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War And Peace In The Middle East


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War And Peace In The Middle East

  1. 1. By: Avi Shlaim Kristen Young
  2. 2. <ul><li>Object of rivalry among great powers since 1798 </li></ul><ul><li>Arena of fierce competition between the United States and the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>International politics of the Middle East based on relations between outside powers and local forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1991 not one “great” power controlled the M.E. –power always shifting </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Shlaim’s thesis: External forces shaped the political evolution of the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>External involvement in Middle East affairs–divided into four phases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ottoman (1516-1918) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The European (1918-1956) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Superpower (1950s-1991) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The American (today) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1516-1918-Ottoman Turks ruled most of the Arab lands in Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Empire was dynastic, Islamic, and multiethnic </li></ul><ul><li>Protected distinctive laws and customs-rejected Western notions </li></ul><ul><li>European expansion brought about Ottoman decline </li></ul>Photo of Ottoman Empire-The orange displays their territory
  5. 5. <ul><li>Ottomans fate sealed when sided with Germany to enter World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the destruction of Ottoman political order </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East fell to European rule </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to European style state system and international relations –mixed results </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some disputes among Middle East settled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some disputes continued to generate instability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Political shape of Middle East today did not evolve naturally—evolved as British design tailored to fit British needs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European rule shaping the political evolution of the Middle East. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Nasser’s invention of the Suez Canal attracted British </li></ul><ul><li>British wanted possession over canal-would have to force Nasser from power </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the Suez War of 1956 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watershed in Britain's decline in the Middle East and worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain's withdrawal from M.E. and Persian Gulf-put an end to a stable period of British dominance. </li></ul></ul>Above is a depiction of the Suez Canal
  7. 7. <ul><li>Until the end of the Cold War-Middle East remained an arena of superpower competition for influence, advantage, and oil </li></ul><ul><li>M.E-important to Soviets security </li></ul><ul><li>United States basic intrests in M.E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustaining western regimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>securing Israel </li></ul></ul>The United States and Soviet Union were the superpowers
  8. 8. <ul><li>Iran and Saudi Arabia became key pillars of support for the American intrests in the Persian Gulf </li></ul><ul><li>America-increased exposure to Western ideas and disrupted Islamic fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic Revolution reversed Iran’s foreign policy and caused them to turn against America </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the revolution could not be secure unless they and other Middle Eastern countries broke away from United States protection </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic threat to the superpowers </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Iran-Iraq war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest international conflict since World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran blocking the free passage for neutral passage of the Persian Gulf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War against Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scene of war solved nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility remained between Iran and Iraq and Iran and America </li></ul><ul><li>U.S then preceded to develop conflict with Iraq in hopes that Saddam Hussein would fall from power </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Middle East peace conference- October 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Peace process came at the end of the Gulf and Cold Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of Soviet Union superpower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>America no longer had to contend to a rival in M.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America becomes dominant power </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>America became as dominant in the Middle East after the Gulf War as Britain had been after WWI </li></ul><ul><li>“ America commanded more diplomatic leverage, more political clout, and better strategic facilities than at any previous stage of Middle East involvement” (Shlaim, 137). </li></ul><ul><li>Bush introduced the “five pillars of wisdom” for the future plan of the Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy, economic development, arms control, Gulf Control and settlement of Arab-Israeli conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus shaping political evolution of the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America has held external involvement in Middle Eastern affairs until present day. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>I think this book should stay on the list. It was a short book filled with a lot of interesting information. It is a concise history of the Middle East until present day which is also interesting. </li></ul>