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Communication In Business Analsyis V3


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presentation to australian computer society regarding use of communication skills in IT

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Communication In Business Analsyis V3

  1. 1. Maria Horrigan Murphy Regional Lead Business Analysis SMS Consulting Group ACS Pre Conference 18 Mar 2009 Communication and Connectedness in Business Analysis
  2. 2. Slideshare and blogs <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ We’re living in a networked world”
  4. 4. Modern IT projects <ul><li>People demand to be heard </li></ul><ul><li>People expect to be involved </li></ul><ul><li>People’s expectations of how good systems are is based on their experience of modern internet applications of the Google World - Gmail, Google Search, Facebook, Flickr, YouTube, </li></ul>
  5. 5. What does their expectation mean? <ul><li>Project success hinges on communicating with people: </li></ul><ul><li>To understand what they want </li></ul><ul><li>To set expectations about what the project will actually deliver (and what it won’t) </li></ul><ul><li>To show them how the project will help them in their work </li></ul><ul><li>To uncover what they need . . . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Because sometimes they don’t know what they need
  7. 7. What’s their requirement of you? <ul><li>Not being like the BA in the Dilbert cartoon </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how to talk to people and get the information you need to write the requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively negotiating with important stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the right messages to the right people at the right time </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding of both the ‘big picture’ and the detail </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the context and the situation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Understanding the business is good communication <ul><li>IT is now part of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Every program, every initiative to be implemented, will have some touch point with technology </li></ul><ul><li>Success depends on anticipation of future trends </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to sense upcoming developments and to design appropriate systems, and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving misunderstandings about requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Uncovering needs vs wants </li></ul>
  9. 9. Role of Business Analyst is the key! <ul><li>The Communicator </li></ul><ul><li>The Translator </li></ul><ul><li>The Juggler of technology and people’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>The one between the rock and a hard place </li></ul><ul><li>The Connector (bridge) </li></ul>
  10. 10. How do we do all this communications stuff effectively? <ul><li>Analyse the stakeholders needs and wants </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how they communicate, how they are connected and why </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the project in the context of people’s work and how this fits into the wider organisational context </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ It’s not what you know; it’s who you know”
  12. 12. Analysing “who is who in the zoo” <ul><li>Who to talk to </li></ul><ul><li>Who has influence </li></ul><ul><li>Who knows what the business needs are </li></ul><ul><li>What drives and motivates people’s work behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>How to talk to them given this (above) context </li></ul><ul><li>How to tailor the communications channels to elicit information from different people </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Networking Analysis <ul><li>Mathematical, graphical, theoretical understanding of the social world </li></ul><ul><li>Networks and their structures </li></ul><ul><li>Map and measure relationships between people, groups, organisations, computers, and websites </li></ul><ul><li>Flows of information and knowledge (focus on people not systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Know what the relationships are to better communicate, elicit requirements </li></ul>
  14. 14. Understanding Social Networks <ul><li>the location of actors in the network </li></ul><ul><li>the various roles and groupings in a network </li></ul><ul><li>Gives insight into: </li></ul><ul><li>who are the connectors, experts, leaders, bridges, isolates? </li></ul><ul><li>where are the clusters and who is in them? </li></ul><ul><li>who is in the core or hub? </li></ul><ul><li>who is on the periphery? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Centrality - revealing the structure in the network <ul><li>Very centralized network dominated by one or a few very central nodes. If removed , the network quickly fragments single point of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Less centralized network is resilient in the face of attacks. Many nodes or links can fail while allowing remaining nodes to still reach each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary Spanners connect their group to others. Well positioned to be innovators and have access to ideas and information flowing in other clusters. </li></ul><ul><li>Periphery of a network may connect to networks that are not currently mapped. Important resources for fresh information not otherwise available </li></ul>
  16. 16. Degree of Centrality in the Network
  17. 17. Centrality and Betweenness
  18. 18. Centrality and Closeness
  19. 19. Leveraging Centrality <ul><li>Leverage champions </li></ul><ul><li>Understand who might be “blockers” or “gatekeepers” (tertiary segmentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Find people to go to in order to elicit information – more efficient requirements gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t reinvent the wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly identify who might know the answer, communicate with them, understand their lessons learned, improve likely success of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Know who to communicate key messages to in order for them to disseminate throughout the network </li></ul>
  20. 20. Putting Actors into Governance <ul><li>The right people making decisions – risk, financial impacts of scope change </li></ul><ul><li>The right people influencing </li></ul><ul><li>The right people contributing to requirements </li></ul>
  21. 21. Understanding ‘how’ to Communicate <ul><li>Communication preferences: </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person’s orientation towards process vs results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for recognition vs need for security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of medium for the message (eg traditional media v. social media) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. D Drivers S Supporters T Talkers C Controllers task people
  23. 23. Drivers <ul><li>Do it now, can do attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Goal oriented & a self starter </li></ul><ul><li>Assertive & Competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Results oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Task & information focused </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive & want control </li></ul><ul><li>Fast paced often impatient </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared to take risks </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solvers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Talkers <ul><li>Want to be noticed </li></ul><ul><li>People oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Direct & open </li></ul><ul><li>Animated & emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Creative, enthusiastic leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of ideas, bubbly, outgoing </li></ul><ul><li>Fast paced & spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer working with others </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent persuasive skills </li></ul>
  25. 25. Supporters <ul><li>Want to get along </li></ul><ul><li>People oriented team players </li></ul><ul><li>Help others & solve conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed & friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Slower paced </li></ul><ul><li>Cautious, risk averse </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy harmony & trust </li></ul><ul><li>Patient & cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable & predictable </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid conflict & good listeners </li></ul>
  26. 26. Controllers <ul><li>Want to get it right </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate & meticulous </li></ul><ul><li>Logical task & information focused </li></ul><ul><li>Detail oriented & precise </li></ul><ul><li>Slower paced, quality not quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Cautious & risk averse </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solvers </li></ul><ul><li>Structured and orderly </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable & predictable </li></ul><ul><li>Set high standards </li></ul>
  27. 27. Know your own style and preference <ul><li>Stakeholders have a very different style to me </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doer” and a “Controller” - analytical and results focused so need to be mindful to bring people along rather than trying to push too hard. (esp with largely “Supporter” risk adverse audience) </li></ul><ul><li>Use the strengths of your style and adapt your style to the different stakeholders on a project </li></ul><ul><li>No particular style that is better than the other </li></ul><ul><li>Style to adopt will be contextual and situational so be flexible and think about your audience </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>People learn different ways </li></ul><ul><li>V= Visual (Something ‘seen’ or had visual stimulation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a graphic representation of the material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A= Auditory (A ‘sound’ memory or related to a sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to hear the explanation of how things work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>K= Kinaesthetic (Has a ‘doing’ memory & you thought of yourself feeling the emotion or activity of the memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to use the system to understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We use all of our senses; we simply have a preference for one or more </li></ul></ul>Communication Channels
  29. 29. V, A or K – Context Diagram
  30. 30. V, A or K - Use Cases UC01 Register Pharmacy Description Users are able to register a pharmacy for the program. Volume/Timing/Frequency Up to 5000 Pharmacies Preconditions User has accessed website Postconditions Community Pharmacy has been registered for the program Trigger Community Pharmacy selects to register for program <ul><li>Basic Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy selects to register </li></ul><ul><li>System displays blank Pharmacy Registration screen (see Appendix A) </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters “ Pharmacy.Section90 ” </li></ul><ul><li>System validates “ Pharmacy.Section90 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters “ Pharmacy.ABN ” </li></ul><ul><li>System validates ABN against Australian Business Register (ABR) </li></ul><ul><li>System populates “ Pharmacy.Pharmacy Trading Name ” , “ Pharmacy.Postcode ” , “ Pharmacy.State ” and “ Pharmacy.GST Registered ” </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pharmacy.Pharmacy Address ” , “ Pharmacy.Pharmacy Suburb ” , “ Pharmacy.Mailing Address ” , “ Pharmacy.Mailling Suburb ” , “ Pharmacy.Mailing State ” , “ Pharmacy.Mailing Postcode ” , “ Pharmacy.Phone ” , “ Pharmacy.Email ” , “ Pharmacy.Fax ” , “ Pharmacy.Contact Name ” </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters “ Pharmacy.BSB ” </li></ul><ul><li>System validates “ Pharmacy.BSB ” </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pharmacy.Account Number ” , “ Pharmacy.Bank ” , “ Pharmacy.Account Name ” </li></ul><ul><li>System displays a link to Vendor details “ Confirmation Voucher ” and prompts Community Pharmacy to print the document. </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy manually completes the “ Confirmation Voucher ” form and sends it to the Department offline. </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy submits Pharmacy Registration screen </li></ul><ul><li>System generates an email to Community Pharmacy to confirm email details </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy follows the link </li></ul><ul><li>System successfully registers Pharmacy and emails username and password to the “ Pharmacy.Email ” address. </li></ul><ul><li>System generates SAP Vendor record <extend UC02 – Create SAP Vendor> </li></ul><ul><li>System requests Community Pharmacy logs into the system using the recently emailed credentials </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters username and password </li></ul><ul><li>System displays Pharmacy Registration screen </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy selects to participate in the PMP Program <A1> </li></ul><ul><li>System displays PMP Eligibility screen <include UC21 – Enter PMP Eligibility> </li></ul><ul><li>System displays PMP Program screen <include UC05 – Enter PMP Program Information> </li></ul><ul><li>System displays PMP Baseline screen <include UC08 – Enter Baseline Information> </li></ul><ul><li>System displays Pharmacy Registration screen with a PMP Eligibility indicator </li></ul><ul><li>System triggers PMP Registration payment <extend UC12 – Approved SAP Payment> </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate Flow <A1> </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy selects to participate in the DAA Program </li></ul><ul><li>System displays DAA Eligibility screen (See Appendix A) </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters: </li></ul><ul><li>“ DAA Eligibility.Approved Section90 ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Support DAA Provision ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Self-audit ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Private Patient Interview ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Professional Standards ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Provide Evaluation Data ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Release Pharmacy Details ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Staff Informed and Aware ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Consent from Eligible Patients ” , “ DAA Eligibility.Provide Information ” , “ DAA Eligibility.RCTI ” </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy submits responses </li></ul><ul><li>System displays DAA Program screen <include UC04 – Enter DAA Program Information> </li></ul><ul><li>System displays Pharmacy Registration screen with a DAA Eligibility indicator </li></ul><ul><li>System triggers DAA Registration payment <extend UC12 – Approved SAP Payment> </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate Flow <A2> </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy is not currently eligible for DAA and/or PMP </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy enters username and password </li></ul><ul><li>System displays Pharmacy Registration screen </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy selects to register in DAA Program <A1> </li></ul><ul><li>Community Pharmacy selects to register in PMP Program resume basic flow at step 18 </li></ul>Error Messages generated from this Use Case All Error Messages (for all Use Cases) will have options to ‘ OK ’ (Close error dialogue) or ‘ Help ’ (display the online help for the current screen) Basic Flow Step 4 – “ Section 90 number is not an Approved Section 90 number. A valid Approved Section 90 number is required to register for the DAA and PMP Programs. Please ensure you have entered it correctly. ” Basic Flow Step 4 – “ The Section 90 Number has already been registered for the DAA and PMP Programs. Pharmacies may only register once. ” Basic Flow Step 6 – “ ABN not found on Australian Business Register. A valid ABN is required to register for the DAA and PMP Programs. Please ensure you have entered it correctly. ” Basic Flow Step 10 – “ BSB not found. To ensure payments are received, a valid BSB number is required to register for the DAA and PMP Programs. Please ensure you have entered it correctly. ”
  31. 31. V, A or K - Prototypes
  32. 32. V, A or K – Business Process Map
  33. 33. V, A or K – Screen Shots
  34. 34. Visual Learners <ul><li>Visual Learners learn by seeing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have strong spelling & writing skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find spelling mistakes distracting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not talk much & dislike listening for too long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be distracted by untidiness and movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support Visual Learners by using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters, charts & graphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booklets, brochures, & handouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of colour & shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear layouts with headings & plenty of white space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context diagrams, Process maps </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Auditory Learners <ul><li>Auditory Learners learn by listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love to talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear to daydream whilst ‘talking’ inside their heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read in a talking style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love the telephone and music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support Auditory Learners by using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question & Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures & Stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion Pairs/Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety in tone, pitch, rate and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music or slogans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User scenarios </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Kinaethetic Learners <ul><li>Kinaesthetic Learners learn by doing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move around a lot, tap pens and shift in their seat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want lots of breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not like reading, but doodle and take notes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support Kinaesthetic Learners by using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-plays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototypes and UAT </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. New channels for Communication <ul><li>New ways of communicating and reaching out to others </li></ul><ul><li>Access to body of knowledge (in people’s heads, not in documents) and Communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Networking - leveraging: the power of many </li></ul><ul><li>Save time and energy - easiest way (anytime, anywhere) to make contact, communicate, share, collaborate with “friends” </li></ul>
  38. 38. Leveraging relationships <ul><li>1 billion using the web </li></ul><ul><li>½ billion engaged in use of social computing tools because it connects them </li></ul><ul><li>Barack Obama most successful campaign – part of success was the relationships he built using social media </li></ul>Mmmm…. President…
  39. 39. The many faces of Obama
  40. 40. Linked in
  41. 41. Facebook
  42. 42. Twitter
  43. 43. Bookmarking
  44. 44. Blogs
  45. 45. Take home messages <ul><li>Projects can be more successful if: </li></ul><ul><li>You take the time to analyse the people, relationships, connections between them </li></ul><ul><li>You understand communication preferences will vary amongst stakeholders so be flexible and adapt your style and channel to you audience </li></ul><ul><li>As a BA, embrace your role as communicator and translator to bridge the gap between the technology and the work people need to do </li></ul>
  46. 46. Fin Maria Horrigan Murphy SMS Consulting Group Account Director Regional Lead Business Analysis Email: Blog: Slideshare: Twitter: @miahorri