Role of non state actors in fostering greater asean.ppt paper for presentation


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Role of non state actors in fostering greater asean.ppt paper for presentation

  1. 1. Musni Umar, Ph.D
  2. 2. Role of Non-State Actors in Fostering Greater ASEAN Integration By Musni Umar Sociologist and Researcher
  3. 3. Background Since the establishment of ASEAN on 8th August 1967 which was initiated by five ministers of foreign affairs from Southeast Asia, namely Adam Malik from Indonesia, Tun Abdul Razak from Malaysia, Thanat Koman from Thailand, Narcisco Ramos from the Philippines, and S. Rajaratnam from Singapore, ASEAN has been developing progressively in terms of contributing positively in several aspects such as security, trade and investment, and so on.
  4. 4. In entering its 46th anniversary on the coming 8th August 2013, ASEAN still has many paradoxical issues. Some of them are migrant labor, exported toxic waste, corruptors hiding site, illegal logging, child sex tourism, terrorism, boundary issues , genocide in Miyanmar. The most current issue is haze from forest fires in Sumatra. However, in October 2004, the leaders of ASEAN countries made an agreement on ASEAN integrated economy in 2015. The agreement has been progressive, in spite of facing resistances. In addition to the integrated economy which is considered to be elitist, there is also global trade in the mainstream, which is historically regarded as re-incarnation of neo- colonialism and neo-imperialism. The latter were once indicated by Bung Karno, the first President of the Republic of Indonesia. Therefore, globalization has not yet fully accepted by civil society worldwide including ASEAN countries.
  5. 5. ASEAN integration in economy and social aspects on one hand has been giving positive value, such as incoming investments, trade transactions, and labor traffic, but on the other hand trans-national social problem appears, for instance abuse issues experienced by migrant workers from Indonesia and the Philippines in Malaysia and Singapore. In the economy side, as indicated above, there are issued on illegal logging and children and young female trafficking. In legal cases, a certain ASEAN country has become one of the safest places to hide or escape for Indonesian corruptors. So is the terrorism issue, which has not yet been resolved completely, and the actual issue being a matter of humanity, namely genocide in Miyanmar and also actual issue is haze from forest fires in Sumatra.
  6. 6. Therefore, in entering the 46th ASEAN anniversary, it is important to overcome the indicated regional issues, to make changes and to improve cooperation between Government-to-non state actors) and People-to-People as constructive and integrative efforts to succeed the ASEAN Community and the ASEAN Economic Community well-being. Those efforts are also aimed to build equal social advances and peaceful, fair, stable and prosperous living conditions. All of those goals have to be united by dynamic cooperation and concern among ASEAN countries.
  7. 7. Non-State Actors Participation In order to realize ASEAN’s various objectives, it is impossible to be carried out by the government of ASEAN countries themselves. Active participation and involvement of non- state actors will be definitely required. Establishment of ASEAN has six goals, namely: 1) To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region. 2) To promote regional peace and stability. 3) To promote cooperation and mutual assistance in sciences and technology for the well-being of the ASEAN nations. 4) To promote cooperation in agriculture, industry, trade, transportation, and communication. 5) To promote joint research about issues in Southeast Asia. 6) To maintain closer cooperation with international and other regional organizations.
  8. 8. Roundtable Conference held by FPSG, , 2010, KL
  9. 9. All of the six ASEAN objectives require regional community participation. It can be said that the successfulness of the above indicated goals depends on how big the participation is. The bigger participation of non-state actors in ASEAN countries, the better opportunity for the successful implementation of ASEAN aims. As well as for the successfulness of “Towards ASEAN Community in 2015” program. Participation from the entire community in ASEAN region is indeed vital in relation to the realization of the six ASEAN goals, especially in Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint (SCCB), namely: a. Human Development b. Social Welfare and Protection c. Social Justice and Rights d. Ensuring Environmental Sustainability e. Building the ASEAN Identity f. Narrowing the Development Gap. The implementation of SCCB definitely requires community participation from the ASEAN countries. Without their participation, certainly the SCCB will not be as successful as it is expected.
  10. 10. Participation and Cooperation Form Community participation in ASEAN region through cooperation amount non-state actors is very much needed to strengthen ASEAN countries integrity. It can be carried out by: 1. Strengthening People-to-People Contact and Communication It is important to strengthen people-to-people relationship and communication in order to support the ASEAN integrity. However, it is not easy to carry it out due to inequalities in social economy, education, and languages. To create people-to-people contact and communication among 600 million people in ASEAN region is not an easy task, too. In spite of that, a great deal of effort should be made to strengthen the ASEAN integration. To facilitate realization of strengthening people-to-people contact and communication, among other things, is by improving non- state actors’ role, e.g. NGOs should be given opportunities to initiate various meetings of NGO leaders from ASEAN countries to discuss actual issues in Southeast Asia region.
  11. 11. EPG was Launched on the 7th of the July 2008 in KL
  12. 12. Religious organizations should be given chances to arrange a number of meeting agendas and to hold routine inter-religious dialogue meetings in the framework of improving mutual understanding and social religious cooperation in order to bring social integration in ASEAN countries into reality. Apart from those, social organizations should be given opportunities to improvise dialogue meetings, seminars, symposiums, and routine discussions to examine social agenda especially the increasingly social-economy imbalance in ASEAN countries community. Besides that, business organizations in ASEAN countries are expected to increase their cooperation to improve industries, trade, and investments.
  13. 13. Genocide in Burma or Miyanmar
  14. 14. Also, youth and student organizations as non-state actors, are taking very important role, too, in improving communication relationship as part of people-to-people contact, because they are future leaders in their respective countries. If strengthening people-to-people contact and communication can be carried out by the youth and students of all ASEAN countries, then when they become leaders in their countries, they already have good relationship, so that good cooperation among leaders of ASEAN countries will be better and better, which means the ASEAN Community will become a reality. Last but not least in relation to people-to-people contact and communication is cooperation among culture-bearer, academics, members of parliament, and so forth, in order to build the bonds of friendship and mutual understanding among non-state actors in ASEAN region.
  15. 15. Youth ASEAN Conference
  16. 16. 2. Media Cooperation Media is also a vital instrument for dissemination of goals of ASEAN, ASEAN Economic Community, and ASEAN Community, as well as information on community development, cooperation, and advancement of the ASEAN countries. Therefore, contact and communication among journalists and reporters of ASEAN countries need to be held regularly by: 2.1. Providing regular briefings and information on current issues and developments regarding each other’s countries to journalists and media reporters 2.2. Promoting exposure to each country of ASEAN through the regular exchange of visits between media representatives, editors and especially young journalist, and 2.3. Encouraging collaboration the media of each country in the area of training, and the attachment of journalists. Those are my recommendations which are strongly required to make the Role of Non-State Actors in Fostering Greater ASEAN Integration successful.
  17. 17. 3. Cooperation in Culture Each country in ASEAN share many similarities and differences in term of history, culture and religion. In the many similarities and differences in each of the ASEAN member countries, it is possible and should be done in cooperation in culture. There are so many forms of non-state actors of cooperation that can be done from each ASEAN member countries such as: 3.1 Encourage collaboration in the field of culture and promote a greater awareness of each other’s culture through regularly held cultural festival and art exhibitions. 3.2 Consolidate expertise and coordinate facilitators needed to tutor the younger generation in the transmission of culture heritage.
  18. 18. 3.3 To promote interaction, networking, and exchange visits between NGOS, private sector and government authorities involved in culture affairs, between cultural institutions, museums, archives, libraries, as well as practitioners in theatre, music, dance, folk art, and cinematography. 3.4 Promote interaction, exchange of visits and experience, and other mutual assistance for the protection, preservation, and restoration of cultural and historical heritage, both tangible and intangible, in accordance to the laws, regulations and customs of each country. 3.5 To encourage the production and screening of members of ASEAN countries films through television and other means throughout of each country of ASEAN members, as well as the holding of films festivals to promote cultural understanding, and 3.6 To promote joint publications and research on history and culture. By knowing the culture of each ASEAN member states, it will grow the spirit of togetherness, solidarity, unity and integrity of ASEAN.
  19. 19. 4. Cooperation in Education and HRD Cooperation in education and human resources development is a very important role in fostering understanding and build togetherness, unity and integrity between people of ASEAN countries. Communities of ASEAN member countries, is still very much a difference in education. There are member states of ASEAN are very high education level of society, there are still predominantly poorly educated, only finished elementary school and had not completed secondary school. To bridge the gap of education of the majority society ASEAN members, I propose to do several things: 4.1 Enhance cooperation in the field of cooperation, including primary, secondary and higher education for poor children and youth from ASEAN member countries. They were housed dormitory supervised and nurtured well as well as technical education and vocational training. So that they can learn well, they should be given sufficient scholarship from each ASEAN member countries.
  20. 20. Sebumi Conference UI and UKM in Malaysia, October, 2010
  21. 21. ASEAN Conference of Higher Education Research Clusters
  22. 22. 4.2. Encourage investment by the private sector in education and training especially for poor children and youth from ASEAN member countries to accelerate learning opportunities for out-of-school children and youth and to upgrade the quality of educational institutions, including those for teacher training. 4.3 To set up a joint foundation, funded equally by each ASEAN member countries to offer prestigious scholarship for students who are poor but smart, good character, and eager to get ahead in the future. 4.4 Enhance cooperation in human resources development, including the preservation of human creative and cultural diversity in respect of teacher and lecturers, through fellowship programmers, educational exchange programmers, training courses and exchange of visits. 5.5 Cooperate in the development of prestigious institutions of higher learning and joint curriculum like in education, culture, technology and so on.
  23. 23. 5. Cooperation in Tourism Tourism businesses are part of the small and medium enterprises and very important to be developed to advance and promote the ASEAN community and the ASEAN economic community. Tourism is very important built jointly by ASEAN member countries. First, many attractions in the member of ASEAN countries. Second, some countries of ASEAN members have been successful in the tourism business. Should be successful in tourism of member countries of ASEAN transmitted to other ASEAN members’ countries. Third, the tourism industry creates economic equality to the people in a country, because tourists need hotel in all sizes, from five star hotels to hotel without stars. In addition, travelers who need to eat of the food is very expensive to the most simple food. Also need a guide, buy souvenirs and purposes while in a State.
  24. 24. Fourth, many small and medium enterprises engaged in the tourism industry because this business actually includes labor-intensive businesses, which absorb energy for all sorts of activities. My recommendation is important to enhance linkage and cooperation between tourism industries and authorities of each country from ASEAN member countries. Also to promote cooperation in marketing tourism. The activities proposed to be conducted by members of the ASEAN countries are: 5.1 Developing tourism package like eco tourism, cultural tourism pilgrim tourism. 5.2 Cooperation between tourism schools and tourism agencies. 5.3 To promote cooperation in marketing tourism products, very important to do cultural performance, festival, bazaars, and exhibitions to strengthen tourism industry. 5.4 Exchange of expertise among the member countries of ASEAN between travel agents, tour guides in order to promote capacity building. 5.5 Joint website, film, and other publication on tourism. 5.6 Exchange of information and visits on how to promote tourism potential efficiently. 5.7 Workshop on eco-tourism.
  25. 25. Conclusion To realize the role of non-state actors in fostering greater ASEAN integration, like it or not to do activities that directly benefits can be felt by people who live in the ASEAN region. That respect, it is the role of non-state actors is very important and necessary: First, to facilitate enhanced people-to-people contact and communication, to realize the ASEAN Community and ASEAN Economic Community 2015. Second, to cooperate in media as the fourth institution in a democratic country, to spread about the progress of member countries of ASEAN, ASEAN community goals, and the ASEAN economic community 2015. Third, to work together to promote, preserve and maintain the culture in each country of ASEAN. This is very important because culture can be an important instrument to accelerate the rise and progress of each country of ASEAN members.
  26. 26. Fourth, encourage the education of children of poor people in all levels of education from elementary school, junior high school and high school and university in order to prepare future generations are more qualified to succeed the ASEAN Community and ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. Fifth, encourage cooperation in various institutions in the development of tourism in each country of ASEAN members. The goal is to promote community economic down through the business activities related to tourism activities. This includes the trading of goods and services among member countries of ASEAN, in efforts to achieve equality and economic justice for all people in the ASEAN region. By doing the above things, then through the role of non-state actors, are expected to be realized in fostering greater ASEAN integration. * This paper was prepared for presentation in the Roundtable Conference held by FPSG on July 1-2, 2013, in Kuala Lumpur