Native Depopulation


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Native Depopulation

  2. 2. COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
  3. 3. BIOINVASION<br /><br /><br />
  4. 4. SMALL POX<br /><ul><li> human virus
  5. 5. “crowd disease”
  6. 6. highly contagious
  7. 7. spread by prolonged social contact or body fluids
  8. 8. non-contagious incubation period of 12-14 days
  9. 9. pustules break out on skin
  10. 10. results in skin scars, blindness, male infertility or death</li></ul><br />
  11. 11. DEVASTATION BY ISOLATION<br /><ul><li>Crossed Bering Land Bridge 10kyr
  12. 12. No gene flow
  13. 13. No exposure to pathogens of other world populations
  14. 14. Few domesticated animals led to a weak immune system</li></ul><br />
  15. 15. POPULATION BEFORE CONTACT?<br /><ul><li> what size was the population?
  16. 16. what was life like?
  17. 17. what culture existed?
  18. 18. how did they meet their needs?
  19. 19. what biological traits did they have?</li></ul><br />
  20. 20. BIOINVASION SEVERITY?<br />BIOINVASION:<br /><ul><li>“when a species that originally exists in an certain part of the planet is intentionally or, more often, accidentally introduced into an entirely new location”(Orem) </li></ul><br />
  21. 21. THESIS<br />Using the timing of the first epidemics of the Caribbean and Mexico we can determine when such epidemics reached the Northeast. With that information we can make a more accurate assumption regarding the size of the native population before these epidemics spread and how much of an effect they had on decreasing their population. <br />X<br />
  22. 22. TWO SIDES TO THE STORY<br />“HIGH COUNTERS”<br />“LOW COUNTERS”<br /><ul><li> isolated epidemics
  23. 23. western hemisphere pandemic
  24. 24. high mortality
  25. 25. wholesale slaughter
  26. 26. sporadic over time
  27. 27. unabated for 150 years
  28. 28. minimal evidence
  29. 29. epidemic evidence transposed</li></li></ul><li>ARGUMENT OUTLINE<br />HIGH COUNTER REJECTION:<br />COMPARISON:<br /><ul><li>Presents and interprets contradictory evidence to previous interpretations of the high counters
  30. 30. Documented Mesoamerican epidemics to documented Northern epidemics</li></ul>LOW COUNTER SUPPORT:<br />INTERPRETATION:<br /><ul><li>Presents and interprets evidence that supports low counter theory
  31. 31. Presents interpretive support for differences in theory</li></li></ul><li>1518<br />1520 - 1524<br />1st SOUTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />1518<br /><ul><li>1st introduction of small pox
  32. 32. Santa Domingo</li></ul>1520 - 1524<br /><ul><li>Hernán Cortés and men destroy the Aztecs by war and disease</li></li></ul><li>1535<br />1528 & 1535<br />1538<br />1st NORTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />1528 & 1535<br /><ul><li> possible typhoid epidemic
  33. 33. illness causing blindness (no pock marks)</li></ul>1535<br /><ul><li> unknown illness
  34. 34. scurvy: Europeans
  35. 35. about 50 natives die</li></ul>1538<br /><ul><li> reports of epidemic
  36. 36. village of Cofachiqui escapes epidemic </li></li></ul><li>CONCLUSION<br />congenital disease<br />Cofachiqui escapes<br />unknown illness<br />There is no strong documented evidence that the 1518 to 1524 devastating epidemics in the Caribbean and Mexico extended northward past Texas.<br />typhoid<br />1538<br />1528&35<br />1535<br />1518<br />1520-24<br />Aztecs wiped out<br />1st intro: Caribbean<br />1st NORTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />1st SOUTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />
  37. 37. 1559<br />1576<br />1545<br />1592<br />SEVERE SOUTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />1545<br /><ul><li> severe epidemic in Mexico </li></ul>1559<br /><ul><li> possibly influenza epidemic</li></ul>1576<br /><ul><li> very severe epidemic same as 1545 and 1559</li></ul>1592<br /><ul><li> smallpox or measles</li></li></ul><li>1564<br />1586<br />1586<br />NORTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />1564<br /><ul><li> unknown epidemic at Jamestown </li></ul>1586<br /><ul><li> smallpox or measles on Roanoke Island</li></ul>1586<br /><ul><li> epidemic reported</li></li></ul><li>CONCLUSION<br />Jamestown epidemic<br />Roanoke epidemic<br />Florida Epidemic<br />There is no strong documented evidence that any of the severe Mexican epidemics of 1545, 1559, 1576 or 1592 extended to the Northern Woodland Tribes. <br />1586<br />1564<br />1586<br />1576<br />1545<br />1559<br />1592<br />Mexican epidemic<br />Mexican epidemic<br />Mexican epidemic<br />Mexican epidemic<br />NORTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />SEVERE SOUTHERN EPIDEMICS<br />
  38. 38. LOW VERSUS HIGH<br />D. Snow & K. Lamphear<br />H. Dobyns<br />The Cynics<br />THE High Counter<br />REJECTION:<br />HYPOTHESIS:<br />Epidemics of Mesoamerica became pandemics as they spread northward across the United states starting in 1520.<br /><ul><li> would negate all other evidence
  39. 39. reflects 16th century European theory that disease was spread by “miasmas” (toxic air)
  40. 40. Williams may have heard what he wanted too
  41. 41. the elder may have been “Europeanized”</li></ul>EVIDENCE:<br />Williams, a European native linguist says that a Narragansett elder told him plagues hit the tribe 4-5 years after earthquakes. Plagues coming in 1568, 1574, 1584 and 1592<br />
  42. 42. LOW VERSUS HIGH<br />D. Snow & K. Lamphear<br />H. Dobyns<br />The Cynics<br />THE High Counter<br />REJECTION:<br />HYPOTHESIS:<br />There was a bubonic plague pandemic from 1612-1619<br /><ul><li> no epidemics in 1612
  43. 43. 1576 epidemic could also have been yellow fever or typhoid
  44. 44. no evidence of black rat infestation
  45. 45. John Smith, Jacques Cartier and Purchas describe thriving coastal populations in 1604-05</li></ul>EVIDENCE:<br />Plague began in Mexico and spread northward. Symptoms from 1576 Mexican epidemic indicate the plague.<br />
  46. 46. LOW VERSUS HIGH<br />D. Snow & K. Lamphear<br />H. Dobyns<br />The Cynics<br />THE High Counter<br />REJECTION:<br />HYPOTHESIS:<br /><ul><li> relocation dates are not secure
  47. 47. no correlation between dated relocations and dated epidemics
  48. 48. widely accepted that relocations are a result of depleted resources</li></ul>Seneca tribe relocations are evidence of a pandemic<br />EVIDENCE:<br />Combines Williams claim with archaeological relocation evidence and interprets it as proof of pandemic. <br />
  49. 49. SEVERE EPIDEMICS BEGAN IN THE NORTH<br />Thomas Dermer:<br /><ul><li>coastal villages empty
  50. 50. remaining populations with the “sicknesse”
  51. 51. sores on people who described spots of those who died</li></ul>Many primary sources refer to 1616 plague.<br />Baird (Jesuit Missionary):<br /><ul><li>Natives complain of French bringing them disease</li></ul>1616<br />1619<br />ST. LAWRENCE<br />NEW ENGLAND<br />Richard Vines:<br /><ul><li>Spent winter with sick and dying natives
  52. 52. he nor men got ill
  53. 53. no one left to bury the dead</li></ul>Bourque and Whitehead:<br /><ul><li>Report evidence of plague</li></li></ul><li>EPIDEMICS SPREAD TO THE INTERIOR OF NEW ENGLAND<br />Josellyn:<br /><ul><li>Plague before English explorers
  54. 54. English brought smallpox
  55. 55. Massachusetts tribes from 30,000 to 300 due to plague
  56. 56. English destroy Pequots
  57. 57. Mohacks reduced to 500</li></ul>1634<br />1630’s<br />1633<br />Trigger:<br /><ul><li>Smallpox, measles or influenza hit Huron Nation
  58. 58. first epidemic for them</li></ul>English, Dutch and French:<br /><ul><li>Widespread epidemic
  59. 59. Effecting Algonquin, Iroquios,and others </li></li></ul><li>VIRGIN SOIL EPIDEMICS<br /><ul><li> highest mortality
  60. 60. smallpox devastation</li></li></ul><li>SO WHY THE TIME LAG?<br /><br /><br />
  61. 61. SO WHY THE TIME LAG?<br /><br /><br />
  62. 62. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?<br /><ul><li>1616 and 1633 epidemics reduced Native populations in the Northeast between 86 and 95% making the bioinvasion catastrophic
  63. 63. pandemic assumptions are unnecessary and only serve to suppose unrealistic pre-epidemic population sizes
  64. 64. there were no epidemics of great consequence to population size in the 16th century</li></li></ul><li>THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />COHERANT?<br /><ul><li>Yes. There is a flow from the introduction to the arguments, support and conclusion, as well as a flow within each argument.</li></li></ul><li>THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />COHERANT?<br /><ul><li>Yes. There is a flow from the introduction to the arguments, support and conclusion, as well as a flow within each argument.</li></li></ul><li>THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />LOGICAL, AUTHORITATIVE, EMOTIONAL?<br /><ul><li>Components of all three</li></ul>LOGICAL<br />“It seems clear that a better understanding of the one known major demographic shift in North America, the abrupt Indian population decline that resulted from the introduction of European diseases, is necessary for an understanding of pre-epidemic population levels”(Snow and Lanphear 16)<br />
  65. 65. THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />LOGICAL, AUTHORITATIVE, EMOTIONAL?<br /><ul><li>Components of all three</li></ul>AUTHORITATIVE<br />“The problem with Dobyns’ assumption is that North American population densities were generally lower than those in Mexico at the time, and there were often buffer zones between population concentrations or isolates that would have impeded the spread of epidemics”(Snow and Lanphear 17)<br />
  66. 66. THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />LOGICAL, AUTHORITATIVE, EMOTIONAL?<br /><ul><li>Components of all three</li></ul>EMOTIONAL<br />“Thomas Morton also uses the word ‘plague’ to describe the epidemic, adding that ‘they died on heapes, as they lay in their houses’(Snow and Lanphear 22)<br />
  67. 67. <ul><li>Ad hoc rescue
  68. 68. Ad Hominem
  69. 69. Appeal to Authority
  70. 70. Circular Reasoning
  71. 71. Confirmation Bias
  72. 72. False Dilemma
  73. 73. Lack of Proportion
  74. 74. Oversimplification
  75. 75. Red Herring</li></ul>THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />FALLACIES?<br /><ul><li>a kind of error in an argument
  76. 76. a kind of error in reasoning (including arguments, definitions, explanations, and so forth)(Dowden)</li></li></ul><li>THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />FALLACIES?<br />AD HOMINEM:<br />“On a historiographical level, Dobyns has been accused of misusing the few scraps of documentary evidence we have in an effort to sustain his argument for widespread sixteenth-century epidemics”(Snow and Lanphear 17)<br />LACK OF PROPORTION:<br />“Gookin (1970:9) appears to err in dating the epidemic to 1612-13, but usefully identifies a principal symptom as yellow skin”(Snow and Lanphear 22)<br />
  77. 77. THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />FALLACIES?<br />AD HOC RESCUE:<br />“Perhaps he misunderstood what his informant had said, but this interpretation seems unlikely and would in any case deny the only evidence from the Northeast a fair consideration” (Snow and Lanphear 20)<br />“Perhaps Williams was using his own theory of disease causation in the interpretation of an Indian statement. Alternatively, the source might have been a converted Indian repeating something he had learned or telling Williams what he thought the latter wanted to hear.” <br />(Snow and Lanphear 20-21)<br />
  78. 78. THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />FALLACIES?<br />CIRCULAR REASONING:<br />“Documentary evidence of epidemics north of Mexico is sparse for the sixteenth century, and our understanding of epidemics there necessarily depends upon assumptions about how they spread (if they occurred at all). The product of our assumptions can only occasionally be tested by documentary or archaeological evidence, and the evidence is so scanty and ambiguous that it can be made to support almost any reasonable hypothesis”(Snow and Lanphear 16)<br />
  79. 79. THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />SUPPORTING EVIDENCE?<br /><ul><li>Whole crux of the problem
  80. 80. Evidence “scanty”
  81. 81. Simply making different assumptions</li></ul>CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATE VIEWS?<br /><ul><li>Alternate views are given “token” recognition
  82. 82. Usually berated or tossed aside</li></li></ul><li>THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />PARTICULARS AND PERSPECTIVE?<br /><ul><li>Written by Dean R. Snow and Kim M. Lanphear of the University of Albany, New York - right smack dab in the middle of the Northeastern Woodlands
  83. 83. Dean Snow and William A. Starna wrote “Sixteenth-Century Depopulation: A view from the Mohawk Valley” – follows same fallacies
  84. 84. “The assumptions underlying many estimates are not grounded in theory, are usually unstated (perhaps even subconscious), and when ferreted out often fail to pass even simple tests.”(Snow and Starna 143)</li></li></ul><li>THAT’S WHAT IT MEANS?<br />Maybe… Maybe not…<br />OTHER AUTHORS?<br />DOBYNS, HENRY F.<br />HENIGE, DAVID<br /><ul><li>Believes there is great evidence of pandemics throughout North America resulting in huge devastation
  85. 85. Critical: “If Snow and Lanphear did read my actual analysis of the 1556-59 influenza epidemic, then they have deliberately falsified their description of the analysis by not citing it”(Dobyns 288)
  86. 86. Believes there is little evidence and some scholars don’t think that evidence matters
  87. 87. Critical:”Henry Dobyns and I clearly view the study of the past across a divide that mere colloquy can never hope to bridge. As a result, I reply to his comments with a pervasive sense of futility. Still, why not?” (Henige 304)</li></li></ul><li>REGARDLESS…<br /><br />
  88. 88. WORK CITED<br /><ul><li>Dobyns, Henry F. “More Methodological Perspectives on Historical Demography.” Ethnohistory 36:3 (1989) : 288
  89. 89. Dowden, Bradley. “Fallacies”. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. California State University. 11 Nov 2007 <>
  90. 90. Henige, David. “On the Current Devaluation of the Notion of Evidence: A rejoinder to Dobyns.” Ethnohistory 36:3 (1989) : 304
  91. 91. Orem, William. “Bioinvasion”. A Moment of Science. Indiana University. 11 Nov 2007 <>
  92. 92. Snow, Dean R. and Kim M. Lanphear. “European Contact and Indian Depopulation in the Northeast: The timing of the First Epidemics.” Ethnohistory 35:I (1988) : 15-28
  93. 93. Snow, Dean R. and William A. Starna. “Sixteenth-Century Depopulation: A view from the Mohawk Valley.” American Anthropologist 91 (1989) : 143</li>