A rahman

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A rahman

  1. 1. ENDOCRINOLOGYBY ATA UR RAHMAN
  2. 2. NON STEROIDSPROTEIN or PEPTIDESAMINESSTEROIDS
  3. 3. Hypothalamus and thePosterior Pituitary GlandPosterior pituitary gland:Connection to hypothalamus: hormones madein hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitaryHormones: non steroidal operate hereAntidiuretic hormone (ADH): conserves water in kidneys,regulates water balance in bodyOxytocin: causes uterine contractions during labor& milk ejection through neuroendocrine reflex
  4. 4. Hypothalamus & the AnteriorPituitary GlandAnterior pituitary gland:Connection to hypothalamus:releasing and inhibiting hormones fromhypothalamus travel to pituitary throughpituitary portal systemHormones:non steroidal operate hereACTH- stimulates adrenal cortexTSH- acts on thyroid glandFSH, LH, Prolactin- related to control ofreproductive cycles and lactationGrowth Hormone- widespread effects on body
  5. 5. Pituitary Disorders1. Hypersecretion of ADH - excessive waterretention2. Diabetes Insipidus - hyposecretion of ADH,inability to conserve water appropriately3. Gigantism- hypersecretion of growthhormone4. Pituitary Dwarfism- hyposecretion of growthhormone
  6. 6. Pancreas: Endocrine FunctionsincludeHormones secreted by islets of Langerhans areNonsteroidal:1. Glucagon - raises blood sugar2. Insulin- lowers blood sugar
  7. 7. Roles of Insulin and Glucagon inRegulating Blood GlucoseFigure 13.9
  8. 8. Adrenal Glands:2 small endocrine glands locatedjust above kidneysAdrenal cortex - secretes steroid hormonesProduces small amounts of estrogen & testosteroneProduces:○ Cortisol [regulates blood glucose]○ Aldosterone [regulates sodium & potassium]
  9. 9. Adrenal Glands: MedullaAdrenal medulla- secretes nonsteroidhormonesSecretion: stimulated by sympathetic nervoussystemNonsteroidal hormones that control metabolism,blood pressure & heart rate1. Epinephrine [adrenaline]2. NorepinephrineThey both enhance function of sympatheticnervous system (Fight or Flight Response)
  10. 10. Thyroid Gland Secretion: mediated through hypothalamus-pituitary secretions Secretes Steroidal hormones: Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) - bothregulate production of ATP from glucose, affectsmetabolic rate Calcitonin: lowers blood calcium levels
  11. 11. Parathyroid Glands Secretion: response to lowered blood calciumlevels Hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH),nonsteroidal Removes calcium and phosphate from bone Increases absorption of calcium by the digestivetract Increases renal retention of calcium andexcretion of phosphate
  12. 12. TestesHormone secreted = Testosterone (steroidal)Functions:1. Regulates development and normal functioning ofsperm, male reproductive organs, male sex drive2. Development of male secondary sex characteristics
  13. 13. OvariesHormones (steroidal) & functions:1. Estrogen- initiates development of secondarysex characteristics, regulates menstrual cycle2. Progesterone - regulates menstrual cycle
  14. 14. SUMMARY

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