The arrangement or patterning of communities into
parallel or sub-parallel bands is known as zonation.
Zonation in biomes are in latitudes and climate
Zonation in plants can be in altitude.
Gross productivity is low.
Energy lost through community respiration is low.
Soil becomes better structured and more fertile.
Gross productivity by producers increases.
Net productivity increases.
In climax population GPP, NPP and diversity
If the value of P/R is 1, then it is a steady state
If the value of P/R is greater than 1, then
If the value of P/R is less than 1, biomass is
A CLIMAX COMMUNITY is an ecological community in which
populations of plants or animals remain stable and exist in
balance with each other and their environment.
Ecosystems with more feedback mechanisms are more stable
than simple ecosystem.
Higher levels of species diversity
More favorable soil conditions
Better soil structure
Taller and stronger-living plant species
More K-strategists/fewer r-strategists
Greater community complexity and stability
Greater habitat diversity
A Plagioclimax community is an area or habitat in which the
influences of the human race have prevented the ecosystem
from developing further.
All human activities ( agriculture, hunting, clearance, burning
and grazing ) create a plagioclimax by arresting succession.