Music 4.5 Image Rights: John Ogier, Registrar of Intellectual Property, Government of Guernsey


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Personality & Image – A growing area of economic value
Digital technology is enabling an increasing number of new ways to ‘publish’ personality manifestations, both visibly and audibly. Yet, there exists no specific framework to facilitate regulated economic exploitation of image and personality – except for the registry for personality and image rights established end of November 2012 in Guernsey.
-Why was this step taken in Guernsey?
-What guarantees protection of image rights internationally?
-Definition of “image”…
-Popular obsession with celebrity underpins much of modern entertainment and marketing, is there a corresponding explosion of economic value of personality?

Presented by: John Ogier, Registrar of Intellectual Property, Government of Guernsey

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Music 4.5 Image Rights: John Ogier, Registrar of Intellectual Property, Government of Guernsey

  1. 1. Questions and OgierRegistrar of Intellectual PropertyFor use only for educational and information purposes.Copyright 2013 – States of Guernsey Intellectual Property OfficeImage Rights:Creating commercial opportunityProviding legal certainty1
  2. 2. Image Rights: Creatingcommercial opportunityproviding legal certainty.2
  3. 3. Why Image Rights?Rise in commercial value.• Rise in Value and Interest in Celebrities:-Media, Entertainment, Sports• Opportunities to manage this commercially• A need to provide appropriate protection3
  4. 4. Why Image Rights?Commercial reality, legal uncertainty.• Lord Hoffmann in Campbell v MGN Ltd (2004)• Lindsay J. (after Peck v United Kingdom [2003]and Douglas v Hello! [2005] )• Eddie Irvine v Talksport, (2003)• David Bedford v 118 118, (2004)4
  5. 5. Publicity and Image Rights International Position• UK and common law countries• EU and civil law countries• USA and sui generis legislation on a state by state basis5
  6. 6. Why Image Rights?Personal identity.• Hyper-connectivity.• Blurring of public and private identities.• Identities have value.Government for Science “Future Identities” Professor Sir John Beddington CMG,FRS 2013.6
  7. 7. Personality, Privacy and PublicityA universal and unique personality right -• Right of privacy• Right of publicity• Right to determine the use of a person’s image• Right of the person to benefit from the income arisingfrom the commercial use of a person’s image7
  8. 8. Personality, Personnage and Personal Image.The personnage of a natural person (living or deceased) is:• The creator of their personality• The person through whom their personality isexpressed• The person as represented in many images• The first proprietor of their personality8
  9. 9. PersonnageSection 1• A natural person (living or deceased within 100 years)• A legal person.• A joint personality• A group (team)• A fictional character
  10. 10. Registered Personality and Images• Registration of personality covers all associatedimages of that person• Names need not be distinctive• An image must be distinctive to be enforced10
  11. 11. ImageSection 3Name + othernamesVoice Signature Likeness AppearanceSilhouette Feature Face Expressions GesturesMannerisms DistinctivecharacteristicDistinctiveattributePhotograph Ilustration Image Picture Moving imageElectronicrepresentation(Avatar)Otherrepresentation(Of thepersonnage)11
  12. 12. What are the benefits of registration?Registering a persons image recognises that it:• Is distinctive• Belongs to the proprietor• Has value and can be traded• Will be protected• Is a property right12
  13. 13. Nature of the RightS51 - 60Registered personality and registered or unregistered imagesare property rights which can be:• Assigned.• Licensed.• Capitalised.• Sold and purchased as for any other item of property.• Securitised• Identified with an image rights symbol “I.R.” : registered rightsonly.13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Grounds for refusal 1Sections 6 - 10Absolute• Does not satisfy requirements of the Ordinance• Contrary to public policy / morality• Specially protected emblem• Deceptive, bad faith, offence• Customary in the language, culture, cognizance or trade• Other requirements …
  16. 16. Grounds for refusal 2Sections 6 – 10Relative• Existing personalities, existing images and existing rightsNote:- Applicant / agent responsible for declaration- Publication process- Observation and opposition process.- Provision for same name and identical siblings.- Subject to existing rights operates on the principle of first toregister.
  17. 17. Exceptions and LimitationsThere are express provisions balancing image rightsagainst other legitimate interests and activities inparticular, safeguarding free speech and othermatters of public interest including freedom of newsreporting.17
  18. 18. Exceptions & LimitationsFair dealing– Parody or satire– News reporting, commentary or other journalistic material– Research– Incidental inclusion– Education– Public administration and law enforcement– Temporary copies– Use by proprietor or with consent (contra clause)
  19. 19. Image rights: IP ComparisonImage rights Trade Marks Copyright DesignsRegistration Yes Yes No Reg and unreg.Protection RegisteredPersonality +ImagesMark as sourceof goods /servicesWorks of creator AppearanceLimitation Not limited Registered goodsand servicesNot limited Not limitedDuration Indefinite ifrenewedIndefinite ifrenewedUp to life + 70 yrs Up to 15 yearsInfringement test Use +DistinctivenessUse -Identical orsimilarCopy – but not“idea”MakingInternationalconventionNot at present Paris + Madrid Berne Paris + Hague
  20. 20. Image Rights and International ObligationsNo conflict or inconsistency between the Image Rights Ordinance(legislation) and the various obligations with respect toforeign IPR owners and the international IP conventions.Conclusion of Professor Sam Ricketson.Professor of Law, Melbourne school of Law and Barrister.20
  21. 21. International Enforcement.Bailiwick legislation but may have legal effect beyond thegeographical area of the Islands by:• Enhancing existing protection.• Contract tying terms back to Bailiwick law.• Licensing of the Bailiwick image rights.• Complimentary protection by other IP rights.• Infringement on the internet, global media possible but usewith care: section 28 (Distinctiveness and WIPO principles) and section 44(infringing goods publications or articles).
  22. 22. Image Rights Legislation• Creates market opportunity• Provides a new high value product• Complimentary to wealth management services• Provides new opportunities for those with imagerights and their professional practitioners22
  23. 23. Thank you and any questions?23All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced in any material form without the permission of theRegistrar of Intellectual Property. The Intellectual Property Office asserts the copyright to the document and the moralrights of the author.