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  1. 1. A Biography of the Fish that changed the World By Madeline McNamara
  2. 2. About Cod <ul><li>Omnivore </li></ul><ul><li>10 families, over 200 species </li></ul><ul><li>Lives 20-30 years (at it’s peak) </li></ul><ul><li>When dried, cod is 80% protein </li></ul><ul><li>Is the only reason Europe could explore America </li></ul><ul><li>Built many societies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Beginning <ul><li>Basques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st to salt cod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret to cod </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps cod fresh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes travel possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catholics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt Cod Days </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Obsession <ul><li>Exploring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6ft, 211 lb cod and 6ft lobsters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring and charting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found great amounts of Cod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1508- 10% of all fish sold in Portuguese ports were cod </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Europe <ul><li>1550 - 60% of all fish eaten in Europe was cod </li></ul><ul><li>Cod advanced European exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for new routes to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholomew Gosnold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered sassafras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape Cod </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Smith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the first maps </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. New England <ul><li>18 th century- New England had international commercial power </li></ul><ul><li>Worshipped Cod </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant on Cod </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advancements <ul><li>Schooner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bigger and faster boat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trawling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longlining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net that hangs off boat </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cod Wars Iceland vs. Britain <ul><li>1 st Cod War - 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland extends territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ½ years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland keeps territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd Cod War – 1968 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland extends territory again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England objects again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trawl wire cutter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland keeps territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 rd Cod War – 1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland extends territory again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England still objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland keeps territory and all of Europe gets the same territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All countries start claiming waters and continental shelves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of the world’s fishing grounds closed due to territorial claims </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Overfishing <ul><li>1994- cod was commercially extinct </li></ul><ul><li>migratory patterns changed </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching sexual maturity earlier </li></ul><ul><li>60% of fish types tracked by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) are categorized as fully exploited, over exploited, or depleted </li></ul><ul><li>70% of British waters are being overfished </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994 the cod stock was 40% of what it had been in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Societies collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Fishermen in need of new jobs </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is nothing else here. If they don’t catch fish they will have no work. But if they keep catching enough to earn a living the fish will disappear.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Mike Townsend </li></ul>