traffic light setting

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traffic light setting

  1. 1. KKKA 6424INTELLIGENT URBAN TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM Prof. Dr. Riza Atiq Abdullah O.K. Rahmat ASSIGNMENT (1) PREPARED BY: 1- HAIDER FARHAN P65405 2- MUSTAFA TALIB P60915 3-- SAHAR ABD ALI P65295
  2. 2. IntroductionTraffic lightsTraffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, signallights, robots and semaphores. Are signaling devices positioned at or near roadintersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control competing flows oftraffic. Traffic lights were first installed in 1868 in London, United, now used inalmost every city of the world. Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded toroad users by displaying lights of a standard color (red, yellow/amber, and green)following a universal color code (and a precise sequence to enable comprehension bythose who are color blind).In the typical sequence of color phases: Illumination of the green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so Illumination of the yellow/amber light denoting prepare to stop short of the intersection, if it is safe to do so Illumination of the red signal prohibits any traffic from proceedingUsually, the red light contains some orange in its hue, and the green light containssome blue, said to be for the benefit of people with red-green color blindness
  3. 3. Single aspects The simplest traffic light comprises either a single or a pair of colored aspects thatwarns any user of the shared right of way of a possible conflict or danger.Flashing Red: Treat as a stop sign. Also can signal the road is closed.Flashing Yellow: Caution, crossing or road hazard ahead Flashing Green: Varies among jurisdiction; can give permission to go straight as well as make a left turn in front of opposing traffic (which is held by a steady red light), or can indicate the end of a green cycle before the light changes to a solid yellow
  4. 4. Case study Our team which consists of three engineers selected a series of intersection ofthree, these three intersections are located on the road which link between Bangi(UKM), Kajang, Sepakat, and the highway lead to KL as shown in the figurebelow.
  5. 5. Each one of these intersections are consist of three legs (three phases) and allphases have two lanes in each intersection. As a work team after selecting these intersections we conducted the trafficcount survey for one hour for each intersection, and we found that the cycle timeof traffic light for each intersection is (120 seconds),(160 sec ),and (180 sec ),respectively, and the all red for each approach ( 2 seconds ), and amber for eachapproach ( 3 seconds ).
  6. 6. Intersection-1-This is the first intersection linking Kajang, Babgi, and (UKM) as shown in thefigure below.
  7. 7. DATA OF INTERSECTION: 1assenger Car Unit Data traffic for one hour Traffic Flows in KAJANG UKM BANGI 15 Min Phase -1- Phase -2- Phase - 3- Cars/Van 755 846 361 Lori < 5 ton 42 118 37 Lori > 5 ton 13 4 5 Motorcycle 322 215 137 Bus 10 14 5 Mini Bus 12 17 10 so we need the table below Bil Vehicle Passenger Car Unit 1 Car / van / jeep / mpv 1 2 Lorry < 5 ton 1.75 3 Lorry > 5 ton 2.25 4 Trailer 3 5 Mini Bus 2.5 6 Bus 2.75 7 Motorcycle 0.35
  8. 8. Phase Traffic Flows in 1 hour Total Car Lorry<5 Lorry>5 Trail Mini Bus M/cycle (pcu/hr) ton ton er Bus 1 755 42 13 0 12 10 322 1027 2 846 118 4 0 17 14 215 1216 3 361 37 5 0 10 5 137 524 PCU 1 1.75 2.25 3 2.5 2.75 0.35 UNITPhase Number of Saturation Saturation Actual Flow / Green Lanes Flow per Flow Flows Saturation Time Lane (pcu/hr) (pcu/hr) Flow Split (pcu/hr) Ration 1 2 1800 3600 1027 0.33 0.44 2 2 1800 3600 1216 0.28 0.37 3 2 1800 3600 524 0.14 0.18 Total = 0.75 =Y
  9. 9. L= 3 *(2+3) = 15 secCycle time (C0 ) = 1.5 L + 5 / 1- Y = 1.5*(15)+5 / 1-0.75=110 secEffective green time = 110 – 15 = 95 secPhase -1- green time =95* 0.44 =41.8 = 42 secPhase-2- green time =95*0.37 = 35.15 = 36 secPhase-3- green time =95*0.18 = 17.1 = 18 secTotal of green time = 42+36+18 = 96 secTotal of amber & all red time =3 * (2+3) = 15 sec Cycle time = 96 + 15 = 111 sec
  10. 10. Intersection-2-The second intersection links Kajang, UKM, and Sepakat as shown in thefigure below.
  11. 11. DATA OF INTERSECTION: 2Traffic Flows in KAJANG Ukm SEPAKAT 15 Min Phase-1- Phase-2- Phase-3- Cars/Van 808 918 338 Lori < 5 ton 46 135 46 Lori > 5 ton 17 5 11 Motorcycle 351 238 117 Bus 11 14 1 Mini Bus 14 20 4 Bil Vehicle Passenger Car Unit 1 Car / van / jeep / mpv 1 2 Lorry < 5 ton 1.75 3 Lorry > 5 ton 2.25 4 Trailer 3 5 Mini Bus 2.5 6 Bus 2.75 7 Motorcycle 0.35
  12. 12. Phase Traffic Flows in 1 hour Total Car Lorry<5to Lorry>5to Traile Mini Bus M/cycle (pcu/hr) n n r Bus 1 808 46 17 0 14 11 351 1115 2 918 135 5 0 20 14 238 1336 3 338 46 11 0 4 1 117 498 PCU 1 1.75 2.25 3 2.5 2.75 0.35 UNITPhase Number of Saturation Saturation Actual Flow / Green Time Lanes Flow per Lane Flow (pcu/hr) Flows Saturation Split (pcu/hr) (pcu/hr) Flow Ration 1 2 1800 3600 1115 0.31 0.37 2 2 1800 3600 1336 0.37 0.45 3 2 1800 3600 498 0.14 0.17 Total = 0.82=Y
  13. 13. L = 3 * (2+3) = 15 secCycle time (C0)=1.5L+5 /1-Y=1.5*15+5/1-0.82=155 secEffective green time = 155- 15 = 140 secPhase-1- green time =140* 0.37 =51.8 =52 secPhase-2- green time=140 *0.45 = 63 secPhase-3-green time=140 *0.17=23.8 = 24 secTotal of green time = 52+63+24 = 139 secTotal of amber & all red = 3*(2+3) =15 secCycle time = 139 +15 = 154 sec
  14. 14. Intersection-3- This is the third intersection which links Kajang, UKM, and the highway asshown in the figure below.
  15. 15. DATA OF INTERSECTION: 3Traffic Flows in 15 KAJANG Ukm HIGHWAY Min Phase-1- Phase-2- Phase-3- Cars/Van 768 956 585 Lori < 5 ton 42 137 24 Lori > 5 ton 11 5 9 Motorcycle 333 258 34 Bus 11 14 3 Mini Bus 14 22 0 Bil Vehicle Passenger Car Unit 1 Car / van / jeep / mpv 1 2 Lorry < 5 ton 1.75 3 Lorry > 5 ton 2.25 4 Trailer 3 5 Mini Bus 2.5 6 Bus 2.75 7 Motorcycle 0.35
  16. 16. Phase Traffic Flows in 1 hour Total Car Lorry<5to Lorry>5to Trailer Mini Bus M/cycle (pcu/hr) n n Bus 1 768 42 11 0 16 12 333 1056 2 940 134 4 0 22 14 205 1348 3 585 24 9 0 0 3 34 667PCU UNIT 1 1.75 2.25 3 2.5 2.75 0.35Phase Number of Saturation Saturation Flow Actual Flows Flow / Green Lanes Flow per Lane (pcu/hr) (pcu/hr) Saturation Time Split (pcu/hr) Flow Ration 1 2 1800 3600 1056 0.29 0.34 2 2 1800 3600 1348 0.37 0.44 3 2 1800 3600 667 0.18 0.21 Total = 0.84 = Y
  17. 17. L = 3 * (2+3) = 15 secCycle time (C0) = 1.5L+5/1-Y=1.5*15+5/1-0.84= 175Effective green time =175 – 15 = 160 secPhase-1- green time = 160 * 0.34=54.4 = 55 secPhase-2- green time = 160 * 0.44 =70.4 = 71 secPhase-3- green time = 160 * 0.21 =33.6 = 34 secTotal time green = 55 + 71 + 34 = 160 secTotal of amber& all red =3 *(2+3) =15 secCycle time = 160 + 15 = 175 sec
  18. 18. Summary of results for cycle time ( C₀ ) and effective green time ( Ge) Intersection Cycle time C₀ (sec ) Effective Green time Ge (sec) 1 111 65 2 154 140 3 175 160
  19. 19. Calculation of cycle time:After calculation of cycle time with Webster method, thehighest cycle time was for intersection 3 and it was equalto175 seconds. So adjust all intersection using CycleTime 175 seconds.Intersection 1: Phase Green time (sec )Cycle time = 175 secTotal of amber and all red time =(3+2) x3=15 sec 1 71Total green time = 175-15=160sec 2 60Phase 1 green time = 160*0.44=70.4sec =71 sec 3 29Phase 2 green time =160 Total 160*0.37=59.2sec=60secPhase 3 green time =160*0.18=28.8sec=29sec
  20. 20. Intersection 2:Cycle time = 175 secTotal of amber and all red time = (3+2) Phase Green time (sec )x3= 15secTotal green time = 175-15 =160secPhase 1 green time 1 60=160*0.37=59.2sec=60secPhase 2 green time =160*0.45= 72sec 2 72Phase 3 green time = 160*0.17=27.2sec=28sec 3 28 Total 160
  21. 21. Intersection 3:Cycle time =175 sec Phase Green time (sec )Total of amber and all redtime = (3+2) x3=15 secTotal green time = 175-15= 1 55160 secPhase 1 green time = 55sec 2 71Phase 2 green time = 71sec 3 34Phase 3 green time = 34 sec Total 160
  22. 22. Calculation of offset time :Offset time : L/S - ( Qh+ loss)WhereQ = Number of vehicles queued per lane,vehicle.h = Discharge Headway of queued vehiclein seconds/vehicle.Typical value of h is 2 seconds / vehicle.S = Average Speed in meter in secondL = Distance between intersections inmeterLoss1 = Loss Time associated withvehicles starting from rest at thefirst downstream signal (2 seconds can beused as a default).
  23. 23. -1-offset1 S= 10 m/s L1= 1600 m Q1= 12 veh h=2 sec per veh loss =2 sec Offset1 =1600/10-(12x2+2) =134sec phase Green time 1 55 2 71 3 34 total 160 RELATIVE OFFSET= 134 , ABSOLUTE OFFSET=1342-offset2S= 10 m/sL2= 250mQ2= 14vehh=2 sec per vehloss =2 secOffset 2 =250/10-(14x2+2) =-5secRELATIVE OFFSET =-5, ABSOLUTE OFFSET =1293-Offset3= 0

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