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  1. 1. SaltA World History<br />Author: Mark Kurlansky<br />Presented by: Kara Banson<br />
  2. 2. Thesis/ Roadmap<br />Salt was a valuable good that impacted several areas of history since it enabled trading networks, provoked wars, inspired independence, enhanced food flavors, and influenced words that are used today.<br />
  3. 3. Overview: Salt Mining Process<br />3000 B.C (Sichuan) -salt making began in China<br /> Li Bang: founded the first natural brine wells (252 B.C) and used bamboo piping<br />Solar evaporation of sea water<br />System of ponds and sluices: Salt Cay (Bermuda)- ponds drained in order to mend the stone or clay at bottom. The ponds are then refilled and undergo solar evaporation.<br />Other systems included: a human powered wheel that pumped brine, later on salt makers took advantage of the steam engine<br />Close pan production under vacuum (Morton)<br />Salt’s impact on drilling: used to find rock salt. China’s percussion drilling influenced the Europeans to modify. They began using a rotary drill<br />1859 Pennsylvania- Edwin Drake was drilling for salt when he discovered oil instead!<br />
  4. 4. Trading Networks<br />Humans + animals need salt<br />Salt preserved food products<br />Added taste to bland food<br />= demand of salt = trading networks formed<br />Successful salt ports:<br />Sichuan<br />Genoa<br />Sicily<br />Kanawha<br />Timbuktu<br />
  5. 5. Wars<br />American Revolution<br />New England- many salt works- salted cod<br />Colonists produced a lot of salted cod (Britain could not sell all)<br />1700s – colonists did not feel they needed Britain-except their salt<br />Britain imposed tariffs= to inhibit American trade<br />Americans responded with force = led to battles Britain vs. Colonists <br />British blockaded salt reserves = colonists made own salt<br />Conclusion: Treaty of Paris<br />
  6. 6. Wars (con.)<br />Civil War- shortage of salt = strategic advantage<br />Confederates vs. the Union<br />Union blockade: left the confederates with lack of salt + other goods = famine and disease<br />Confederates tried to make own salt and salt substitutes: FAILED<br />Salt working- only way to avoid military service<br />Union destroyed many salt works in the South and liberated slave workers = Union victory<br />
  7. 7. IndependenceGandhi’s salt march<br />India<br />1923- Britain doubled salt tax in order to balance the budget<br />Gandhi led Indian national congress = made Indian independence a massive movement thru salt campaign<br />March 12, 1930: Gandhi + 78 selected followers left ashram and walked 240 miles to the sea at Dandi<br />April 5- reached Dandi with thousands of followers where he picked up a piece salt, which was against salt laws<br />Led to numerous salt protests and salt gathering spread widely<br />He was imprisoned –leading to more rebellions and chaos<br />1931- Lord Irwin signed Gandhi- Irwin pact ending campaign<br />1947- India became independent<br />
  8. 8. Uses in Food<br />Soy sauce- complicated process originally made by peasants produced by fermenting soybeans and adding water and salt<br />Garum sauce-salt and chili powder mixed with minced ginger root found in Italy and Asia<br />Tabasco sauce- Edmund Mcllhenny experimented with Mexican red pepper and pickled it with brine to produce a spicy sauce (Avery Island, Louisiana)<br /> Ketchup-18th century England-anchovy sauce became known as ketchup which means a base of dark thick soy sauce in Indonesian. Later on ketchup became a tomato sauce.<br />Other salted foods includes: caviar and prosciutto<br />Mainly salt was used to preserve herring, cod, and cheese<br />
  9. 9. Word Derivations<br />Salary-Roman soldiers were paid in salt. “Salary” literally means “worth his salt” or “earning his salt”<br />Salad- Romans salted their greens in order to balance out the natural bitterness <br />
  10. 10. Today<br />Due to modern geology salt = common commodity + inexpensive<br />Small salt producers were bought out by big companies such as Morton<br />Morton Salt Company- invented vacuum evaporator- uniform salt crystals <br />USA largest salt producer + salt consumer<br />Produces 40 million metric tons of salt a year and earns more than $1 billion in sales revenue<br />8% of salt production is food <br />51 % of salt production is for road salt<br />