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Mus1234 final pdf

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Mus1234 final pdf

  1. 1. The Tradition of Mele Oli and Mele Hula Monday, August 4, 2014
  2. 2. Hawaiian Islands Monday, August 4, 2014
  3. 3. Hawaii’s History “Roughly 1500 years ago, Polynesians from the Marquesas Islands first set foot on Hawaii island. With only the stars to guide them, they miraculously sailed over 2000 miles in canoes to migrate to the islands. 500 years later, settlers from Tahiti arrived, bringing their beliefs in gods and demi-gods and instituting a strict social hierarchy based on a kapu (taboo) system. Hawaiian culture flourished over the centuries, giving rise to the art of hula and the sport of surfing, but land division conflicts between ruling chieftains were common. In 1778, Captain James Cook, landed on Kauai at Waimea Bay. Naming the archipelago the “Sandwich Islands” in honor of the Earl of Sandwich, Cook opened the doors to the west. Cook was killed only a year later in Kealakekua Bay on Hawaii Island” (Learn Learn to Dance Hula). Monday, August 4, 2014
  4. 4. “In 1791, North Kohala born Kemehameha united the warring factions of Hawaii Island and went on to unify all of the Hawaiian Islands into one royal kingdom in 1810. In 1819, less than a year after King Kamehameha’s death, his son, Liholiho, abolished the ancient kapu system” (Learn How to Dance Hula). Monday, August 4, 2014
  5. 5. “Naha Stone at the Hilo Public Library. According to legend, Kamehameha lifted the 5,000-pound stone at age 14, and was the only person to ever lift it. The legend that goes with this particular stone is that the man who lifted it as the prophesied warrior who would unite all of the islands. The Naha Stone now in front of the Hilo Public Library on island of Hawai’i” (Nowicki). The Naha Stone Monday, August 4, 2014
  6. 6. “1820 Calvinist missionaries arrive from New England. Hula goes underground due to influence of missionaries’ values on Hawaiian rulers to ban the ‘lewd and lascivious dance’. 1896 Hawaiian language in banned in all Hawai’i schools, public and private” (Hula Preservation Society). “Western influence continued to grow and in 1893, American Colonists who controlled much of Hawaii’s economy overthrew the Hawaiian Kingdom in a peaceful, yet still controversial coup. In 1898, Hawaii became a territory of the United States” (Learn How to Dance Hula). Monday, August 4, 2014
  7. 7. “1959 Hawaii becomes the 50th state in the United States 1983 Establishment of ‘Aha Punana Leo (Hawaiian Immersion Schools) Represents 1st time Hawaiian spoken in schools in nearly 100 years. 1990’s President Bill Clinton apologizes for wrongdoing of United States in overthrow of sovereign Hawaiian nation in 1893” (Hula Preservation Society). Monday, August 4, 2014
  8. 8. Language of Hawaii “Ancient Hawaiian music and poetry are almost synonymous. The language is mellifluous and lends itself easily to chanting. Mele means both poetry and music and may be divided into two main categories, the mele oli (chant) and the mele hula (dance)” (Smith). Monday, August 4, 2014
  9. 9. Mele Oli and Mele Hula “The two general classes of chants, mele oli and mele hula, serve different purposes.  Oli is a non- metered chant that is used for specific occasions and when addressing formal subjects, but not for dancing.  Mele hula is a more rhythmic chant with a broader tonal range. Mele oli may use just two or three notes, and the lines usually do not rhyme.  Instead, the chants often have what is known as “linked assonance,” in which the end of one line has a sound-alike word or some associated meaning with the beginning of the next line. Mele hula is accompanied by hula, and possibly musical instruments as well.  Mele oli is never accompanied by dance or music, though may be accompanied by rhythmic instruments such as pā ipu (gourd drums). In mele oli, the words usually revolve around a principal tone, which is pronounced with more emphasis than other tones of the mele.  The principal tone occurs over and over, and several subordinate tones may also be repeated, though with less emphasis and frequency.  Mele hula is a relatively free melody, with more tones and larger intervals between tones.  The range and pitch of mele oli is more restricted, while the melody is more confined and less voiced” (Harrington). Monday, August 4, 2014
  10. 10. “Chants are enhanced by hula, and both are integral parts of Hawaiian spirituality.  Chants and hula carry on the legends and history of the Hawaiian people and help Hawaiians retain a connection to their ancient past.  Hula brings forth the meanings of the chants, similar to how the form of poetry may give life to a poem.  Hawaiian chants and hula recount the origins of the Hawaiian people and the islands on which they live, as well as the origins of the universe.  There are tales of migrations, genealogies, myths, customs and traditions.  There are also stories of love, of longing for loved ones, stories of grief over deaths, and heroic explorations” (Harrington). Listen to Audio Monday, August 4, 2014
  11. 11. “Hula and mele chants are the ancient way that Hawaiians tell their stories, pay reverence to nature, and unite mind, body and spirit with all of creation.  Hula and mele are also a celebration of the beauty of the heart of the Hawaiian people, their love and aloha. Traditionally, hula and mele have helped Hawaiians remember their origins and give thanks for all of the many natural wonders that enrich their world, including the animals, birds, fish, flowers, trees, mountains, streams, ocean, wind, and sky” (Harrington). Monday, August 4, 2014
  12. 12. MELE HULA “According to legend, the first hula occurred when Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes, wanted her sisters to entertain her with song and dance.  Only Pele’s youngest sister, Hi‘iaka, would comply.  Hi‘iaka performed gracefully and powerfully for Pele to the amazement of all.  Today hula is a beautiful art form and culturally significant practice that embraces and perpetuates Hawaiian history, legend, and culture. Kuhi no ka lima, hele no ka maka. Where the hands move, there let the eyes follow. A rule in hula” (Harrington). Monday, August 4, 2014
  13. 13. “Considered a narrative movement, hula embraces the meanings of the chants while releasing the grace and spirit of the dancer. The essence of hula is to go inward, to touch one’s center. Dancers are especially aware of their feet touching the earth and of the earth itself, which is felt to be the source of the power of the dance” (Harrington). Monday, August 4, 2014
  14. 14. “Hula auana (modern hula) is danced to western influenced music and features a more modern and fluid style. This is the most familiar type of hula to visitors . Hula kahiko (ancient hula) is danced to dramatic chants and percussion with more traditional costumes” (Learn to Dance Hula). “In Kahiko “an invocation precedes each dance, and the women often wear knee-length skirts made of flat green ti leaves. They may wear a necklace made of polished nuts of the kukui tree (Aleurties moluccana, candlenut) or lei ‘a;i (draping vines or flowers) Bracelets of ferns around their wrists and ankles are known as kupe’e. The lei po’o encircles the dancer’s head, which is traditionally graces with long, dark flowing hair” (Harrington). Types of Hula Monday, August 4, 2014
  15. 15. The Meaning Behind Hula | Smithsonian Watch Video Link Monday, August 4, 2014
  16. 16. “The earliest forms of Hawaiian dances, the mele hula, were used either in their temple foms (ha'a) or their public forms (hula). Ha'a were usually performed as part of worship in the heiau (temple), under the direction of a kahuna (priest). These dances were often done in conjunction with rituals and ceremonies related to the specific temple and also to specific deities within those temples. Some of these were like a form of worship, paying homage to the gods with tales of their exploits. Other hula honoured the ali'I - the chiefs and royalty - whose genealogies often linked them to the gods” (Lakainapali). Monday, August 4, 2014
  17. 17. “All hula in former times were preceded and followed by prayers, blessings and other ritual. Chants to Laka were performed, an altar was built on the eastern wall of the halau, the dancing school or building, symbolic of the life-giving force of the sunrise. Dancers bathed frequently and offerings to Laka were ritually cleansed and sprinkled with salt water. The hula has 3 purposes: to entertain, to inspire and to instruct. It is a cultural vehicle for social and historical commentary and passing of information. The dances and chants contain a magic that transcends their external power and beauty, filling both dancer and audience with Aloha” (Lakainapali). Monday, August 4, 2014
  18. 18. “It was also danced for pleasure, with themes filled with deeply felt emotions. There was mana or life force and spiritual energy in the words, in the precision of the performance, in the discipline and harmony of the dancers' movements, and in their spiritual composure, a sacred continuum that linked gods with man and nature”( Lakainapali). Monday, August 4, 2014
  19. 19. MELE OLI “I le‘a ka hula i ka ho‘opa‘a. The hula is pleasing because of the drummer. The lesser details that one pays little attention to are just as important as the major ones.  Although the attention is given to the dancer, the drummer and chanter play an important role in the dance”(Harrington). Monday, August 4, 2014
  20. 20. “While some types of chant are very speech-like, Hawaiian drum-dance chant is uniquely song-like. A unique aspect of the Hawaiian drum-dance chant is the use of “vibrato” or a wavering sound in the voice. An Oli is a chant that traditionally not accompanied by dance. Often long phrases were changed in a single breath, with each phrase ending with an ‘i’i (trill)” (Harrington). “There are two types of drums used in the dance-chant: the pahu and the kilu” (Mitchell). Listen to Audio Link Monday, August 4, 2014
  21. 21. Pahu Drum “The pahu is a large wooden drum and has sharkskin or rayskin stretched as a head” (Mitchell). Monday, August 4, 2014
  22. 22. KILU or PUNIU: “the kilu is a much smaller drum and is made out of coconut” (Mitchell). “Small drum, sometimes made from the shell of a large coconut. The kilu can either rest on the ground or be tied to the performer’s thigh” (Kaimi.org). Monday, August 4, 2014
  23. 23. IPU “Gourds, hollowed out and used as percussion instruments. Generally the large Ipu Heke are played by ho`opa`a, the smaller Ipu by dancers”(Kaimi.org). Watch Video Link Monday, August 4, 2014
  24. 24. An Oli chant,”usually performed by one person at ritual occasions such as a birth, a death, or the departure of a ranking chief. Mele oli also recounts historical events and tells stories and legends” (Smithsonian). “The chanter, in ancient times, was a very important individual as he helped to preserve history with his chants (Sounds from the Heart). These ancient chants were not similar to what we now think of as music, but they did consist of complex rhythms and distinct vocals (Sounds from the Heart). Today, very few of the original mele oli are known, and those that are known are actually not shared with others. Some Hawaiians were taught mele oli from their family members, and the chants were passed down from generation to generation” (Dias). Monday, August 4, 2014
  25. 25. Mapu Ka Hanu O Ka Laua'e Mâpu ka hanu ô ka laua'e Mâpu noe ka poli ô ka wai aloha Aloha i ke kapa 'ehu kai, Huki palai, huki, lohe, noi kahua. Noe mai la ka lehua makanoe. Noe ka lehua makanoe, Noe wiwo'ole i ke anu, Anu i ke ala kîpapa ola e, Ala e kuhikuhi lima kanaka 'o Mauna Hina ê. E hina nô paha 'o wau wale nô. E hina nô paha e kâua, e ka `aha nui ê. Alia lae! He anu, he anu wale nô Wafted is the breath of the laua'e fern. The essence of the beloved waters alights like mist. Beloved is the covering of the sea spray, Drawing concealment listening, inquiring intently. The lehua of the misty face brings mist. The lehua of the misty face brings mist. The mist unafraid of the cold, The cold of the pathway of life. Mauna Hina is a pathway directing mankind. Perhaps it is just I who will succumb. Perhaps you and I, or the large assembly, will succumb. Wait! Cold, just cold! Audio: A mele oli entitled "Mapu Ka Hanu O Ka Laua'e (Wafted is the breath of the Laua'e Fern)," performed by Pualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele. Listen to Audio Link Monday, August 4, 2014
  26. 26. “According to Big Island chanter and University of Hawai'i associate professor Doctor Kalena Silva, "Within these categories are dozens of kinds of chants, formal and informal for specific occasions: mele pule or prayer chants; mele inoa, an individual's name chant; mele koihonua, which recounts a person's genealogy; mele he'e nalu, a surfing chant. There were chants of angst, chants to grumble or praise, chants of affection, chants to make a request of someone..." Rules governed the styles of performance and are still matched to the purpose and meaning of various chants today. Says Doctor Silva, "The kepakepa style was commonly heard. It sounds like speech-rapid, rhythmic recitation-and can be used for anything from game chants to prayer chants." Love chants are suited to ho'aeae phrases, which are soft and short with drawn-out vowels. Wailing or lamenting chants called ho'ouweuwe are rendered in a heavier voice with the vowels protracted. A koihonua style with words pronounced distinctly suits genealogical chants. The power (mana) of a chant, lies in its hidden meanings, or kaona. Hidden meanings, such as rain as a metaphor for love, could make a chant both a recounting of an actual event within a family's history, or it could tell of the love and passion that one person might feel for another, depending on who heard and understood the chant” (Fullard-Leo). Monday, August 4, 2014
  27. 27. “A mele kāhea is a particular kind of chant usually associated with hālau hula (hula schools) used by the haumana (student) to ask permission to enter the hālau. However, a mele kāhea could equally be applied to asking permission to enter a person’s home, or to entering a forest, the dwelling of the gods. A mele kāhea might also be used before joining a ceremony, or sometimes just to entice a learned person to share knowledge. Mele kāhea were sometimes chanted by the gods themselves whenever they went in search of higher understanding. The Right ‘Ano Hawaiians consider respect and humility to be an essential quality in approaching any task. So in addition to knowing the words to a mele kāhea, the chant must be presented with the right ‘ano, the proper spirit and intention. It is possible for one’s request to be denied without the right ‘ano” (Lenchanko). MELE KAHEA Types of Mele Oli Monday, August 4, 2014
  28. 28. Mele Aloha “A mele aloha is one that is composed to show an affection and a bond between the composer and the recipient of the mele. There are many different types of mele aloha which cover a range of levels of affection: love for a friend, love for the ‘āina (land), love for a hoa kipa (guest), etc. There are even types of mele aloha that are meant to woo a love interest or to mourn the passing of a loved one” (Lenchanko). Monday, August 4, 2014
  29. 29. - Oli Aloha - Welcoming Chant Onaona i ka hala me ka lehua He hale lehua no ia na ka noe O ka`u no ia e `ano`i nei E lia`a nei ho`i o ka hiki mai A hiki mai no `oe Hiki pu no me ke aloha Aloha e, aloha e Fragrant with the breath of hala and lehua This is the sight I long to see Of this, my present desire Your coming fills me with eagerness Now that you have come Loves comes with you Greetings, greetings Source: Mary Püku`i Collection, translated by Mary Püku`i Monday, August 4, 2014
  30. 30. Watch Video Link Opening Oli Monday, August 4, 2014
  31. 31. Mele Kū‘auhau & Mele Ko‘ihonua Mele kū‘auhau and mele ko‘ihonua are two specific categories of chants that facilitate the telling of a person’s genealogy. These chants were often times the most difficult to perform because it required that each name presented in the chant be uttered clearly and without error. These chants were also sometimes very lengthy and could take hours to perform. As such, a successful chanter of these two types of mele was held in high regard for his or her prowess in the art and was often times a member of the royal court. It was not a task to be taken lightly, for a slight error could cost the chanter his or her life” (Lenchanko). Monday, August 4, 2014
  32. 32. Mele ‘Āina “Hawaiian society and religion was largely based on an appreciation for the land on which Hawaiians lived. Hawaiians believe that the ‘āina (land) was an ancestor, constantly providing food and shelter resources for a healthy daily life. Consequently, Hawaiians took the utmost care when tending to the land, ensuring that the ‘āina would be able to provide food and shelter for generations to come. Because of this special relationship, many mele ‘āina or chants dedicated to the land were composed. These mele often speak of the true beauty of a place, painting an elaborate picture for the listener. Because these mele contained layers and layers of kaona, or hidden meaning, the true beauty of the poetry would continue to unfold itself to those who are closer to that particular ‘āina than it would to the general Hawaiian public. Often times images of people and events will fill the minds of those who are familiar with the area, bringing back fond memories of the place. Today, these mele ‘āina also serve as a teaching tool of sorts by recording the traditional names of places that haven’t been uttered in centuries. They also provide a glimpse into what the ancient landscape must have been like in areas that are now developed into housing areas and commerical properties” (Lenchanko). Monday, August 4, 2014
  33. 33. Mele Inoa “Name chants, or mele inoa, were composed for mostly for the chiefly class in ancient Hawai‘i. These chants honor each individual chief or chiefess and their various attributes. Whether about the beauty of the ali‘i or about the great deeds of the ali‘i, the mele inoa is one of the highest forms of honor. By proclaiming the wondrous deeds of an ali‘i also would elevate the status of an ali‘i in the eyes of the public. With the use of kaona, sometimes the true message of a mele inoa may be hidden from the general public, revealing itself only to the recipient of a mele inoa, thus sealing a bond between the honored individual and the composer” (Lenchanko). Monday, August 4, 2014
  34. 34. At the time that turned the heat of the earth, At the time when the heavens turned and changed, At the time when the light of the sun was subdued To cause night to break forth, At the time of the night of Makali'i (winter) Then began the slime which established the earth. The source of deepest darkness. Of the depth of darkness, of the depth of darkness, Of the darkness of the sun, in the depth of night, It is night, So was night born. (From the Kumulipo)    Chants: Mele Of Antiquity by Betty Fullard-Leo Monday, August 4, 2014
  35. 35. “Hula is the soul of Hawaii. Perhaps the next time you see this sacred dance being performed, whether it be in its ancient or more modern form, you will view it through different eyes and with a greater awareness and sense of its deep spiritual energy”(Lakainapali). Monday, August 4, 2014
  36. 36. Dias, Alana. “Harrington, Daniel. “Hawaiian Music: From Ancient Chants to Modern Island Reggae” Yahoo Voice. 13 March 2011. Web. 30 July 2014. <http://voices.yahoo.com/hawaiian-music-ancient-chants-modern-island-7957344.html>. Kanahele, Pualani Kanaka'ole. “Mapu Ka Hanu O Ka Laua'e". Smithsonian Institute. 31 Oct. 1995. Web. 17 July 2014. < http://www.folklife.si.edu/hawaii/mele2.htm>. Kekuhi, Halau O, “Ipu”. WolfTrapMedia. YouTube. 10 July 2006. Web. 17 July 2014. < www.youtube.com/embed/QA8oWS9mgo4?rel=0">. Lakainapali, Tracey. “Hula: The Soul of Hawaii”. Aloha International. Web. 2004. 17 July 2014. Lenchanko, Jonah La‘akapu. “Types of Mele Used as Oli”. Educational Technology Services of Kamehameha Schools. Web. 17 July 2014. Cited Works Monday, August 4, 2014
  37. 37. Mitchell, Zachary. “Hawaii”. web.colby.edu. 5 April 2011. Web. 17 July 2014. Puha, M. Liko, “2009 Wine Country ‘Ukulele Festival - Opening Oli”. youtube.com. Web. 31 July 2014. Puku’i, Mary. “Oli Aloha”. Huapala: Hawaiian Music and Hula Archives. Kanoa-Martin, Kaiulani. 1997. Web 17 July 2014. < http://www.huapala.org/Chants/Oli_Aloha.html>. Reed, Ryan R. “The Meaning Behind Hula”. smithsonianmag.com. 5 June 2014 Web. 17 July 2014. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/videos/category/arts-culture/the-meaning-behind-hula/> Smith, Barbara. “Folk Music In Hawaii. International Folk Music Journal Music Council. Vol 11, 1959. pg . 50-55. . Web. 17 July 2014. < http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/834858> Cited Works Cont. Monday, August 4, 2014
  38. 38. Google Images. Google.com. Web. 30 July 2014. Hula Preservation Society. Net Enterprise Inc. 2008. Web. 17 July 2014. “Hawaiian Hula and Chant”. YouTube. 17 Oct. 2008. Web. 17 July 2014. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPKT_h2jBPg>. “Hula and Mele” Culture and Leis. hawaiianencyclopedia.com. Mutual Publishing. Web. 17 July 2014. “Instruments”. kaimi.org. WordPress, Web. 17 July 2014. 2005-Present. “Learn How to Dance Hula- Hula Shows & History”. GoHawaii.com. Web. 17 July 2014. Cited Works Cont. Monday, August 4, 2014
  39. 39. “Mele”. Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. Web. 17 July 2014. <http://www.folklife.si.edu/hawaii/mele2.htm>. “Naha Stone”. Kamehaeha 1. Nowicki, W. Wikipedia.com. Web. 30 July 2014. Cited Works Cont. Monday, August 4, 2014

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