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  1. 1. Chapter 12 Shaping America in the Antebellum Age The American People , 6 th ed.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Religious Revival and Reform Philosophy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Finney and the Second Great Awakening <ul><li>From the late 1790s to the late 1830s, a wave of religious revivalism swept through the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Personified by the flamboyant Charles Finney who preached every night for six months in Rochester, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Revivalists toned down the Calvinist rhetoric and preached a religion of inclusiveness. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Transcendentalists <ul><li>A small but influential group of New England intellectuals who lived around Ralph Waldo Emerson, the era’s foremost thinker. </li></ul><ul><li>The group was called Transcendentalists because of their belief that truth was found in intuition beyond the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>They questioned slavery and the pursuit of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Members included Nathanial Hawthorne and Henry David Thoreau (“On Civil Disobedience”) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The Political Response to Change </li></ul>
  6. 7. Changing Political Culture <ul><li>Andrew Jackson’s presidency was instrumental in bringing politics to the center focus of many American lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson promised a more democratic system of politics. </li></ul><ul><li>He was personally not very democratic, owned slaves, and favored the forced removal of Indians to the west. </li></ul><ul><li>His administration did see the effectual emergence of a competitive party system. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Old Hickory’s Vigorous Presidency <ul><li>Jackson’s key principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Majority rule </li></ul><ul><li>Limited power of the national government </li></ul><ul><li>The obligation of the government to defend the nation’s average people against the tyranny of the wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive use of the presidential veto </li></ul><ul><li>Favored a rotational system of staffing the government </li></ul>
  8. 10. Jackson’s Indian Policy <ul><li>Andrew Jackson favored forcible removal and relocation westward on reservations. </li></ul><ul><li>A Supreme Court decision in 1823 stating that Indians could occupy but not hold title to land in the United States made Jackson’s policy easy to implement. </li></ul><ul><li>Using harassment and bribery, Jackson’s administration forced many of the Indian Nations to march west to present-day Oklahoma. </li></ul>
  9. 13. Jackson’s Bank War <ul><li>The Second Bank of the United States had been in service since 1823 and had thirteen years left on its charter. </li></ul><ul><li>A responsible organization, the Bank restrained smaller state banks form making unwise loans by insisting payment in the form of specie (gold or silver). </li></ul><ul><li>American business wanted cheap, inflated, paper money to fund expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson used the struggle to underscore differences between social classes. </li></ul><ul><li>The sound fiscal policy of the Bank won out and caused The Panic of 1837. </li></ul>
  10. 14. The Second American Party System <ul><li>Democrats: had a sounder claim of representation of the common man with a broad base of support across the nation, logic often shaped policy </li></ul><ul><li>Whigs (formerly Republicans): represented majority of wealth in America and big businesses, religion often shaped policy </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>Perfectionist Reform and Utopianism </li></ul>
  12. 18. Utopian Communities: Oneida and the Shakers <ul><li>Many reformers of the age sought to create the perfect representation in miniature of what life should be. </li></ul><ul><li>John Humphrey Noyles founded a society of “free love” and socialism at Oneida, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>The Shakers believed in communal property, perfectionism, and celibacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaker worship featured a wild dance intended to release sin from the body. </li></ul>
  13. 20. Other Utopias <ul><li>Over 100 communities like the Shakers and Oneida were founded during the era: </li></ul><ul><li>The Ephrata colony of Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>The Hopedale community of Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>The Harmonists of Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>Closely related were the Millerites and Mormons </li></ul>
  14. 21. IV. Reforming Society
  15. 22. Temperance <ul><li>Nineteenth century Americans drank to excess. </li></ul><ul><li>Early efforts at curbing the public’s consumption focused on moderation. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Temperance Society (1826) was dedicated to total abstinence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Society successfully used revival techniques of the Second Great Awakening to motivate “converts.” </li></ul>
  16. 23. Humanizing the Asylum <ul><li>Some efforts of reform were not aimed at the salvation of the individual but towards organizations such as hospitals or asylums. </li></ul><ul><li>Dorothea Dix championed the cause of the mentally ill, believing adequate facilities and proper living conditions would go far to produce some sort of a “cure.” </li></ul>
  17. 24. Working-Class Reform <ul><li>In America, the institution most in need of reform was the factory. </li></ul><ul><li>The reform movement gradually was adapted to the plight of workers and trade unions began to appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers began to organize to protect their crafts and to negotiate better conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Trades Union (1834) was the first attempt at a nation-wide labor organization. </li></ul>
  18. 25. Tensions Within the Antislavery Movement <ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison published The Liberator— America’s first antislavery journal and helped establish the American Anti-Slavery Society. </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison’s message was an immediate end to slavery with no conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of abolitionists in America disagreed on how to reform slavery in America; most preferred religious education, political action, boycotts of slave-harvested goods, or downright rebellion. </li></ul>