Communication And Connectnedness B A World V2


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Communication And Connectnedness B A World V2

  1. 1. Communication and Connectedness in Business Analysis Maria Horrigan Principal Consultant BA World July 2009
  2. 2. “We’re living in a networked world”
  3. 3. Modern IT projects • People demand to be heard • People expect to be involved • People’s expectations of how good systems are is based on their experience of modern internet applications of the Google World - Gmail, Google Search, Facebook, Flickr and YouTube
  4. 4. What does their expectation mean? Project success hinges on communicating with people: • To understand what they want • To set expectations about what the project will actually deliver (and what it won’t) • To show them how the project will help them in their work • To uncover what they need . . .
  5. 5. Because sometimes they don’t know what they need
  6. 6. What’s their requirement of you? • Knowing how to talk to people and get the information you need to write requirements • Effectively negotiating with important stakeholders • Getting the right messages to the right people at the right time • An understanding of both the ‘big picture’ and the detail • Understand the context & the situation
  7. 7. Understanding the Business is Good Communication • IT is now part of the business - every program, every initiative, will have some touch point with technology • Success depends on anticipation of future trends and ability to sense upcoming developments and to design appropriate systems and processes • Resolving misunderstandings about requirements • Uncovering needs vs wants
  8. 8. Project DNA Things to Things to do produce Project DNA Patterns to Competencies apply to perform Zen Agile – Project DNA 2009 Hodgson & Horrigan
  9. 9. Sourcing Project DNA Things to Things to do produce Analysis Process Project DNA Improvement Business knowledge Patterns to Competencies Planning Information apply management to perform Change User- management experience Facilitation engineering Zen Agile – Project DNA 2009 Hodgson & Horrigan
  10. 10. Need to know the Team Capability & Tailor Communication to meet their needs What competencies do they bring to the Develper team Design Business Architect Analyst Team What is the role Graphic Business of the BA? designer Analyst Info offcier
  11. 11. Role of Business Analyst is the key! • The Communicator • The Translator • The Juggler of technology and people’s needs • The one between the rock and a hard place • The Connector (bridge)
  12. 12. How do we do all this Communications Stuff Effectively? • Analyse the stakeholders needs and wants, how they are connected and why • Understand how they communicate, their preference and style • Learn the project in the context of people’s work and how this fits into the wider organisational context
  13. 13. Their needs and wants, their connections to others ANALYSE STAKEHOLDERS
  14. 14. “It’s not what you know, it’s who you know” Me and SITC Gals Me and Brad Me and Bill Gates
  15. 15. Analysing “who is who in the zoo” • Who to talk to • Who has influence • Who knows what the business needs are • What drives and motivates people’s work behaviour • How to talk to them given this (above) context • How to tailor the communications channels to elicit information from these different people
  16. 16. Multiplicity of networks – official vs unofficial • Advice • “Who do you go to for advice?” • “Who goes to you for advice?” • Collaboration • “Who do you collaborate with?” • How do you collaborate (social media) • Trust • Who do you trust? • Friendship • Who is your friend? • Conflict • Who is a blocker or gatekeeper?
  17. 17. Social Networking Analysis • Mathematical, graphical, theoretical understanding of the social world • Networks and their structures • Map and measure relationships between people, groups, organisations, computers, and websites • Flows of information and knowledge (focus on people not systems) • Know what the relationships are to better communicate, elicit requirements
  18. 18. Understanding Social Networks • the location of actors in the network • the various roles and groupings in a network Gives insight into: • who are the connectors, experts, leaders, bridges, isolates? • where are the clusters and who is in them? • who is in the core or hub? • who is on the periphery?
  19. 19. Social Networks – Key Terms Nodes People and groups Links Show relationships or flows between the nodes Attribute Name and value Relationship Types (eg friend, advice) properties Direction (directed vs undirected) Strength (binary vs weighted) Network Centralisation properties Density or Concentration Size
  20. 20. Centrality – revealing the network structure • Very centralized network dominated by one or a few very central nodes. If removed , the network quickly fragments single point of failure • Less centralized network is resilient in the face of attacks. Many nodes or links can fail yet allow remaining nodes to still reach each other • Boundary Spanners connect their group to others. Well positioned to be innovators and have access to ideas and information flowing in other clusters. • Periphery of a network may connect to networks that are not currently mapped. Important resources for fresh information not otherwise available
  21. 21. Project Case Study
  22. 22. Degree of Centrality in the Network Hub has most connections – authority gained It not the “more connections the better”, but where they lead to… ..and how they connect the otherwise unconnected
  23. 23. Centrality and Betweenness Great influence over what flows (and does not) “location location location” Broker role between Business and IT
  24. 24. Centrality and Closeness Shortest path to all others – gives quick access Excellent position to monitor info flows Best visibility of what is happening in the network
  25. 25. Project Case Study Supporte Gatekeepe Key User r Influencer r Boundary Spanner Project Champion Key decision maker Facilitator Potential blocker Key User Trusted advisor Periphery
  26. 26. Six degrees of separation 26
  27. 27. Leveraging Centrality • Leverage champions • Understand who might be “blockers” or “gatekeepers” (tertiary segmentation) • Find people to go to in order to elicit information – more efficient requirements gathering • Don’t reinvent the wheel • Quickly identify who might know the answer, communicate with them, understand their lessons learned, improve likely success of the project • Know who to communicate key messages to in order for them to disseminate throughout the network
  28. 28. Communicate Lesson Learned Business analyst Develper Project Design Design Business Sponsor Architect Les so Architect Analyst ns l ea rned Team Team Change Graphic Business Media designer Analyst Manager Comms Info offcier
  29. 29. How they communicate, their preference for style & channels UNDERSTAND STAKEHOLDERS
  30. 30. Understanding ‘how’ to Communicate Communication preferences: • Style • Person’s orientation towards process vs results • Need for recognition vs need for security • Channel • Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic • What type of medium for the message (eg traditional media v. social media)
  31. 31. D T Drivers Talkers people task C S Controllers Supporters
  32. 32. Drivers – Doers, Directors • Do it now, can do attitude Get tosocial “chit– limit the point • Goal oriented & a self starter chat” • Assertive & Competitive • Results oriented Concentrate on • Task & information focused providing info on outcomes • Decisive & want control • Fast paced often impatient Don’t waste • Prepared to take risks time in meetings • Problem solvers
  33. 33. Talkers – Influencers, Extrovert • Want to be noticed Allow time for discussion • People oriented in meetings • Direct & open Allow for flexibility as ideas may change • Animated & emotional agenda • Creative, enthusiastic leaders • Lots of ideas, bubbly, outgoing • Fast paced & spontaneous • Prefer working with others • Excellent persuasive skills
  34. 34. Supporters – Stable, Helpful • Want to get along • People oriented team players participation to May need to encourage their • Help others & solve conflicts you capture their ensure needs • Relaxed & friendly • Slower paced • Cautious, risk averse Allow time to absorb and digest info before decision • Enjoy harmony & trust is made • Patient & cooperative • Dependable & predictable • Avoid conflict & good listeners
  35. 35. Controllers - Checkers, Tickers • Want to get it right Don’t take away their control or be seen to “go • Accurate & meticulous over their head” • Logical task & information focused • Detail oriented & precise Don’t push them for a quick • Slower paced, quality not quantity decision • Cautious & risk averse • Problem solvers • Structured and orderly Make sure you have all • Dependable & predictable facts and supporting the info • Set high standards
  36. 36. Know your own style and preference • Stakeholders have a very different style to me • “Driver” and a “Controller” - analytical and results focused so need to be mindful to bring people along rather than trying to push too hard. (esp with largely “Supporter” risk adverse audience) • Use the strengths of your style and adapt your style to the different stakeholders on a project • No particular style that is better than the other • Style to adopt will be contextual and situational so be flexible and think about your audience
  37. 37. Project DNA Prototype Benchmark Logical data Model User segmentation Things to Things to do Process produce Context Diagram DNA Project Personas Sitemap Patterns to Competencies apply to perform Zen Agile – Project DNA 2009 Hodgson & Horrigan
  38. 38. Communication Channels People learn different ways • V= Visual (Something ‘seen’ or had visual stimulation) • Need a graphic representation of the material • A= Auditory (A ‘sound’ memory or related to a sound • Need to hear the explanation of how things work • K= Kinaesthetic (Has a ‘doing’ memory & you thought of yourself feeling the emotion or activity of the memory • Need to use the system to understand
  39. 39. We use all of our senses; we simply have a preference for one or more
  40. 40. Activity • Write as many words or phrases as you can think of that relate to the words: • Beach and Ocean • Place a V, an A, or a K against each word or phrase: • V=visual (Something ‘seen’ or had visual stimulation) • See the blue sky, see children playing in the water • A=Auditory (A ‘sound’ memory or related to a sound • Hear the waves against the shore • K=Kinaesthetic (Has a ‘doing’ memory & you thought of yourself feeling the emotion or activity of the memory • Feel the cold of the ocean on my skin, feel the sun and the sand, the taste of salt
  41. 41. V, A or K ? – Context Diagram Visual
  42. 42. V, A or ?- Prototypes Site identification Australian Government branding Site tagline Photographs Visual Popular topics Go Search Go More search options Need to know where to start? Need help staying at home? Need an aged care home ? Need support for carers? Need help with dementia? Exploring prototype in workshop is Copyright © Commonwealth of Australia Other languages | Accessibility | About this site | Disclaimer | Copyright | Privacy | Contact us ABN XX YYY ZZZ BBB Kinaesthetic
  43. 43. V, A or K? – Business Process Map Visual
  44. 44. V, A or K? – Presentation Auditory Can be Visual and Kinaesthetic
  45. 45. V, A or K? – Storyboarding Kinaesthetic Visual
  46. 46. V, A or K ? - Workshop Kinaesthetic
  47. 47. V, A or K ? - Use Cases UC01 Register Pharmacy Description Users are able to register a pharmacy for the program. Visual Volume/Timing/Frequency Up to 5000 Pharmacies Preconditions User has accessed website Postconditions Community Pharmacy has been registered for the program Trigger Community Pharmacy selects to register for program Basic Flow • Community Pharmcy selects to register • System displays blank Pharmacy Registration screen (see Appendix A) • Community Pharmacy enters “Pharmacy.Section90” • System validates “Pharmacy.Section90” • Community Pharmacy enters “Pharmacy.ABN” • System validates ABN against Australian Business Register (ABR) • System populates “Pharmacy.Pharmacy Trading Name”, “Pharmacy.Postcode”, “Pharmacy.State” and “Pharmacy.GST Registered” Alternate Flow <A1> • Community Pharmacy is not currently eligible • System displays Pharmacy Registration screen Error Messages generated from this Use Case Option to display help (display the online help for the current screen) Basic Flow Step 4 – “Section 90 number is not an Approved Section 90 number. A valid Approved Section 90 number is required to register for programs. Please ensure you have entered it correctly.”
  48. 48. Visual Learners • Visual Learners learn by seeing • Have strong spelling & writing skills • Find spelling mistakes distracting • Not talk much & dislike listening for too long • Be distracted by untidiness and movement • Support Visual Learners by using: • Posters, charts & graphs • Visual Displays • Booklets, brochures, & handouts • Variety of colour & shape • Clear layouts with headings & plenty of white space • Context Diagrams, Process maps
  49. 49. Auditory Learners • Auditory Learners learn by listening • Love to talk • Appear to daydream whilst ‘talking’ inside their heads • Read in a talking style • Love the telephone and music • Support Auditory Learners by using: • Question & Answer • Lectures & Stories • Discussion Pairs/Groups • Variety in tone, pitch, rate and volume • Music or slogans • User scenarios, Presentations, Podcasts
  50. 50. Kinaesthetic Learners • Kinaesthetic Learners learn by doing • Move around a lot, tap pens and shift in their seat • Want lots of breaks • Enjoy games • Not like reading, but doodle and take notes • Support Kinaesthetic Learners by using: • Team activities • Hands-on Experience • Role-plays • Note taking • Emotional discussion • Prototypes, Workshops and UAT
  51. 51. New Channels for Communication • New ways of communicating and reaching out to others • Access to body of knowledge (in people’s heads, not in documents) and Communities of practice • Networking - leveraging: the power of many • ½ billion engaged in use of social computing tools because it connects them • Save time and energy - easiest way (anytime, anywhere) to make contact, communicate, share, collaborate with “friends”
  52. 52. Know the project in the context of people’s work and how this fits into the wider organisational context LEARN THE CONTEXT
  53. 53. Context of the Project • Critical to understand the business needs • Look at the project with the context of the organisation and the business unit • Enterprise Analysis vs Business Analysis • IT strategic Plan • Standards and protocols • IT Capabilities (insource vs outsource) • Contextual Inquiry – see how they work • It’s not about You! It’s about Users • Always ask if what you are doing is adding value and how does it link back to the strategy
  54. 54. Sourcing the ‘right’ DNA for your Project Context Balancing human & business requirements Project DNA Validatio Solution n design Zen Agile – Project DNA 2009 Hodgson & Horrigan
  55. 55. Project DNA Specify Test/validate requirements Ethnographic research Things to Things to do produce Facilitate Contextual workshop inquiry Project DNA Communicate Communicate Patterns to Competencies to Steering lessons learned Committee apply to perform Zen Agile – Project DNA 2009 Hodgson & Horrigan
  56. 56. Applying Project DNA Team Contextual Analysis inquiry Project DNA Iterative Storyboarding Prototype Zen Agile – Project DNA 2009 Hodgson & Horrigan
  57. 57. Planning with Forrester’s POST People: Understand how they think and behave in the work environments and their social communities Objectives: Know what relationships are and those you want to establish, and why and how you will measure it so you know when the project is successful Strategy: Understand the strategy and what needs to be delivered Technology: Identify tools to use to help achieve objectives
  58. 58. What needs to be considered
  59. 59. Applying Forrester’s POST method People: • Who is who? • Connections and Authority? • Channel and style preferences? Objectives: • What problem is the project trying to solve? • What are the business requirements? Strategy: • How does this project fit into the business strategy, the vision for the organisation? Technology: • What are the SOE, infrastructure and capability of the organisation/business? • What is the right tech solution to meet business requirements?
  60. 60. Project DNA Things to Things to do produce Elements of User Governance Project DNA Experience model Standards eg Patterns to ISO13407 Competencies Waterfall or apply to perform Agile Quality Assurance Iterative design Risk mitigation Zen Agile – Project DNA 2009 Hodgson & Horrigan
  61. 61. Projects need Good Governance Get SMEs Sign off on Steering involved to Committee milestones and validate solution deliverables Can be the BA Project Assurance Project Leader or a designated PM Project Team Project Support Solution Iteration Solution Iteration Solution Iteration IT Group Team 1 Team 2 Team N
  62. 62. Understanding context, people & relationships Network analysis enables you to put the Actors in Governance Enables you to ensure the right people are: • Put into your governance framework • Making the decisions – risk, financial impacts of scope change • Contributing to requirements
  64. 64. Take Home messages Projects can be more successful if: • You take the time to analyse the people, relationships, connections between them • You understand communication preferences will vary amongst stakeholders so be flexible and adapt your style and channel to you audience • As a BA, embrace your role as communicator and translator to bridge the gap between the technology and the work people need to do
  65. 65. Fin Maria Horrigan Oakton Principal Consultant Email: Blog: Slideshare: Twitter: @miahorri
  66. 66. Questions?