Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

War And Peace In The Middle East

1,860 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

War And Peace In The Middle East

  1. 1. By: Avi Shlaim Kristen Young
  2. 2. <ul><li>Object of rivalry among great powers since 1798 </li></ul><ul><li>Arena of fierce competition between the United States and the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>International politics of the Middle East based on relations between outside powers and local forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1991 not one “great” power controlled the M.E. –power always shifting </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Shlaim’s thesis: External forces shaped the political evolution of the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>External involvement in Middle East affairs–divided into four phases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ottoman (1516-1918) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The European (1918-1956) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Superpower (1950s-1991) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The American (today) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1516-1918-Ottoman Turks ruled most of the Arab lands in Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Empire was dynastic, Islamic, and multiethnic </li></ul><ul><li>Protected distinctive laws and customs-rejected Western notions </li></ul><ul><li>European expansion brought about Ottoman decline </li></ul>Photo of Ottoman Empire-The orange displays their territory
  5. 5. <ul><li>Ottomans fate sealed when sided with Germany to enter World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the destruction of Ottoman political order </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East fell to European rule </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to European style state system and international relations –mixed results </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some disputes among Middle East settled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some disputes continued to generate instability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Political shape of Middle East today did not evolve naturally—evolved as British design tailored to fit British needs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European rule shaping the political evolution of the Middle East. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Nasser’s invention of the Suez Canal attracted British </li></ul><ul><li>British wanted possession over canal-would have to force Nasser from power </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the Suez War of 1956 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watershed in Britain's decline in the Middle East and worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain's withdrawal from M.E. and Persian Gulf-put an end to a stable period of British dominance. </li></ul></ul>Above is a depiction of the Suez Canal
  7. 7. <ul><li>Until the end of the Cold War-Middle East remained an arena of superpower competition for influence, advantage, and oil </li></ul><ul><li>M.E-important to Soviets security </li></ul><ul><li>United States basic intrests in M.E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustaining western regimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>securing Israel </li></ul></ul>The United States and Soviet Union were the superpowers
  8. 8. <ul><li>Iran and Saudi Arabia became key pillars of support for the American intrests in the Persian Gulf </li></ul><ul><li>America-increased exposure to Western ideas and disrupted Islamic fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic Revolution reversed Iran’s foreign policy and caused them to turn against America </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that the revolution could not be secure unless they and other Middle Eastern countries broke away from United States protection </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic threat to the superpowers </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Iran-Iraq war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest international conflict since World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran blocking the free passage for neutral passage of the Persian Gulf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War against Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scene of war solved nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility remained between Iran and Iraq and Iran and America </li></ul><ul><li>U.S then preceded to develop conflict with Iraq in hopes that Saddam Hussein would fall from power </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Middle East peace conference- October 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Peace process came at the end of the Gulf and Cold Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of Soviet Union superpower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>America no longer had to contend to a rival in M.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America becomes dominant power </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>America became as dominant in the Middle East after the Gulf War as Britain had been after WWI </li></ul><ul><li>“ America commanded more diplomatic leverage, more political clout, and better strategic facilities than at any previous stage of Middle East involvement” (Shlaim, 137). </li></ul><ul><li>Bush introduced the “five pillars of wisdom” for the future plan of the Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy, economic development, arms control, Gulf Control and settlement of Arab-Israeli conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus shaping political evolution of the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America has held external involvement in Middle Eastern affairs until present day. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>I think this book should stay on the list. It was a short book filled with a lot of interesting information. It is a concise history of the Middle East until present day which is also interesting. </li></ul>

×