thickness was to be restricted, the stone aggregates used were of 10 mm size and below however, in case of the concrete of more than 75 mm thickness, stone aggregates of 20 mm grading can be used.  The fibre reinforced concrete has been provided in small panels considering the workability.
  • 37. Pavement with steel fibre reinforced concrete
  • 38. Experiment Aim: To understand the effect of incorporation of polypropylene and steel fibers together in the hardened state of concrete. Material Specification: Cement  Type: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)  Grade: 53 Fine Aggregates:  Source: Sabarmati River (Gandhinagar)  Grading: Zone-II
  • 39. Coarse Aggregates:  Size: 10mm (maximum)  Specific Gravity: 2.79  Water Absorption: 1.19 % Admixture:  Name: Sikament NN (SP)  Type: Super Plasticizer
  • 40. Steel Fibres:  Type = SHAKTIMAN MSC 6050  Shape = Round Crimped Fiber  Diameter = 0.60 mm  Length = 50 mm  Aspect ratio = 83.33 (Tolerance D/L= + 10 %)  Tensile strength = 1100 N/mm2 Polypropylene Fibres:  Company = NINA Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (Ahmedabad )  Type = FIBREMESH 150 E3  Shape = Monofilament Polypropylene Fibres  Diameter = 0.08 mm  Length = 12 mm  Aspect ratio = 150
  • 41. Following are the tables showing mix design for the 50 kg of Cement for different w/c ratios W/c ratio 0.65 % Cement 50 Kg Water 32.5 Liters C.A. (10 mm) 169.32 Kg F.A. 123.95 Kg PPF (0.5%) 0.63 Kg PPF (1.0%) 1.28 Kg PPF (1.5%) 1.91 Kg SF (0.6%) 6.69 Kg SF (1.2%) 13.4 Kg
  • 42. W/c ratio 0.5 % Cement 50 Kg Water 25 Liters C.A. (10 mm) 117.72 Kg F.A. 97.32 Kg PPF (0.5%) 0.52 Kg PPF (1.0%) 1.05 Kg PPF (1.5%) 1.57 Kg SF (0.6%) 5.49 Kg SF (1.2%) 10.98 Kg
  • 43. W/c ratio 0.42 % Cement 50 Kg Water 23.8 Liters C.A. (10 mm) 107.62 Kg F.A. 94.86 Kg PPF (0.5%) 0.46 Kg PPF (1.0%) 0.94 Kg PPF (1.5%) 1.4 Kg SF (0.6%) 4.9 Kg SF (1.2%) 9.81 Kg
  • 44. Mixing of polypropylene and steel fibres reinforced concrete: The sequence for casting is as follows for FRC: 50 % quantity of coarse aggregates PPF or SF or Both the fibres in 20% quantity Remaining 50% coarse aggregates Another PPF or SF or Both fibres in 20% quantity 50% quantity of sand Another PPF or SF or Both fibres in 20% quantity Remaining 50% quantity of sand Another PPF or SF or Both fibres in 20% quantity Cement Remaining 20% of PPF or SF or Both fibres Water
  • 45. Compressive strength Only Steel fibers •Increase by 5-70% • Reduction in strength due to balling effect Only PP fibers • Reduction in strength by 1- 26% due to balling effect Both steel and PP fibers
  • 46.  Increase in compressive strength of concrete:  Specimens without any fibers after compression test  Specimens with fibers after compression test
  • 47. Tensile strength Only Steel fibers •Increase by 50-140% Only PP fibers •Increase by 5-50% • Increase by 60-200% Both steel and PP fibers
  • 48.  Increase in tensile strength of concrete:  Specimens without any fibers after split tensile test.  Specimens with fibers after slip tensile test.
  • 49. Impact strength Only Steel fibers • Increase by 25-150% Only PP fibers • Increase by 50-100% • Increase by 125-200% Both steel and PP fibers
  • 50.  Increase in impact strength of concrete:  Specimens without any fibers after compression test  Specimens with fibers after compression test
  • 51. Shear strength Only Steel fibers • Increase by 150-200% Only PP fibers • Increase by 22-125% • Increase by 25-220% Both steel and PP fibers
  • 52.  Increase in shear strength of concrete:  Specimens without any fibers after shear test.  Specimens with fibers after shear test.
  • 53. Cost analysis Type of fiber Percentage Weight Per Cum of concrete (Kg) Cost per kg(Rs) Cost per Cum of concrete(Rs) PPF (0.5%) 0.005 4.2 150 630 PPF (1.0%) 0.01 8.5 150 1275 PPF (1.5%) 0.015 12.73 150 1909 SF (0.6%) 0.006 44.62 50 2231 SF (1.2%) 0.012 89.37 50 4468.5
  • 54. GFRC project at Trillium Building Woodland Hills, California
  • 56. SFRC used at Tehri Dam, Uttarakhand
  • 57. Conclusion  The total energy absorbed in fiber as measured by the area under the load-deflection curve is at least 10 to 40 times higher for fiber-reinforced concrete than that of plain concrete.  Addition of fiber to conventionally reinforced beams increased the fatigue life and decreased the crack width under fatigue loading.  At elevated temperature SFRC have more strength both in compression and tension.  Cost savings of 10% - 30% over conventional concrete flooring systems.
  • 58. References  K.Srinivasa Rao, S.Rakesh kumar, A.Laxmi Narayana, Comparison of Performance of Standard Concrete and Fibre Reinforced Standard Concrete Exposed To Elevated Temperatures, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936, Volume-02, Issue- 03, 2013, pp-20-26  Abid A. Shah, Y. Ribakov, Recent trends in steel fibered high-strength concrete, Elsevier, Materials and Design 32 (2011), pp 4122–4151  ACI Committee 544. 1990. State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete.ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 5, American Concrete Institute, Detroit,MI, 22 pp
  • 59. Contd.  P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials, Third Edition, Fourth Reprint 2011, pp 502-522  ACI Committee 544, Report 544.IR-82, Concr. Int., Vol. 4, No. 5, p. 11, 1982  Hanna, A.N., PCA Report RD 049.01P, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, 1977  Ezio Cadoni ,Alberto Meda ,Giovanni A. Plizzari, Tensile behaviour of FRC under high strain-rate,RILEM, Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1283–1294  Marco di Prisco, Giovanni Plizzari, Lucie Vandewalle, Fiber Reinforced Concrete: New Design Prespectives, RILEM, Materials and Structures (2009) 42:1261-1281