A centre of expertise in digital information management
Time To Stop Doing and Start Thinking:
A Framework For Exploiting ...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
2
What We’re Familiar With
We’ve seen various examples of use of
W...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
3
Renaissance West Midlands
workshop, Feb 2009
Renaissance West Mi...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
4
The Challenges
Challenges
Resources
Expertise
Time
Money
Underst...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
5
Take-up Of New Technologies
The Gartner curve
Developers
Rising ...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
6
The Backlash Is Predictable
When significant new things appear:
...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
7
What Do We Mean By ‘Risk’?
“Risk is a concept that denotes the p...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
8
Hitchhiker’s Guide
Douglas Adam’s Hitchhiker’s guide described
“...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
9
Curator Raptor:
Terrifying beast, rapidly destroying many of its...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
10
Beware The IT Fundamentalists
We need to avoid simplistic solut...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
11
The Librarian Fundamentalists
Librarians who have failed to evo...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
12
Let’s Be Realistic
Ning allows you to
set up and manage
your ow...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
13
Let’s Be Realistic
Want to provide a safe
social networking
env...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
14
Let’s Be Realistic
A UK National
Archives Network
Ning site is ...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
15
Accessibility Concerns
Aren’t Social Web
services:
• Inaccessib...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
16
The Council Firewall
The reality:
• Useful Web services do get
...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
17
Sustainability Concerns
What happens if Archive 2.0 services:
•...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
18
Interoperability Issues
What happens if Social Web services hos...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
19
Support Issues
I don’t have the time to:
• Understand it all
• ...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
20
Measuring & Maximising Impact
What if your Library 2.0
services...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
21
Deployment Strategies
I want to do use the Social
Web but:
• Th...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
22
Deployment Strategies
Interested in using Web 2.0 in your organ...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
23
Risk Management
JISC infoNet Risk Management infoKit:
“In educa...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
24
IWMW 2006 & Risk Management
IWMW 2006 has taken a risk manageme...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
25
Headline in the Guardian,
7 July 2007
The Risks Within The Sect...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
26
Are We Repeating Our Mistakes
In 2000 the threats were the exte...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
27
Headlines For 2010?
“Tories Win General Election”
“Drastic Cuts...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
28
Critical Friends
JISC U&I
programme is
encouraging
establishmen...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
29
Let The Public Know
“The paper sets out to
answer this question...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
30
Biases
Subjective factors
Towards a Framework
“Time To Stop Doi...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
31
Using The Framework
Use of approach in two scenarios: use of Tw...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
32
Use The Framework Yourself
Feel free to you apply
framework to:...
A centre of expertise in digital information management
33
Conclusions
The Web
Tech Guy
and Angry
Staff Person
post
provid...
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Time To Stop Doing and Start Thinking: A Framework For Exploiting Web 2.0 Services

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A presentation from Museums and the Web 2009.

Brian Kelly, University of Bath, United Kingdom

The benefits of Web 2.0 in a museum context are now being increasingly accepted, with papers at recent Museums and the Web conferences having highlighted a range of ways in which services such as Flickr and YouTube and technologies such as blogs and wikis can be used.

But what of the associated risks? What of the various concerns that the sector is beginning to address: concerns that the services may not be sustainable; institutional data may be locked into external services; services may infringe accessibility guidelines and associated legislation; users may lose interest in the services; inappropriate user-generated content may be published on the service; data created or stored on the services may not be preserved; etc.?

In a paper on "Web 2.0: How to Stop Thinking and Start Doing: Addressing Organisational Barriers" presented at Museums and the Web 2007 conference, the authors encouraged museums to take a leap of faith and begin experimentation with use of Web 2.0. But now that organisations have a clearer idea of the benefits which Web 2.0 can provide, it is appropriate to "stop doing and start thinking".

This paper describes a framework for supporting cultural heritage organisations in their use of Web 2.0 services, with examples of how this framework can be used in various contexts are provided.

Session: Frameworks for Redesign [Design]

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Time To Stop Doing and Start Thinking: A Framework For Exploiting Web 2.0 Services

  1. 1. A centre of expertise in digital information management Time To Stop Doing and Start Thinking: A Framework For Exploiting Web 2.0 Services Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath, UK UKOLN is supported by: This work is licensed under a Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat) Acceptable Use Policy Recording of this talk, taking photos, discussing the content using email, instant messaging, blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. Acceptable Use Policy Recording of this talk, taking photos, discussing the content using email, instant messaging, blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. Resources bookmarked using 'mw2009-kelly-paper' tagResources bookmarked using 'mw2009-kelly-paper' tag Email: b.kelly@ukoln.ac.uk Twitter: http://twitter.com/briankelly/ Blog: http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/ http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/cultural-heritage/events/mw-2009/paper/http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/cultural-heritage/events/mw-2009/paper/
  2. 2. A centre of expertise in digital information management 2 What We’re Familiar With We’ve seen various examples of use of Web 2.0 in museums, libraries and archives contexts from the National Library of Wales. Wales, including: • Use of Facebook • Use of YouTube • Use of Google Maps • Use of a community Wiki http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykCAxSqziFYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykCAxSqziFYhttp://www.facebook.com/pages/Aber ...http://www.flickr.com/groups/cymru-wales/http://www.ourwales.org.uk/index.php?... Examples taken from guest blog post by Paul Bevan on UK Web Focus blog
  3. 3. A centre of expertise in digital information management 3 Renaissance West Midlands workshop, Feb 2009 Renaissance West Midlands workshop, Feb 2009 MLA East of England workshop, Nov 2008 MLA East of England workshop, Nov 2008 Concerns identified in discussion group sessions at various UKOLN 1-day workshops for the cultural heritage sector Concerns identified in discussion group sessions at various UKOLN 1-day workshops for the cultural heritage sector
  4. 4. A centre of expertise in digital information management 4 The Challenges Challenges Resources Expertise Time Money Understanding Legal Issues IT Services Colleagues Management Accessibility Sustainability Reliability Cultural issues Technical Issues Interoperability Privacy, DPA, FOI, .. Council
  5. 5. A centre of expertise in digital information management 5 Take-up Of New Technologies The Gartner curve Developers Rising expectations Trough of despair Service plateau Enterprise software Large budgets … Early adopters Chasm Failure to go beyond developers & early adopters (cf Gopher) Need for: • Advocacy • Listening to users • Addressing concerns • Deployment strategies • … This talk looks at approaches for avoiding the chasm & This talk looks at approaches for avoiding the chasm & reshaping the curve
  6. 6. A centre of expertise in digital information management 6 The Backlash Is Predictable When significant new things appear: • Enthusiasts / early adopters predict a transformation of society • Sceptics outline the limitations & deficiencies There’s a need to: • Promote the benefits to the wider community (esp. those willing to try if convinced of benefits) • Be realistic and recognise limitations • Address inappropriate criticisms Web 2.0: It’s a silly name. It’s just a marketing term. There are lots of poor Web 2.0 services. There wasn’t a Web 1.0. What follows it? It does have a marketing aspect – and that’s OK. It isn’t formally defined – it describes a pattern of related usage. There will be poor (and good) Web 2.0 services – just like anything else. Any usage will arrive at a follow-up term. Web 2.0: It’s a silly name. It’s just a marketing term. There are lots of poor Web 2.0 services. There wasn’t a Web 1.0. What follows it? It does have a marketing aspect – and that’s OK. It isn’t formally defined – it describes a pattern of related usage. There will be poor (and good) Web 2.0 services – just like anything else. Any usage will arrive at a follow-up term. Twitter? Another silly name. Trivial junk. Only for people with nothing better evolves to We must have a Twitter feed – impact; marketing; audiences; … and then (from the early adopters) It was meant to be fun. It’s been institutionalised, We want it back! Twitter? Another silly name. Trivial junk. Only for people with nothing better evolves to We must have a Twitter feed – impact; marketing; audiences; … and then (from the early adopters) It was meant to be fun. It’s been institutionalised, We want it back!
  7. 7. A centre of expertise in digital information management 7 What Do We Mean By ‘Risk’? “Risk is a concept that denotes the precise probability of specific eventualities” When should we take risks? • Never • If the probability is low • If the dangers are insignificant • If the context if appropriate But what if human life is at risk: • In the army • Driving a car • Travelling on the train • … We can’t ignore the context, the benefits (real and perceived)
  8. 8. A centre of expertise in digital information management 8 Hitchhiker’s Guide Douglas Adam’s Hitchhiker’s guide described “an utterly insignificant little blue-green planet whose ape-descended life forms are so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea” and went on to add: “Many were increasingly of the opinion that they’d all made a big mistake in coming down from the trees in the first place. And some said that even the trees had been a bad move, and that no one should ever have left the oceans.“
  9. 9. A centre of expertise in digital information management 9 Curator Raptor: Terrifying beast, rapidly destroying many of its competitors. However destruction of IT Servitus proved its own undoing. Species in grave danger of becoming extinct following an inability to respond to the rapidly changing climate. From ‘Curator Coelacanth’ to ‘Curator Sapiens’ Curator Coelancanth: Rarely spotted in the wild (sometimes found in the depths of the museum). “almost worthless” - species that failed to take risks & evolve. Curator Sapiens: Not as intimidating as its predecessor but has the agility & mental capacity to respond quickly to changing environment  What species are you?
  10. 10. A centre of expertise in digital information management 10 Beware The IT Fundamentalists We need to avoid simplistic solutions to the complexities: • Open Standards Fundamentalist: we just need XML • Open Source Fundamentalist: we just need Linux • Vendor Fundamentalist: we must use next version of our enterprise system (and you must fit in with this) • Accessibility Fundamentalist: we must do WAI WCAG • User Fundamentalist: must do whatever users want • Legal Fundamentalist: it breaches copyright, … • Ownership Fundamentalist: must own everything we use • Perfectionist: It doesn't do everything, so we'll do nothing • Simplistic Developer: I've developed a perfect solution – I don't care if it doesn't run in the real world • Web 2.0: It’s new; its cool! ITServicesCoelacanth Organisational culture
  11. 11. A centre of expertise in digital information management 11 The Librarian Fundamentalists Librarians who have failed to evolve: • Think they know better than the user e.g. they don't like people using Google Scholar; they should use Web of Knowledge (who cares that users find it easier to use Google Scholar & finds references they need that way?) • Think that users should be forced to learn Boolean searching & other formal search techniques because this is good for them (despite Sheffield's study). • Don't want the users to search for themselves (cf folksonomies) because they won't get it right. • They still want to classify the entire Web - despite the fact that users don't use their lists of Web links. • Want services to be perfect before they release them to users. They are uneasy with the concept of 'forever beta' (they don't believe that users have the ability to figure things out themselves and work around the bugs). LibraryCoelacanth Organisational culture
  12. 12. A centre of expertise in digital information management 12 Let’s Be Realistic Ning allows you to set up and manage your own social network. Sounds great, doesn’t it? But: • Will it have the momentum to support thriving discussion? • Might it not just be an automated aggregator of content Over-hyping expectations
  13. 13. A centre of expertise in digital information management 13 Let’s Be Realistic Want to provide a safe social networking environment? You can with Ning. But what of the pitfalls? “Am I bovvered?” Over-hyping expectations
  14. 14. A centre of expertise in digital information management 14 Let’s Be Realistic A UK National Archives Network Ning site is available It is being used to support discussions such as a follow-up to a topic raised at meeting But do the concerns about numbers of participants & amount of discussions really matter? Can you identify success or failure without knowing purpose, investment, …? Can you identify success or failure without knowing purpose, investment, …? Over-hyping expectations
  15. 15. A centre of expertise in digital information management 15 Accessibility Concerns Aren’t Social Web services: • Inaccessible to people with disabilities? • Break accessibility guidelines (WCAG) • Leave us liable to be taken to court? People with disabilities are using Social Web services People with disabilities are using Social Web services People with disabilities are using Social Web services – as are disability activists People with disabilities are using Social Web services – as are disability activists DDA: Institutions must take ‘reasonable measures’ to ensure PWDs aren’t discriminated against. Is it discriminatory to fail to provide services? Accessibility
  16. 16. A centre of expertise in digital information management 16 The Council Firewall The reality: • Useful Web services do get blocked • There is dodgy/illegal/ dangerous material on the Web • It may be simple to have a blanket ban Suggested approaches: • We can accept certain levels of risks • More sophisticated responses are needed • We should share the approaches we’ve taken New Internet access policy for children From December 2008, children will be able to enjoy improved Internet access in all Portsmouth Libraries. The current “Walled Garden” arrangement will be discontinued. The Internet access offered will be similar to that provided in Portsmouth schools but we will also be allowing access to games, Web chat and social networking sites. For further information, please contact … New Internet access policy for children From December 2008, children will be able to enjoy improved Internet access in all Portsmouth Libraries. The current “Walled Garden” arrangement will be discontinued. The Internet access offered will be similar to that provided in Portsmouth schools but we will also be allowing access to games, Web chat and social networking sites. For further information, please contact … Feel free to respond to blog post at <http://blogs.ukoln.ac.uk/cultural-heritage/2009/ 02/24/access-to-social-sites-is-blocked/> Organisational barriers
  17. 17. A centre of expertise in digital information management 17 Sustainability Concerns What happens if Archive 2.0 services: • Are unreliable? • Change their terms and conditions (e.g start charging)? • Become bankrupt Things to remember: • Services may be unreliable e.g. Twitter • Market pressure is leading to changes to T&C – & paid-for services may become free (e.g. Friends Reunited) • Banks may go bankrupt too – but we still use them • Need for risk assessment and risk management Sustainability
  18. 18. A centre of expertise in digital information management 18 Interoperability Issues What happens if Social Web services host your data and: • You can’t get the data back out? • You only get the unstructured or poor quality data back out? • You can’t get the comments, annotations, tags out? There’s a need to: • Ensure data export capabilities or • Upload data from an alternative managed sources • Understand limitations of data export / import and make plans around limitations Interoperability
  19. 19. A centre of expertise in digital information management 19 Support Issues I don’t have the time to: • Understand it all • Use the technologies • Embed technologies in daily working practices • Train my colleagues Common Craft video clipsCommon Craft video clips You can: • View them at work • Listen to the podcast on the Tube • Use them in training Training & staff development Note UKOLN’s workshops for cultural heritage sector and briefing documents with CC licences Note UKOLN’s workshops for cultural heritage sector and briefing documents with CC licences
  20. 20. A centre of expertise in digital information management 20 Measuring & Maximising Impact What if your Library 2.0 services fails to have the expected impact? There’s a need to: • Monitor impact • Maximise impact • Justify impact • Ensure ethical approaches are taken • Ensure incorrect assumptions aren’t made Impact Assessment How does one achieve growth?What are the usage patterns for typical posts Note RSS traffic Why the long tail for this post? Further work in this area under development: e.g. using Twitter to ‘pimp’ up posts; ethical dimension; maximising impact vs maximising statistics; what should funders expect; … Further work in this area under development: e.g. using Twitter to ‘pimp’ up posts; ethical dimension; maximising impact vs maximising statistics; what should funders expect; …
  21. 21. A centre of expertise in digital information management 21 Deployment Strategies I want to do use the Social Web but: • The IT Services department bans it • The council bans it • My boss doesn’t approve Area of interest to UKOLN: • “Just do it” • Subversive approach – ‘Friends of Foo’ if Foo can’t use it • Encourage enthusiasts • Don’t get in the way UKOLN briefing papers available with Creative Commons licence. (over 30 docs published) UKOLN briefing papers available with Creative Commons licence. (over 30 docs published)
  22. 22. A centre of expertise in digital information management 22 Deployment Strategies Interested in using Web 2.0 in your organisation? Worried about corporate inertia, power struggles, etc? There’s a need for a deployment strategy: • Addressing business needs • Low-hanging fruits • Encouraging the enthusiasts • Gain experience of the browser tools – and see what you’re missing! • Staff training & development • Address areas you feel comfortable with • Impact analysis and assessment • Risk and opportunity management strategy • …
  23. 23. A centre of expertise in digital information management 23 Risk Management JISC infoNet Risk Management infoKit: “In education, as in any other environment, you can’t decide not to take risks: that simply isn’t an option in today’s world. All of us take risks and it’s a question of which risks we take” Examples of people who are likely to be adverse stakeholders: • People who fear loss of their jobs • People who will require re-training • People who may be moved to a different department / team • People .. required to commit resources to the project • People who fear loss of control over a function or resources • People who will have to do their job in a different way • People who will have to carry out new or additional functions • People who will have to use a new technology
  24. 24. A centre of expertise in digital information management 24 IWMW 2006 & Risk Management IWMW 2006 has taken a risk management approach to its evaluation of Web 2.0 technologies: • Agreements: e.g. in the case of the Chatbot. • Use of well-established services: Google & del.icio.us are well-established and have financial security. • Notification: warnings that services could be lost. • Engagement: with the user community: users actively engage in the evaluation of the services. • Provision of alternative services: multiple OMPL tools. • Use in non-mission critical areas: not for bookings! • Long term experiences of services: usage stats • Availability of alternative sources of data: e.g. standard Web server log files. • Data export and aggregation: RSS feeds, aggregated in Suprglu, OPML viewers, etc.
  25. 25. A centre of expertise in digital information management 25 Headline in the Guardian, 7 July 2007 The Risks Within The Sector The Guardian subsequently apologised for errors – the situation wasn’t as bad as reported  This was before the credit crunch and HEFCE’s John Selby warning of “troubled financial times ahead for the educational sector” 
  26. 26. A centre of expertise in digital information management 26 Are We Repeating Our Mistakes In 2000 the threats were the external challenges provided US universities. Today the threats are the external challenges provided by Google, etc.
  27. 27. A centre of expertise in digital information management 27 Headlines For 2010? “Tories Win General Election” “Drastic Cuts in Public Sector Funding” “Market place to have increased role in public sector” “Review of public sector Web services” “Digital Lame Ducks condemned”
  28. 28. A centre of expertise in digital information management 28 Critical Friends JISC U&I programme is encouraging establishment of “Critical Friends” See <http://critical-friends.org/>See <http://critical-friends.org/> Paul Walk (UKOLN) was described as a ‘critical friend’ of JISCSee <http://dev8d.jiscinvolve.org/2009/ 02/10/five-minute-interview-paul-walk/> See <http://dev8d.jiscinvolve.org/2009/ 02/10/five-minute-interview-paul-walk/> But is such open debate encouraged in other sectors? See <https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin? A2=ind0903&L=MCG&T=0&F=&S=&P=19929> See <https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin? A2=ind0903&L=MCG&T=0&F=&S=&P=19929>
  29. 29. A centre of expertise in digital information management 29 Let The Public Know “The paper sets out to answer this question by way of original research and experimentation on real data sets of museum objects, obtained from a number of UK museums by way of a Freedom of Information request.” “The paper sets out to answer this question by way of original research and experimentation on real data sets of museum objects, obtained from a number of UK museums by way of a Freedom of Information request.” Frankie Roberto as a Critical Friend Social services, communities, etc. are now being used to seek evidence of value-for-money. We need to be able to demonstrate appropriate processes are in place. Social services, communities, etc. are now being used to seek evidence of value-for-money. We need to be able to demonstrate appropriate processes are in place.
  30. 30. A centre of expertise in digital information management 30 Biases Subjective factors Towards a Framework “Time To Stop Doing and Start Thinking: A Framework For Exploiting Web 2.0 Services”, Museums & the Web 2009 conference Intended Purpose Benefits (various stakeholders Risks (various stakeholders Missed Opps. (various stakeholders Costs (various stakeholders • Sharing experiences • Learning from successes & failures • Tackling biases • … • Critical friends • Application to existing services • Application to in-house development • …
  31. 31. A centre of expertise in digital information management 31 Using The Framework Use of approach in two scenarios: use of Twitter & Facebook Intended Purpose Benefits (various stakeholders Risks (various stakeholders Missed Opps. (various stakeholders Costs (various stakeholders Community support Rapid feedback Justify ROI Org. brand Community- building Low? Twitter for individuals Organisational Fb Page Marketing events,… Large audiences Ownership, privacy, lock-in Marketing opportunity Low? Critical friends: • Paul Walk / Brian Kelly blog posts) • MCG discussions Learning • UKOLN cultural heritage guest blog post • Conferences • Papers • … Note personal biases!Note personal biases!
  32. 32. A centre of expertise in digital information management 32 Use The Framework Yourself Feel free to you apply framework to: • Services you’re planning • Existing services • Large scale initiatives (e.g. Creative Spaces) Intended Purpose Benefits (various stakeholders Risks (various stakeholders Missed Opps. (various stakeholders Costs (various stakeholders What is the purpose? Who are the users? What are the benefits? To whom? What are the risks? To whom? What are the risks of doing nothing? What are the costs – to developers, to users,… Remember the biases! Is the service really intended to sustain the service provider? Remember the need for the critical friend and the need for sharing?
  33. 33. A centre of expertise in digital information management 33 Conclusions The Web Tech Guy and Angry Staff Person post provides a useful summary for this talk! Acknowledgments to Michael Edson for this wonderful comic strip

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