Plagues and Peoples By: William Mcneil PowerPoint by Alycia Quick
Macroparasites vs. Microparasites <ul><li>Macroparasites are defined as parasites large enough for the human eye to see.(H...
Microparasites vs. Civilizations <ul><li>Microparasite infects a member of population. </li></ul><ul><li>Population grows ...
Evolution of Man <ul><li>Man evolved from primates that inhabitated warm, tropical regions. (mostly in Africa) </li></ul><...
Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Domestication of Plants/Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger civilizations/ life expectancy <...
Growth of Civilizations <ul><li>The growth of civilizations allowed for immunities to be acquired against the disease rava...
Trade <ul><li>Classical Empires such as Northern China and the Meditteranean had colder climates so disease weren’t as pre...
Religion <ul><li>Since microparasites were not able to be seen by the naked eye. People had no way of knowing what was cau...
Mongols & The Black Death <ul><li>Mongols nomadic lifestyle was advantageous when it comes to disease because they would a...
Plagues in the New World <ul><li>The discovery of the New World led to one of the most disastrous effects of transference ...
Medical Advancements:  First Steps <ul><li>Steps began in small ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First steps were endorsed by r...
Medical Advancements: Medical Cures <ul><li>1798- Edward Jenner discovered vaccine for smallpox. </li></ul><ul><li>1851- I...
Plagues and Peoples: Conclusion <ul><li>The relationship between parasites and mankind has had a drastic impact in the wor...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Quick Plagues Peoples

2,768 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,768
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Quick Plagues Peoples

  1. 1. Plagues and Peoples By: William Mcneil PowerPoint by Alycia Quick
  2. 2. Macroparasites vs. Microparasites <ul><li>Macroparasites are defined as parasites large enough for the human eye to see.(Humans) </li></ul><ul><li>Microparasites are not able to be seen by the human eye and they need a host to survive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some microparasites live in a mutually beneficial relationship with their host. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>survive and multiply. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some microparasites hurt their hosts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host dies along with microparasite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host becomes immune to microparasite. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Microparasites vs. Civilizations <ul><li>Microparasite infects a member of population. </li></ul><ul><li>Population grows to a certain amount. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite spreads plague through population. </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity is acquired for survivors. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite evolves.(repeated) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution of Man <ul><li>Man evolved from primates that inhabitated warm, tropical regions. (mostly in Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites flourished in warm, tropical regions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to spread easily. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More equality within ecosystem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Man evolved. Left treetops to go to the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Man made advancements(fur/fire) migrated to cooler regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites had harder time transferring in colder regions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller populations= less chance for disease to spread. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Domestication of Plants/Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger civilizations/ life expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier for disease to spread. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close proximity with animals allowed for disease transference. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry 26, Rat 32, Horse 35, Pig 42, Sheep 46, Cattle 50, Dog 65 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation systems allowed more contact with parasites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took away balance of man as a hunter. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Growth of Civilizations <ul><li>The growth of civilizations allowed for immunities to be acquired against the disease ravaging them. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa- malaria/sickle cell disease </li></ul><ul><li>Indus River Valley- constant exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern vs. Southern China </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean- trade (growth/spread) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trade <ul><li>Classical Empires such as Northern China and the Meditteranean had colder climates so disease weren’t as prevalent but with the growth of trade parasites were able to transfer among people much easier. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antione Plague 165-80 BC- 5000 deaths per day. (Europe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unnamed 165-180 AD- 1/3 population died. (Europe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bubonic Plague 526-1027 AD- severe depopulation in both Europe and China- major factor in downfall of both Classical empires. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Religion <ul><li>Since microparasites were not able to be seen by the naked eye. People had no way of knowing what was causing the deaths. So they turned to religion for answers. </li></ul><ul><li>This brought about the rise of Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mongols & The Black Death <ul><li>Mongols nomadic lifestyle was advantageous when it comes to disease because they would acquire many immunities to diseases while the traveled. </li></ul><ul><li>However, they also helped spread disease. </li></ul><ul><li>This allowed then to conquer areas from China to Persia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols were also very open to trade and allowed people free access to their empire for it. </li></ul><ul><li>This allowed for the spread of the Black Death. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of Chinese population killed (1353-54) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 European population killed (1346 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minorities blamed for plague- mainly Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>New religious branches were formed in response to plague. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Plagues in the New World <ul><li>The discovery of the New World led to one of the most disastrous effects of transference of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Americas had some diseases but there was much better balance within the ecosystem because the lack of advancement the ecosystem had more resemblance to that of the early man. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of natives were killed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox from the Spaniards killed 1/3 of natives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for new slaves led to the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africans brought Yellow Fever and Malaria to the Americas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plagues killed natives as well as European colonists. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans acquired such products as maize, potatoes, manioc, peanuts, and chili peppers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes- rise of the Irish/ infected- famine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholera, Syphilis, and Typhus were also introduced into Europe. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Medical Advancements: First Steps <ul><li>Steps began in small ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First steps were endorsed by religions promoting hygiene. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian people and people who inhabited the steppe learned to steer clear of rodents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia’s population increased by 21 million when the plow was instituted because it destroyed rodents habitats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy began to quarantine people effected by plagues. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plague coincidences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes that carried malaria were attracted to cattle blood; where the malaria virus could not survive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bubonic Plague helped cope with syphilis. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Medical Advancements: Medical Cures <ul><li>1798- Edward Jenner discovered vaccine for smallpox. </li></ul><ul><li>1851- International Board was established to fight plagues. </li></ul><ul><li>1893- vaccine for cholera was discovered. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Koch discovered microorganisms as the cause of plagues, motivating countries to take steps toward sanitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals/medical facilities were established. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the discovery of the smallpox disease, vaccines for malaria, polio, cholera, Yellow Fever, and more. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines also played a major role in England’s power during the 18th and 19th centuries. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Plagues and Peoples: Conclusion <ul><li>The relationship between parasites and mankind has had a drastic impact in the world. The early man and parasites had a balanced relationship, but the advancement of man led to an unbalanced relationship. This led to less frequent but more deadly viruses. The parasites invisibly killed many people. They led to cultural changes, conflict, and the rise of many religions. It also led to many advancements in science, and vaccines for these plagues were created. However, they only temporarily stopped the attacks of the ever evolving parasites. </li></ul>

×