Thesis<br />“Coal has always been both a creative and a destructive force.” (p.14)<br />Although it assisted society in the modernization of our world, such as the industrial revolution, it also forces society to face issues of pollution and global warming, that ultimately could lead to a literal dark ending.<br />
A Portable Climate<br /><ul><li>“Coal is a highly concentrated vestige of extinct life forms that once dominated the planet…” p.3
Coal sources in Britain allowed the industrial revolution to occur
The United States utilized coal, turning the forested land mass into and industrialized world
“… as China is finally beginning to join the developed world, it has learned that the fuel it is depending on to get it there is threatening the fate of the planet….”p. 14</li></li></ul><li>The Best Stone in Britain<br /><ul><li>Coal emerged in the Carboniferous period, consisting of decomposed plants and animals
The lack of trees within Britain enabled the coal industry to burst forth, forcing citizens to eventuallyburn coal domestically by 1570. The size of London increased and professional specialization occurred, eventually leading to the Elizabethan age.
Chimneys were installed in many homes which will lead to pollution.
Londoners believed that the smoke from coal held off “disease causing air”, such as the bubonic plague. When burning coal, they did not know the long terms effects on both the environment and their health. The smoke from the coal hurt their lungs considerably.</li></ul>Above - The Carboniferous Period<br />
Launching a Revolution<br /><ul><li>“Coal was getting more energy than woodlands could ever have obtained.” p. 55
Mining was the most dangerous profession of the time.
Drainage problems in mines threatened the mining population’s livelihood.
The Newcomen Engine solved the flooding problem. Based on these same ideas a steam engine was created.
Between the years of 1780-1830 Britain produced most of the world’s coal and iron supply.</li></ul>Above – The Newcomen Engine<br />
Full Steam Ahead<br /><ul><li>Steam driven cotton mills were created, making textiles which “created larger middle class, richer industrial elite, and in increasingly isolated class of industrial wage laborers and slum-dwellers.
Machines worked faster than people, so many lost employment and in turn went to work for a steam engine operated factory, resulting in an endless cycle until the majority of human worked factories were abolished.
In under two generations, or a quarter of a century, people were converted from agriculturalists to manufacturers
Because of the rainy climate in Britain, ships were used to transport coal up and down the coasts.
George Stephenson built the iron railways that assisted in the movement of both people and coal.</li></ul>Above – The Manchester Cotton Mills.<br />
A Precious Seed<br /><ul><li>The settlers in America had no idea that the bountiful coal fields stretched from PA to AL.
During the French Indian war France, Britain, and Native Tribes fought over areas for unsuspected reasons.
It was expensive to ship mined coal over the Appalachian Mountains, so the eastern seaboard did not take part in the industrial revolution until later.
Anthracite modernized the American Iron Industry.
Railways transported goods between the North and South during the Civil War.</li></ul>Above – Forests were found in great abundance in North America, providing Britain with a new fuel source.<br />
The Rise and Fall of King Coal<br /><ul><li>The Molly Maguires were a secret organization of Irish Catholic coal-mining terrorists.
The use of soft coal became popular in the U.S.
Franklin B. Gowen owned Reading Railroads, which was later reorganized by J. Pier Morgan.
In 1890 the U.S. surpassed Britain by becoming the leader in coal production, paving way for a new industrial superpower.
John Mitchell took on Anthracite mines which led to a miners strike and an energy crisis.
The U.S., tired of the issues coal created, began work on not releasing as much smoke.
UMW had new hope with the New Deal created by Roosevelt because a man named John L. Lewis won miners contract terms that improved their lives and formed the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organization).
After the war people turned away from coal because natural gas was prominent and worked with modern day technologies.</li></ul>Above- John L. Lewis, a leader of revived American Labor.<br />
Invisible Power<br /><ul><li>Acid rain, connected to coal emissions, hurt the environment.
Coal provides just over half the electricity for the U.S.
Positive effects of global warming include a decrease in domestic heating, crop and wood production may increase, and some animal species will thrive.
Negative effects of global warming include more droughts, heat waves, forest fires, extinction rates will rise, and in third world countries, food sources may be stretched thin.
The balance of CO2 is being threatened, which will disrupt ecosystems and animal populations.
The Bush administration opposed the Kyoto Protocol, which the Clinton Administration supported, because certain countries were exempted from it, such as China (who burn just as much coal as us).</li></ul>Above – Global warming is affecting our environment and the species that live within them.<br />
A Sort of Black Stone<br /><ul><li>When Marco Polo returned from his journey, he was called a liar because he told about China’s wealth, government systems, and canals.
China (Kaifeng specifically)began to burn coal 500 years before the Romans in Britain.
Sometimes Chinese coal was more expensive than imported coal, because it was so expensive to mine before a railroad was introduced.
Railroads were introduced in Kaifeng, despite the governments opinion. However, once they saw the positive effects on efficiency and production rates, they embraced the idea.
“Mao Zedong decided China would catch up to the west and develop its economy with the exploitation of manpower and will power.” p.207 However, they did not think of how much coal they would use in order to make the steel industry prosperous.
China’s energy has grown only half as fast as their economy. Is this because they learned from the mistakes of their predecessors?</li></ul>Above – Coal miners in China.<br />
A Burning Legacy<br /><ul><li>The use of Wind and solar power are ideal but hard to rely upon.
Without a doubt the world will warm because of the green house gases already emitted, but if people become more conscious of the environment, we can prevent further global warming by reducing our emissions.
As already proved, more and more catastrophic things will happen as our world continues to warm because our world is so dependent upon one resource.</li></ul>Above – This map depicts prominent coal deposits throughout the world. <br />
Bibliography<br />Written Source<br />Freese, Barbara. Coal: A Human History. N.p.: Penguin Books, 2004.<br />Pictures<br /><ul><li>Pierce, Kathleen. Gourmet Gal. 28 Aug. 2008. 4 Jan. 2010 </li></ul><http://www.thesunblog.com/gourmetgal/Coffee-Posters.jpg>.<br /><ul><li>Allie, Kyoshi. L.I. Ninjutsu Centers. 2009. 4 Jan. 2010 <http://www.lininja.com/Questions_for_Kyoshi.html>.