Gorbachev Yeltsin And Putin


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Gorbachev Yeltsin And Putin

  1. 1. Gorbachev Yeltsin Putin Archie Brown and Lilia Shevtsova, editors Political Leadership in Russia’s Transition
  2. 2. About The Book <ul><li>Book written by four authors (George W. Breslauer, Archie Brown, Eugene Huskey, Lilia Shevtsova) </li></ul><ul><li>Authors evaluated each of the leadership styles (successful or not) of the three Russian presidents: Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Putin </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed the reader had a basic understanding of the USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Book covered events that took place until May 2001 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gorbachev <ul><li>Became president of USSR when it was a communist nation </li></ul><ul><li>In office from 1985-1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Period when people wanted a change in government. People yearned to move towards a government more like democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to get rid of communism and to make USSR more like the West. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gorbachev’s Personality and Interests <ul><li>Intellectual, interested in Western ideas, controlled his emotions, eternal optimist </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leader </li></ul><ul><li>Embraced differences of opinions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Successful or Not?...depends on how you look at it <ul><li>Positives: </li></ul><ul><li>Curtailed communism and worked to restructure USSR to market economy (known as Perestroika) </li></ul><ul><li>USSR and the West became allies under his policy of openness (known as Glasnost) </li></ul><ul><li>Tore down Berlin Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Ended the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Gave Russians civil liberties (private media, freedom of religion and speech, emigration) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced contested elections in USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in foreign policy making </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Did not build up market economy </li></ul><ul><li>Was not able to keep USSR states unified </li></ul><ul><li>Massive corruption in government </li></ul><ul><li>When he left office people in Russia were worse off </li></ul><ul><li>Left a dysfunctional political system in Russia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Yeltsin <ul><li>Recommended by Gorbachev to be his successor of Russia and then was elected by the people </li></ul><ul><li>In office from 1991-2000, then voluntarily resigned </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>-When elected in 1991, he said he wanted to build up Russia into a more democratic nation </li></ul><ul><li>-Yet by 1993, he limited Parliament’s power and wrote a new constitution that gave him absolute power. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Yeltsin’s Personality and Interests <ul><li>Jealous of Gorbachev because of his favoritism with the West, always suspicious, demanded absolute loyalty (angry with any disagreements.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Successful or Not?...depends on how you look at it <ul><li>Positives: </li></ul><ul><li>Put an end to communism in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives: </li></ul><ul><li>Came into power when the people were more fearful and unsure about democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Never had a clear plan on how to construct democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Corrupt government </li></ul><ul><li>His regime encouraged a lack of accountability in all political institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Weak leader </li></ul><ul><li>Did not carry out his goal to build a more democratic country </li></ul>*Informally appointed his daughter as Vice President
  9. 9. Putin <ul><li>Was elected as Russia’s president in Jan 2000 after: </li></ul><ul><li> 1) Yeltsin recommended him </li></ul><ul><li>2) Lack of alternate candidates </li></ul><ul><li>3) Government inflated his approval ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to stabilize Russia by strengthening the state and improving social order </li></ul>
  10. 10. Putin’s Personality and Interests <ul><li>Highly disciplined person </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to control all levels of power </li></ul><ul><li>Played on the deep fears of the Russian people </li></ul>
  11. 11. More About Putin… <ul><li>When elected, Russians did not know where he stood on the issues presented to him (some called him a “Blank Slate”) </li></ul><ul><li>When elected, the people had deep feelings of insecurity. 70% of Russian citizens did not believe in the Western model of democracy for Russia and yearned to return to old ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Little experience as a political leader </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to strengthen the state’s power by limiting the freedom of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced private with state run media </li></ul>