3rd Shift• Network-centric warfare• Soldiers are reorganized into ﬂexible, interconnected pods• Networks as weapons
Why go back to the1800’s?• Tried to establish simulation (and gaming) as a theoretical practice• Necessary in this development to proceed historically, step by step• So after Chess (ver 1.0) The Game of War would be the next logical step (ver 2.0)
"...the [game] exactly reproduces the totality of factors that deal with war, and more generallythe dialectic of all conﬂicts."
http://r-s-g.org/kriegspielRSG production team for "Kriegspiel":Alexander R. Galloway, producer and programmingCarolyn Kane, researchAdam Parrish, programmingDaniel Perlin, soundDJ /rupture and Matt Shadetek, musicMushon Zer-Aviv, designPresentation based on text by Alexander R. Galloway and Mushon Zer-Aviv.
Simulation• Top-down• Modeling the global rules of the system• Abstraction• Generalization• Construction of algorithms
Simulation• The game designer• the strategist• the army general• the law-maker• the ruler
Representation• Bottom-up practice• Writing• Image making• Game play• Participation of normal users, artists, storytellers and activists
Playing both sides• On one hand - Create simulation• On the other - ﬁnd the exploits• Lay the rules...• ...and then learn how to excel within them
Board vs. Software• The game designer is the legislator• In board games rules are enforced by the players• The same players who try to break them (cheat)• Computer algorithms embed both rules and enforcement• Debord’s book had several errors
Challenging Boundaries• What are the boundaries of simulation?• Are they deﬁned by game rules?• Are they deﬁned by software?• Can the rule-breaker (hacker) becoming the rule maker (game designer)?
Guy and Alice Debord playing the Game of War (photograph: Jeanne Cornet)
Ceased & Deceased letter "take all necessary technical from Alice Debord measures to prohibit internet (April 1st, 08): access to this game"