HistoPATHOLOGY

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HistoPATHOLOGY

  1. 1. OVERVIEW OF HISTOPATHOLOGYBYSEEMA DEROTRANIEE TECHNOLOGIST
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO DEPARTMENT OFHISTOPATHOLOGYHistopathology is the department of clinical lab whichdeals with the study of diff types of tissuesThe department is based on following benches: Processing Gross Tissue processing Embedding,cutting,H&E Immunohistochemistry Special stains Cytology Semen DR Cytogenetics
  3. 3. WHAT IS HISTOPATHOLOGY?Greek wordHisto- tissuePathos- disease suffering refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in orderto study the manifestations of disease. histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy orsurgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histologicalsections have been placed onto glass slides
  4. 4. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGY1.PROCESSINGSpecimen categories Tissues (with history) Bone (with x- ray) Autopsy (consent form) Body fluids CSF PBCR
  5. 5. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  6. 6. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..2.GROSS SECTION (grossing) specimens are inspected with the bare eye diagnostic information further microscopic examination.Tissues are saved in different cassettes having different color Yellow (liver, renal) Green (routine) White(bones) Grey(skin) Pink(lymph nodes)
  7. 7. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  8. 8. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..3.TISSUE PROCESSING fixing tissue into paraffin dehydration and clearing tissue is infiltrated with the embedding agent, (paraffin) Tissue processing is always automated for the large volumes oftissues. Automation consists of an instrument that moves the tissuesaround through the various agents on a preset time scale.
  9. 9. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  10. 10. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..4.EMBEDDING Orientation of tissue in melted parafin which provide a firmmedium for keeping all parts of tissue intact Temp of parafin (58-60 C) Instrument used (embedding station)CUTTINGMicrotome used for cutting about 3-5 micronH&EHematoxlyin (water based dye)Eosin(counter stain)They stains nucleus & cytoplasm
  11. 11. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  12. 12. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  13. 13. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..5.IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY Ag-Ab specific reaction Clinical diagnosis and distinguishing diagnosis of tumorhistogenesis Can be used to locate particular cells and proteins Can be used to identify cellular events – e.g.apoptosis
  14. 14. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  15. 15. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..6.SPECIAL STAINS Required when diagnosis is not identified with H&EstainingSome of the stains used are Connective tissue ( rapid trichome) Nucleic acid (methylene green pyronin) Carbohydrates(PAS & PASD)
  16. 16. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  17. 17. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..7.CYTOGENETICSStudy of chromosomes and its abnormalities chromosome number structure function behavior in relation to gene inheritance, organization and expressionTypes of disorders: Deletions Inversions Translocation Addition(insertion)
  18. 18. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..Types of specimen Blood Bone marrow Amniotic fluidProcedures done Karyo typing G-banding FISH
  19. 19. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  20. 20. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..8.CYTOLOGYStudy of cells to know the infection,pre malignant andmalignanent changes2 types of samples Gyane(pap smears) Non Gyane(bodyfluids,CSF,urine,pericardial,pleural.asitic.synovial)
  21. 21. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..Procedures done in cytology FNACP FNAC FNABStaining in cytology H&E Pap Dry (rapi) Gimesa
  22. 22. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..
  23. 23. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..9.SEMEN DRFresh sample of seminal fluid is examined for : Liquefaction Motility Number MorphologyElements of analysis Quantity Color Liquefaction pH
  24. 24. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..Tests done are Detailed report IUI (intra uterine insemination) Anti sperm antibody
  25. 25. BENCHES IN HISTOPATHOLOGYcontd..

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