THEORIES OFCURRICULUM DESIGNSGDC5013 Curriculum & PedagogyGroup B (Presentation 3)Prof. Madya Dr. Abdull Sukor ShaariBy:Mohd Mursyid Alam 814063Ikhsan Bin Megat Halim 814539For more informattion, visit:-theoriesofcurriculumdesign.blogspot.com
Contents1. Curriculum Design2. Sources of Curriculum Design3. Conceptual Framework4. Guidelines for Curriculum Design5. Three Basic Curriculum Designs a) Subject-Centered Designs b) Learner-Centered Designs c) Problem-Centered Designs
1. Curriculum Design In designing Curriculum, we must:- ◦ Consider Philosophical & Learning Theories ◦ Determine if 1. Our decision is parallel with basic belief concerning people 2. What & How they should learn 3. How they should use their acquired knowledge
Curriculum Design is concerned with 4 basic parts 1. Objectives What Should be done? 2. Content What Subject Matter should be included? 3. Learning Experiences What instructional strategies, resources, & activities should be employed? 4. Evaluation What methods & instruments should be used to judge the results of the
Curriculum Designs draws from:- 1. Knowledge Theory 2. Social Theory 3. Political Theory 4. Learning Theory
2. Sources of CurriculumDesigna) SCIENCE as a source ◦ Contains only observable, quantifiable elements ◦ Priority: Problem solving & Thinking strategies ◦ Emphasis: Learning How to learn ◦ Why?: Knowledge increase so rapidly, the only constant seems to be the procedures by which we process knowledge. Thus, “Learning How to Learn”.
b) SOCIETY as a source ◦ Draw ideas from analysis of the social situation ◦ Operates within social, economic, & political contexts ◦ Priority: Address Students’ unique needs -> diverse social groups ◦ Emphasis: Collaboration among diverse individuals & groups ◦ Why?: School is an agent of society, -> we must consider current & future society.
c) MORAL DOCTRINE as a source ◦ Considering the relationship between Knowledge & People’s Spirituality. ◦ Guided by Religious Texts ◦ Priority: Questions about the nature of the world, the purpose of life, what it means to be human & knowledgeable ◦ Emphasis: Develop empathy & compassion, consider&promote welfare of others, welcome different viewpoints ◦ Why?: Allow for a blending of truth, faith, knowledge, ethics, thought, and action.
d) KNOWLEDGE as a source ◦ The Primary source of curriculum ◦ “What knowledge is of most worth?” ◦ Priority: Rethink:- What knowledge is of most worth? For whom is this knowledge of value? Is there any knowledge that must be possessed by the majority? What intellectual skills must be taught? ◦ Challenges: Knowledge is exploding exponentially ◦ Why?: Knowledge should be a discipline, have a particular structure & methods
e) THE LEARNER as a source ◦ Curriculum derived from Our knowledge of Students. How: They learn, form attitudes, generate interest, develop values ◦ Priority: Seeks to empower Students & foster their individual uniqueness. ◦ Emphasis: Draw ideas from psychological foundations, especially how minds create meaning ◦ Why?: Every learner is unique, educational environment physically affect brain development.
3. Conceptual Framework - Organizations 1. Horizontal Organization Combining:-HISTOR ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIOLOG Y Y CREATE A “Contemporary Studies” Course
2. Vertical Organization Eg: - “Social Studies” “The Family” (First Grade) “The Community” (Second Grade) Same topics are addressed in different grades, but increasingly higher difficulty. Eg:- Mathematical concept of “set”. English concept of “composition”
5. Guidelines for Curriculum1. Design Create a curriculum design committee2. Create a schedule meetings to make curriculum design decisions3. Gather data about educational issues and suggested solutions4. Process data on available curriculum designs, compare cost, scheduling, students characteristics and academic strengths, learning environments, whether community accept the design.
5. Schedule time for reflection on the design6. Schedule time for revision of the design7. Explain the design to educational colleagues, community members, if appropriate, students.
A. Subject-Centered Designs1. Subject Designs2. Discipline Designs3. Broad-Fields Designs4. Correlation Designs5. Process Designs
1. Subject Designs Oldest and Best known Related to “Textbook treatment” & “Teachers as SME” Exists whenever there are stress on standards & accountability to schools Strength:- ◦ Introduces students to essential knowledge of society ◦ Easy to deliver, textbook&materials comercially available
Weaknesses:- ◦ Disempowers students to choose the content which is most meaningful to them ◦ Presented without consideration of context ◦ Fails to foster social, psychological, & physical development ◦ Neglects students needs, interest and experiences ◦ Foster students passivity
2. Discipline Designs Focus on the academic disciplines ◦ Students would approach history as a historian would ◦ Investigate biological topics by following procedures used by biologists. Stress on understanding the conceptual structures & processes of the disciplines Strength: Students master the content areas & able to independently continue their learning Weaknesses: A lot of knowledge cannot be classified as “disciplined”.
3. Broad-Fields Design Aka interdisciplinary design Focus: Give student a sweeping understanding of ALL content areas, integrate contents that fit together logically Eg:-”geography,economics,political science, anthropology, sociology, history”- >”social Studies” Strength: Simple, Students learn wide area of knowledge. Weaknesses: The depth of knowledge is insufficient.
4. Correlation Design In the middle of “Separate Subjects” & “Total Content Integration” Attempts to identify ways to relate subjects, but maintain their separate identities. Eg: (Science&Math) (Literature&History) Strength: Innovative & Attractive Weaknesses: Time Consuming, Teachers often separate departments, Scheduling difficulties
5. Process Designs Urge students to learn the “process of obtaining knowledge” Eg: Biological procedures to learn biology, ethnographic procedures to study culture & society Strength: SS as a meaning maker, enables to analyze reality, create frameworks by which to arrange derived knowledge. Weaknesses: Difficult to analyze validity of students’ conclusion individually.
1. Child-Centered Design Students must be active in their learning environments. Design based on students lives, needs, interest Belief: effective learning did not require strict discipline, child’s innate tendency to become engaged with interesting knowledge Organized around human impulses: to socialize, to construct, inquire, experiment, express/create.
2. Experience-Centered Design A curriculum that is not pre-planned, done “on the spot” Why?: child’s needs and interests cannot be anticipated Students design their own learning, construct & revise their knowledge through direct participation & active observation Teachers design potential experiences for students to consider Search for starting points, interest->linked to formalized knowledge
3. Romantic (Radical) Design Students must learn ways of engaging in a critique of knowledge Learning is reflective, it is not externally imposed by someone in power Radicals view society as deeply flawed & believe that schools used curriculum to control & indoctrinate, not to educate & emancipate Students must accept responsibility for educating themselves & demand freedom
4. Humanistic Design Emphasized human potential, empowering students by actively involving the in their own growth Teachers must permit students to feel, value, grow Teacher provide environments that encourages genuineness, empathy, & respect Students approach problems with flexibility & intelligence, work cooperatively but do not need other’s approval
Mistakes are accepted as part of the learning process Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains are interconnected Weaknesses: ◦ Over emphasizes the individual, ignoring society’s needs ◦ Require teachers with great skills & competence in dealing with individuals
C. Problem-Centered Designs Focuses on real-life problems of individuals & society1. Life-Situations Designs2. Reconstructionist Design
1. Life-Situations Designs Focus on problem-solving procedures The content is organized in ways that allow students to clearly view problem areas Uses learner’s past & present experiences to get them to analyze the basic aspects of living Starting point: Student’s existing concerns, society’s pressing problems Weaknesses: Tends to indoctrinate youth to accept existing conditions, thus
2. Reconstructionist Design Provide students with learning requisite for altering social, economic, & political realities Curriculum should foster social action, aimed at reconstructing society Encourages industrial & political changes Students should be involved in creating a more equitable society.
Design Curricular Underlying Source Spokespeople Emphasis PhilosophySubject Separate Subjects Essentialism Science Harris, Hutchins Perennialism KnowledgeDiscipline Scholarly disciplines Essentialism Knowledge, Science Bruner, Phenix, Perennialism Schwab, TabaBroad-Fields Interdisciplinary Essentialism Knowledge, Society Broudy, Dewey subjects and Progressivism scholarly disciplinesCorrelation Separate subjects, Essentialism Knowledge Alberty and Alberty disciplines linked but Progressivism identities maintainedProcess Procedural Progressivism Psychology, Adams, Dewey, Knowledge of various Knowledge Papert disciplines, ways of thinkingChild-Centered Child’s interest & Progressivism Child Dewey, Kilpatrick, needs ParkerExperience Child Interest & Progressivism Child Dewey, Rugg, Experiences SchumakerRadical Child Interest & Reconstructionism Child, Society Freire, Habermas, Experiences Holt, IllichHumanistic Experiences, interest, Reconstructionism, Psychology, Child, Combs, Fantini, needs of Existentialism Society Maslow, Rogers person&groupLife-Situations Life(social) Problems Reconstructionism Society SpencerReconstructioni Focus on society and Reconstructionism Society, Eternal Apple, Brameld,