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Agile Development<br />By Murray Robinsonwww.linkedin.com/in/murrayrobinson<br />Copyright and Intellectual Property retai...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />2<br />What is Agile Development?<br />Agile develop...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />3<br />Agile Development is a family of lean, iterat...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />4<br />In Agile projects requirements are delivered ...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />5<br />Agile projects deliver high value features ea...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />6<br />Agile project progress is clear and predictab...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />7<br />Agile implementation plan<br />Seek Executive...
Problems with a traditional sequential system engineering process<br />
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />9<br />The problem from the business point of view<b...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />10<br />10<br />The problem from the IT point of vie...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />11<br />A sequential system development process has ...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />12<br />Handoff’s between groups cause a lot of wast...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />13<br />A sequential project wrongly assumes that th...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />14<br />14<br />A traditional sequential project can...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />15<br />Sequential Projects deliver value at the end...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />16<br />Waterfall project assumptions are not realis...
The Agile Development Process in More Detail<br />
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />18<br />Agile Assumptions<br />Systems grow and evol...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />19<br />The Agile Manifesto<br />In Agile projects w...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />20<br />Agile Principles<br />Our highest priority i...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />21<br />Agile Principles<br />The most efficient and...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />22<br />Agile Development applies the principles of ...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />23<br />Agile uses the Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle in...
Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />24<br />Agile uses Object Oriented Design to reduce ...
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User Name
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…</li></ul>View User UI<br /><ul><li>Data
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Agile Technology Delivery Process Mr

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An Agile Technology Delivery Process for large projects and organisations

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Agile Technology Delivery Process Mr

  1. 1. Agile Development<br />By Murray Robinsonwww.linkedin.com/in/murrayrobinson<br />Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />2<br />What is Agile Development?<br />Agile development is a group of software development methodologies based on iterative development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between cross-functional teams<br />Agile development is a well defined delivery process that has been proven to reduce time to market, delivery risk and costs for many organisations and projects.<br />Agile development applies “Lean Production” principles and techniques to software development <br />Agile development can give us a sustainable competitive advantage by allowing us to deliver quality IT systems faster than our competitors at a lower cost<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />3<br />Agile Development is a family of lean, iterative software development methodologies<br />Lean Production<br />RUP<br />Scrum<br />FDD<br />Iterative<br />OOD<br />TDD<br />Design<br />Patterns<br />Continuous Integration<br />XP<br />
  4. 4. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />4<br />In Agile projects requirements are delivered in priority order in a series of small fixed iterations<br />Iteration 4<br />Iteration 3<br />Iteration 2<br />Iteration 1<br />System Component A<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />5<br />Agile projects deliver high value features early!<br />75%<br />Business Value<br />Release<br />Iteration<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />6<br />Agile project progress is clear and predictable<br />Velocity<br />Iteration<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />7<br />Agile implementation plan<br />Seek Executive support and funding for an Agile change Management Project<br />Define Agile processes and deliverables in detail<br />Apply Agile in a trial project<br />Seek Quality Group endorsement for Agile<br />Develop an Agile training program<br />Launch Agile<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Problems with a traditional sequential system engineering process<br />
  9. 9. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />9<br />The problem from the business point of view<br />IT projects take much longer than the business want<br />IT projects cost much more than the business expect<br />IT can’t commit to budgets and delivery dates until the start of build <br />IT don’t understand the user experience <br />The business are expected to sign off requirements and design when they’re not sure their completely right<br />IT make it very hard to make changes during the project <br />Fixed price, time and cost projects are anything but<br />IT Projects often have major cost and schedule blow outs which require major scope reductions or budget and time increases to bring them back on track <br />IT infrastructure seems to be a major source of project delays and problems<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />10<br />10<br />The problem from the IT point of view<br />Business set unrealistic budget and schedule targets up front before IT know how long things will take and how much they will cost <br />Funding approval is a very slow process <br />Business take a long time to sign off requirements and design <br />Business constantly change requirements <br />Business wont prioritise requirements unless project goes off track <br />Business don’t understand that IT projects are complex and high risk <br />Vendors and infrastructure groups need very close management to ensure delivery<br />Major IT project blowouts are often caused by infrastructure delays<br />IT projects are dependent on infrastructure and other projects which may run very late<br />
  11. 11. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />11<br />A sequential system development process has many handoff’s<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />12<br />Handoff’s between groups cause a lot of wasted time and effort<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />13<br />A sequential project wrongly assumes that the business knows all the requirements in detail up front<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />14<br />14<br />A traditional sequential project can take a long time to deliver business benefit<br />
  15. 15. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />15<br />Sequential Projects deliver value at the end.Agile projects deliver value earlier<br />
  16. 16. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />16<br />Waterfall project assumptions are not realistic<br />
  17. 17. The Agile Development Process in More Detail<br />
  18. 18. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />18<br />Agile Assumptions<br />Systems grow and evolve over time<br />Stakeholders can’t fully define what they want until they see it<br />Business requirements change as the market changes<br />All IT projects have to trade off scope against time, budget and quality<br />The risk of project failure increases linearly as the size of the project increases<br />There are always a lot of unexpected business and technical issues that must be resolved as you go along <br />Most delays and waste are caused by handoffs from one group to another<br />There are substantial communication delays and costs when teams are separated by organization, location and culture<br />Co-located, Cross functional project teams resolve issues much faster than specialized functional teams in separate locations<br />The best way to reduce delivery risk is to integrate and deliver as often as possible<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />19<br />The Agile Manifesto<br />In Agile projects we value<br />Individuals and interactions over processes and tools<br />Working software over comprehensive documentation<br />Customer collaboration over contract negotiation<br />Responding to change over following a plan <br />That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />20<br />Agile Principles<br />Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. <br />We welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. <br />We deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. <br />Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. <br />We build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. <br />Working software is the primary measure of progress.<br />
  21. 21. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />21<br />Agile Principles<br />The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. <br />Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. <br />Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. <br />Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. <br />The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. <br />At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behaviour accordingly. <br />
  22. 22. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />22<br />Agile Development applies the principles of Lean Production to software development<br />Eliminate waste <br />Amplify learning <br />Keep your options open <br />Deliver as fast as possible <br />Empower the team <br />Build integrity in <br />Optimize the Whole <br />Put the customer first<br />Continually Improve the Process<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />23<br />Agile uses the Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle in every iteration<br />
  24. 24. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />24<br />Agile uses Object Oriented Design to reduce the cost of change<br />User Class<br /><ul><li>Data
  25. 25. UserID
  26. 26. First Name
  27. 27. Last Name
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Methods
  30. 30. View
  31. 31. Edit
  32. 32. …</li></ul>User Products Class<br /><ul><li>Data
  33. 33. UserID
  34. 34. ProductID
  35. 35. Status
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Methods
  38. 38. View
  39. 39. Edit
  40. 40. …</li></ul>View User Process<br /><ul><li>Data
  41. 41. User Name
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Methods
  44. 44. Validate
  45. 45. Create User View
  46. 46. …</li></ul>View User UI<br /><ul><li>Data
  47. 47. User name
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Methods
  50. 50. Display
  51. 51. Validate
  52. 52. Update
  53. 53. …</li></ul>Product Class<br /><ul><li>Data
  54. 54. ProductID
  55. 55. Product Name
  56. 56. Setup price
  57. 57. Annual price…
  58. 58. Methods
  59. 59. View
  60. 60. Edit
  61. 61. …</li></ul>24<br />
  62. 62. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />25<br />Agile Projects use co-located cross functional teams to minimize handoff delays<br />Team Lead / Scrum Master<br />SME / Business Analyst<br />Architect / System Designer<br />Team members play multiple roles<br />Test Analyst<br />UI / Component Developer<br />DBA / Sys Admin / Network Eng<br />25<br />
  63. 63. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />26<br />Overall Agile Funding Process<br />Fund Solution Delivery<br />Fund Solution Vision<br />26<br />
  64. 64. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />27<br />Solution Vision<br />Solution Vision Plan<br />Initial Use Case Model<br />Initial Object Model<br />Initial System Model<br />Initial UI Design Concepts<br />Product Roadmap<br />Initial Prioritised Feature List<br />Project Estimate<br />Business Case <br />Initial Project Plan<br />Solution Vision Lessons Learned<br />Solution Vision Process Changes<br />
  65. 65. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />28<br />Solution Delivery<br />Iteration 1<br />Iteration 2<br />Iteration 3<br />Iteration 4<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br />Design, <br />Build &<br />Test<br />Design, <br />Build &<br />Test<br />Design,<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Design,<br />Build &<br />Test<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />Release 1<br />Release 2<br />Agile projects deliver batches of features in short, regular iterations<br />28<br />
  66. 66. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />29<br />Iteration Analysis & Design<br />Iteration Plan<br />Iteration Use Cases<br />Iteration Activity Diagrams<br />Detailed Feature List<br />Iteration Graphic Design<br />Iteration Class Diagrams<br />Iteration System Model<br />Iteration Wireframes<br />Iteration System and Acceptance Test Cases<br />Iteration Test Plan<br />Iteration Lessons Learned<br />Iteration Process Changes<br />
  67. 67. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />30<br />Iteration Design & Build<br />Updated Iteration Plan<br />Updated Feature List<br />Automated Xunit Tests<br />Automated Regression Tests<br />UML Sequence Diagrams<br />UI Code<br />Object Oriented Code<br />Technical Proof of Concept<br />Test Results<br />Progress Charts<br />Iteration Lessons Learned<br /> Iteration Process Changes<br />
  68. 68. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />31<br />Each iteration each agile team pulls the top priority items off the feature list<br />High level features<br />Detailed features<br />Built & tested features<br />Deployed features<br />Component team 1<br />Deployment team<br />Analysis & <br />Design team<br />Component team 2<br />31<br />
  69. 69. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />32<br />The Feature list<br />32<br />
  70. 70. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />33<br />Agile Teams have a Daily Cycle<br />33<br />
  71. 71. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />34<br />Agile Change management is fast and efficient<br />If a change is a top priority it can be analyzed in one iteration and delivered the one after.<br />34<br />
  72. 72. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />35<br />Agile deliverables are lean, visual and iterative<br />Project Management<br />Business Analysis<br />Product Management<br />Design and Build<br />UI Design<br />Testing<br />Use Case Model<br />UML Object Model<br />UML System Model<br />Product Roadmap<br />Release Plan<br />UI Concepts<br />Test Plan<br />Prioritised Feature List<br />Project Budget<br />Business Case<br />Graphic Design<br />UML Class Diagrams<br />List of Test Cases<br />Technical Proof of Concept<br />Use Cases<br />UML Sequence Diagrams<br />Project Plan<br />System and Acceptance Test Cases<br />Automated Xunit Tests<br />Comm’s Plan<br />Wireframes<br />Automated Regression Tests<br />UI Code<br />Object Oriented Code<br />Technical Proof of Concept<br />UML Activity Diagrams<br />Progress Charts<br />Training Package<br />Test Results<br />Deployment Package<br />Comm’s Package<br />35<br />
  73. 73. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />36<br />Senior Management play a critical role<br />A fast moving agile project will reveal many blockages in the organisation that are slowing progress for all teams<br />Senior management need to ask their agile teams everyday “what blockers are you having that you can’t resolve yourself”<br />Management should focus on removing these blockers as soon as possible at the root cause level<br />Often the best way to solve these problems is to move specialists from different groups and organizations into co-located, cross functional project teams<br />And to streamline business processes to minimize queues of work<br />
  74. 74. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />37<br />Business Benefits of Agile<br />Delivers high priority requirements to market in months<br />Removes a lot of delays and overhead from the process <br />Allows us to commit to a fixed budget and schedule early <br />Projects can get to a funded business case sooner<br />Allows lots of early feedback from users<br />Doesn't require the business to sign off everything up front<br />Easy to make high priority changes during the project <br />Provides a predictable delivery speed and cost <br />37<br />
  75. 75. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />38<br />IT Benefits of Agile<br />Allows IT to commit to a fixed budget and schedule early <br />Funding is quicker and easier to manage<br />Ensures signoffs are done quickly and regularly <br />Handles requirement changes quickly and easily <br />Ensures requirements are prioritized properly every month <br />Ensures that issues are found and resolved early<br />Cross functional teams bring the different groups much closer together <br />Reduces project dependency issues<br />38<br />
  76. 76. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />39<br />Criteria for Agile projects<br />Use an Agile scorecard to determine if projects are suitable for Agile development<br />Implement strategies to address issues that might block Agile development. <br />For example if the team has no Agile experience, the vendors methods are hostile to agile processes and the customer is largely unavailable then it would not be a good candidate for Agile development<br />We can address these issues by bringing on an experienced Agile coach, changing to a vendor whose methods support agile development and getting the customer to appoint a full time product manager/ BA<br />39<br />
  77. 77. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />40<br />Agile Scorecard<br />
  78. 78. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />41<br />A Documented Agile Process can be Methodology compliant<br />Compliant with PMBOK v4<br />Compliant with TQM processes<br />Compliant with ITIL 3.0<br />Compliant with CMMI<br />41<br />
  79. 79. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />42<br />Agile Definitions<br />
  80. 80. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />43<br />Agile Definitions<br />
  81. 81. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />44<br />Scrum Process Summary<br />
  82. 82. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />45<br />Acceptance Test Driven Design & Development<br />Automated Unit Tests<br />Add a unit test<br />Run test<br />Pass<br />Fail<br />Refactor code<br />Change code<br />Automated UI Tests<br />Automated Acceptance Tests<br />User Story<br />Acceptance Criteria<br />Automated Performance Tests<br />Exploratory Testing<br />
  83. 83. Agile Structure for Large Projects with Offshore Vendors<br />
  84. 84. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />47<br />Large projects are divided up into components which are delivered by small agile teams of 7 people<br />Component team 1<br />Component team 7<br />Component team 2<br />Management team<br />Analysis team<br />Onsite team<br />Product team<br />Testing team<br />Design team<br />Component team 3<br />Component team 6<br />Common Component team<br />Infrastructure team<br />Component team 5<br />Component team 4<br />Agile component teams synchronize by contributing members to cross functional project teams.<br />
  85. 85. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />48<br />A large project team is organized by feature set and function<br />48<br />
  86. 86. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />49<br />Agile projects have a stable resource profile<br />Vendor Build & Test Team<br />Vendor design team<br />IT project team<br />Business project team<br />49<br />
  87. 87. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />50<br />Offshore teams have onshore representatives who liaise with other onshore teams on their behalf<br />50<br />
  88. 88. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />51<br />Vendors are engaged on a capped T&M with a constant resource plan and fixed price per month<br />51<br />51<br />
  89. 89. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />52<br />Related Agile projects are synchronized by a fixed release calendar<br />Project 1<br />Project 2<br />Project 3<br />Synchronized release<br />52<br />
  90. 90. Appendix<br />
  91. 91. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />54<br />Strengths and weaknesses of a well defined systems engineering process <br />Strengths<br />Weaknesses<br />Well defined process<br />Enforces that a consistent system development process is followed <br />Can be tailored<br />Provides deliverable templates<br />Provides a training program<br />Has a Quality Governance framework<br />Regular quality audits<br />Agreed and understood by most users<br />Most projects that use the standard process deliver something<br />Sequential process that takes much longer and costs far more than the business want<br />Heavy documentation overhead<br />Very resistant to change<br />Lots of delays for reviews and approvals<br />Requires a big up front design effort when our knowledge is poorest <br />Many projects have major cost or schedule blow outs and have to reduce scope to get back on track<br />Lot of wasted time and effort designing things that are changed or de-scoped<br />The critical build process is often a black box<br />54<br />
  92. 92. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />55<br />Agile development is based on an iterative development process. <br />Iteration 1<br />Iteration 2<br />Iteration 3<br />Iteration 4<br />In an ideal process the agile team does all SDLC activities during one iteration<br />Requires a very experienced, co-located, cross functional team onsite<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />Release 1<br />Release 2<br />High priority scope changes can be implemented in 1 iteration<br />55<br />
  93. 93. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />56<br />Solution Delivery<br />Iteration 1<br />Iteration 2<br />Iteration 3<br />Iteration 4<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />Release 1<br />Release 2<br />Agile projects deliver batches of features in regular, short iterations<br />56<br />
  94. 94. Copyright and Intellectual Property retained by Murray Robinson.<br />57<br />Sometimes the testing is done one iteration afterwards<br />Iteration 1<br />Iteration 2<br />Iteration 3<br />Iteration 4<br />A slower more cautious approach<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br /> Analysis & <br />Design<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />Build &<br />Test<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />UAT & <br />Deploy<br />UAT<br />Release 1<br />Release 2<br />High priority scope changes can be implemented in 3 iterations<br />57<br />

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