Forces of habit.2


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Forces of habit.2

  1. 1. Forces of HabitDrugs and the Making of the Modern World David T. Courtwright By Libby Dimenstein
  2. 2. The Psychoactive Revolution The distribution of drugs and the spread of drug-use The economy of drugs Medical vs. recreational Advertising and mass-production Government and drugs Taxation vs. prohibition Smuggling and illicit behavior Power struggles
  3. 3. Psychoactive Substances The Big Three Alcohol Wine, beer, and spirits Tobacco Caffeine Coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks The Little Three Opium Morphine Cannabis Ganja and Marijuana Coca Cocaine
  4. 4. Regional Drugs- Why aren’t they as popular? The kava beverage, betel, and hallucinogens were never as widely used as other drugs. Why? Initial aversion Cosmetic defects Unwanted side effects Shipping convenience Cost Religious beliefs
  5. 5. Medicinal Use Most drugs became popular through medicinal use Tobacco was used against the Plague Wine was used against fever and fatigue Hard liquor renewed strength The big medical dilemma- treat the patient and receive benefits vs. no benefits and no chance of addiction
  6. 6. Addiction and Demand Exposure is necessary, but does not guarantee addiction As addiction continues, tolerance grows To get the initial effect, users must consume more There is always a demand for drugs
  7. 7. Advertisement and Sales Each drug is essentially the same material Sellers must distinguish themselves Sellers can: Advertise Make better products Cut costs Creating new markets Buck Duke created a cigarette empire Huge advertising New markets Tailored advertising
  8. 8. Fuel for Workers Drugs act as incentives for workers and create dependency Opium kept traveling Chinese workers in debt Colombians smoked cannabis to survive their work Tobacco calmed nerves in the Civil War Native Americans traded all they had for liquor
  9. 9. Drug Taxation Legal drugs can bring in huge amounts of money for governments Import and export taxes State monopolies Tax dependency Governments wish to stop the use of dangerous drugs, but cannot afford to lose the tax money Attempted alcohol prohibition in India High and low taxes If taxes are too high, smuggling will occur Tea and tobacco smuggling in Britain If taxes are too low, unregulated use of drugs will occur
  10. 10. Prohibition Why prohibition? Users can hurt themselves and those around them Drives up taxes for society Against religion Association of a drug with a disliked group Endangers future of society
  11. 11. Large Effects Rum and sugar fueled the Atlantic slave trade Coffee sped up the building of the railroad Tobacco provided money for the American Revolution
  12. 12. Works Cited Courtwright, David T. Forces of Habit. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.