Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class


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Transfats - Biology of Food Safety class

  1. TRANS<br />FATS<br />TRANS<br />FATS<br />IN THE <br />FOOD<br />SUPPLY<br /><br />
  2. WHAT ARE FATS?<br />Dietary fats are triacylglycerols<br /><ul><li>One glycerol molecule bonded to three fatty acid chains
  3. Formed by dehydration synthesis
  4. A + 3B -> AB + 3H2O
  5. Fatty acids can be uniform or mixed of different types
  6. Saturated
  7. Unsaturated
  8. Monounsaturated
  9. Polyunsaturated
  10. Trans </li></ul> <br />
  11. WHAT ARE FATS?<br />Fatty Acids (14 – 20C)<br />saturated:<br />(solid at room temp.)<br />monounsaturated:<br />(liquid at room temp.)<br />polyunsaturated:<br />(liquid at room temp.)<br />
  12. TRANS FATS<br /><ul><li>Small amounts found naturally in beef, lamb and dairy products as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) [factor dependant]
  13. Small amounts occur in refined vegetable oils [debatable]</li></ul>Large amounts result from “partial hydrogenation” of unsaturated fats that move the hydrogen atoms, creating a straight conformation as found in saturated fats<br />(Ascherio, 2006)<br />
  14. TRANS FATS<br />Trans Fatty Acid<br />+<br />+<br />H<br />
  15. TRANS FAT HISTORY<br />Paul Sabatier develops the hydrogenation process.  He was a French chemist who became a Nobel laureate in 1912.<br />Scientist Wilhelm Normann finds that liquid oils can be hydrogenated to form trans fatty acids. He patents the process.  Trans fat is the first man-made fat to join our food supply.<br />Procter & Gamble introduces Crisco vegetable shortening in grocery stores. Crisco becomes the first of many manufactured food products containing trans fat.<br />World War II begins, and the United States becomes involved at the end of 1941.  As the war progresses, the use of margarine rises sharply because butter is rationed.<br />
  16. TRANS FAT HISTORY<br />The American Heart Association first proposes that reducing dietary fats, namely saturated fats found in foods like butter and beef, can reduce the chance of getting heart disease.<br />In response to consumer advocacy groups, most fast-food companies begin using partially hydrogenated oils containing trans fat instead of beef tallow and tropical oils high in saturated fats.<br />Following the release of several scientific studies, health advocacy groups call for fast-food restaurants to stop using partially hydrogenated oils in their deep fryers.<br />Denmark is the first and only country to regulate trans fat on a national basis, putting a very small cap on the amount that food may contain.<br />(American Heart Association, 2008)<br />
  17. WHY AND WHERE?<br />Why trans fats?<br /><ul><li>Products retain the flavour and smell of unsaturated fats
  18. Adds desired texture to products
  19. Lengthens shelf life by raising the melting point, slowing oxidation
  20. Reduces need for use of saturated fats</li></li></ul><li>THE PROBLEM<br />MANUFACTURED TRANS FATS CAUSE<br />CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE,<br />OBESITY,<br />TYPE 2 DIABETES,<br />BREAST CANCER, <br />FETAL LOSS, LEARNING IMPAIRMENT,<br />and ???<br />
  21. HEART DISEASE<br /><ul><li>Trans fats raise LDL (low density lipoprotein) plasma levels and lower HDL (high density lipoprotein) plasma levels
  22. Trans fat intake alters the LDL:HDL ratio at twice the rate of natural saturated fats
  23. Long chain trans fatty acids alter LDL:HDL ratio more than short chain</li></ul>(Ascherio, 2006)<br />
  24. HEART DISEASE STATS<br />WHO: Global Burden of Disease (2004)<br /><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world
  25. Greater incidence among people of low socioeconomic status</li></ul>CVD in Canada<br /><ul><li>CVD is the leading cause of death in the Canada
  26. 2004: mortality was 73,338 (31% of male deaths, 33% of female deaths) </li></ul>Blood Cholesterol<br /><ul><li>40% or 10 000 000 Canadians have high blood cholesterol levels</li></ul>Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)<br /><ul><li>Diabetes, abdominal obesity, changes in cholesterol, high blood pressure
  27. Two-fold increase in the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality</li></ul>(American Heart Association, 2009)<br />
  28. TRANS FAT TASK FORCE<br /><ul><li>Critical questions began to arise in 1990 (79 years after Crisco®)
  29. Formed in 2005 to advise on reduction or elimination of trans fats
  30. Chose to reduce rather than eliminate for political, economic, and enforcement reasons</li></li></ul><li>TRANS FAT TASK FORCE<br />Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Average intake of trans fats should be less than 1% of energy intake
  31. Vegetable oils and soft margarines: no more than 2% of total fat
  32. All other foods: no more than 5% of total fat</li></li></ul><li>Labeling<br />2006: trans fat declared on label and included in total fat content<br />
  33. Conclusion<br />“There is no physiological requirement for trans fats — they have no intrinsic health value above their caloric value — and therefore their intake should be as low as possible.” (Trans Fat Task Force, 2006)<br />If we eliminate all trans fats... <br />What will the manufactures find to replace them?<br />How safe will the replacement be?<br />
  34. SOURCES<br />American Heart Association. (2008). A History of Trans Fats. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from presenter.jhtml?identifier=3048193<br />American Heart Association. (2009). International Cardiovascular Disease Statistics. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from http://www. <br />Ascherio, Alberto. (2006). Trans fatty acids and blood lipids. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 7, 25-27.<br />CFIA. (2008). Chapter 7-Nutrient Content Claims. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from labeti/guide/ch7ae.shtml#7.18 <br />Innis, Sheila M. (2006). Trans fatty intakes during pregnancy, infancy and early childhood. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 7, 17-20.<br />Kavanagh, Kylie et al. (2007). Trans fat diet induces abdominal obesity and changes in insulin sensitivity in monkeys. Obesity, 15(7), 1675-1684.<br />Kohlmeier, L. et al. (1997). Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and breast cancer in the European Community . Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 6(9), 705-710.<br />Morrison, John A. et al. (2008). Dietary trans fatty acid intake is associated with increased fetal loss. Fertility and Sterility, 90(2), 385-390.<br />Park, Yeonhwa. Unpublished . Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Good or Bad Trans Fat?. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.<br />Risérus, Ulf. (2006). Trans fatty acids and insulin resistance. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 7, 37-39.<br />Trans Fat Task Force. (2006). TRANSforming the Food Supply. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from <br />USFDA. (2006). Questions and Answers about Trans Fat Nutrition Labeling. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from http://www.cfsan.fda. gov/~dms/qatrans2.html<br />