Student Resistance<br />Bridget McCarthy<br />
Origin of Universities and Student Power<br />12th Century Schools were formed to bond scholars together<br />A University...
“Town and Gowns”<br />“Town and Gowns” were what the conflict between the students and towns people were called<br />Over ...
Renaissance Period<br />Universities thrived – popularity of education<br />Students began to influence European society<b...
Organized Student Groups<br />1811 in Germany a student named Friedrich Jahn instituted a scholastic reform <br />Leading ...
19th century<br />Universities around the world caught the fever of student activism in 1860s<br />Sweden, France, Great B...
Global Spread<br />In early 20th century student activism had spread all over, even into developing countries<br />Argenti...
1920s and 1930 <br />Revolutions in Latin America<br />Tried to follow Argentina’s example<br />Other government leaders w...
1920s and 1930s<br />Students became more vocal and spoke out about more issues, many political<br />India and Burma prote...
1940 - 1959<br />Students around Europe were absorbed in war efforts <br />Many universities closed down<br />Post War <br...
1960s <br />Resistance in South Korea, Japan, China, Germany, Indonesia, India, France, Turkey, Africa, United States, Lat...
1968 & 1969<br />1968: Year of the Student<br />France, Germany, Great Britain, Eastern Europe, Ireland, Africa, Middle Ea...
1968 & 1969 <br />Student Resistance:<br />Japan: 1968 radical groups formed against government; anti-Vietnam and anti-US ...
Terrorism and Violence in 1970s<br />Violence in Germany, England France, USA, Japan, Mexico, Thailand, China, South Korea...
Student Resistance<br />From the time Universities were founded students used unity and numbers to voice their concerns or...
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Brie Powerpoint

  1. 1. Student Resistance<br />Bridget McCarthy<br />
  2. 2. Origin of Universities and Student Power<br />12th Century Schools were formed to bond scholars together<br />A University symbolized upper/middle class or wealth<br />For the next two upcoming centuries Universities spread all over Europe<br />By the mid-fourteenth century, students in Europe realized their power with unity<br />Students tried to change the way towns treated them, threatening to move their university elsewhere if they weren’t treated better<br />Universities brought wealth to towns, so they had to oblige<br />This led to fighting between the town’s people and students for centuries to come<br />
  3. 3. “Town and Gowns”<br />“Town and Gowns” were what the conflict between the students and towns people were called<br />Over the centuries there were hundreds of violent fights between the two groups<br />The struggles between them were for physical and political power<br />Students began to be perceived as threats, a symbol of the power they had in towns and countries<br />
  4. 4. Renaissance Period<br />Universities thrived – popularity of education<br />Students began to influence European society<br />They began to question and debate subjects, such as the catholic theory <br />Students were able to convey their thoughts<br />Led to controversy throughout Europe<br />The wars between Protestants and Catholics led to internal struggles within universities <br />Some teachers refused to speak what they thought, others were extremely vocal causing outrage and disagreement from students<br />Conflict and violence occurred between the different groups of students<br />Students spoke their minds <br />Riots and protests began to occur <br />Students wanted to convey their thoughts<br />
  5. 5. Organized Student Groups<br />1811 in Germany a student named Friedrich Jahn instituted a scholastic reform <br />Leading to the evolution of organized revolts<br />Burschenschaften developed in 1815 at University of Jena in Germany<br />Became one of the most successful and long lasting groups<br />Groups evolved all of Germany, uniting the German students<br />Groups evolved in Poland as well<br />Secret groups were called Polon; they conspired against Russia<br />Groups were outlawed out of fear<br />In the 1820s they were destroyed by Russian military<br />France Groups<br />Louis Auguste Blanqui formed a student revolution in 1827 against the French monarchy <br />In 1839 there was a huge protest/revolution against the government<br />The students were violently suppressed and arrested <br />But these actions by the government encouraged more students to become student radicals and attack through violence<br />
  6. 6. 19th century<br />Universities around the world caught the fever of student activism in 1860s<br />Sweden, France, Great Britain, Spain, Mexico, China, India, Peru, Turkey, United States, Russia, Germany, and Austria<br />Many student groups used violence to preach what they wanted, and sometimes succeeded <br />For example in Russia students used terrorism and violence to attempt to obtain what they wanted<br />They were not successful<br />In other countries, such as China students were non-violent due to compromise with the government <br />These groups were more successful<br />
  7. 7. Global Spread<br />In early 20th century student activism had spread all over, even into developing countries<br />Argentina, Chile, Bosnia <br />In eastern Europe students turned to terrorism<br />Non-successful<br />But in Argentina there was a successful non-violent student movement<br />Students were able to compromise with government to gain student power in universities<br />They were successful because they were not seen as a threat and they raised attention through the media<br />
  8. 8. 1920s and 1930 <br />Revolutions in Latin America<br />Tried to follow Argentina’s example<br />Other government leaders weren’t as willing<br />Many student groups were suppressed with violence<br />There was violence throughout Latin America <br />In 1931 Latin American students formed the Latin American Student Congress<br />Gave the students a central voice, and power<br />China<br />May 13th, 1921- students and workers went on strike<br />Declared boycotts on foreign goods<br />Stood as a unified force<br />Violent suppression and group fell apart<br />Chinese Government (Chiang Kai-shek) realized student power and directed their anger at the Japanese successfully<br />Led to marches and demonstrations against Japanese <br />War broke out between Japan and China eventually, and students of China were supporting their country due to Chiang Kai-sheck’ssmart leadership<br />
  9. 9. 1920s and 1930s<br />Students became more vocal and spoke out about more issues, many political<br />India and Burma protested against imperial power of British<br />Burma had a large student strike in 1920 <br />Two of the students later became powerful men in Burma politics helping Burma achieve their independence from Britain in 1948 <br />Indian students developed All India Student Conference <br />Students began to strike against Britain at campuses around the country <br />They began to boycott Britain goods <br />Helped achieve India’s independence by getting media attention<br />German resistance<br />Many pro-Nazi student groups arouse in Germany<br />Spread throughout Universities in the country<br />Anti-Nazi movements were too late and violently suppressed <br />USA Activism Explosion<br />Protests against economy in the Great Depression and in 1926 Nation Student Federation was founded<br />In a few years ½ million students were involved <br />Strikes took place with huge numbers <br />
  10. 10. 1940 - 1959<br />Students around Europe were absorbed in war efforts <br />Many universities closed down<br />Post War <br />Students became involved again although many of the most vocal student activists had joined the war and did not return to school<br />World War II took a large toll on student resistance <br />Post War in US<br />McCarthyism challenged<br />Anti-communist groups formed<br />Groups against racism and sexism formed<br />
  11. 11. 1960s <br />Resistance in South Korea, Japan, China, Germany, Indonesia, India, France, Turkey, Africa, United States, Latin America<br />South Korea: fought for liberalization and modernization<br />Japan: battled against US imperialism with violence<br />China: Anti-US groups formed, communist groups <br />Indonesia: anti-communist groups, suppressed with violence<br />India: Students wanted more rights<br />France: Protested for Algerian freedom<br />Germany: Government tried to suppress all student activism, students fought for their rights <br />Netherlands: One of their student groups was so powerful they threatened the government to become a political party<br />Turkey: fought against government <br />Africa: resistance all over continent<br />USA: fought against or for racial segregation, <br />Latin America: Against internal politics with violence<br />
  12. 12. 1968 & 1969<br />1968: Year of the Student<br />France, Germany, Great Britain, Eastern Europe, Ireland, Africa, Middle East, Pakistan<br />France: protested against Vietnam wars, Western Imperialism, militarism with a lot of violence and unity<br />Ireland: protested protestant domination of Northern Ireland- violent suppression <br />England: anti-Vietnam war campaigns 100,00 student march in London 1968<br />Germany: Huge groups challenged government; violent suppression; attacked with terrorism and violence<br />Italy: labor movement, students and workers came together <br />Eastern Europe: violent suppression, students killed<br />Africa & Middle East: labor strikes<br />Pakistan: assassination attempts, violence, caused government to fall<br />
  13. 13. 1968 & 1969 <br />Student Resistance:<br />Japan: 1968 radical groups formed against government; anti-Vietnam and anti-US groups formed<br />Mexico: Protests against government, troops had to use violence, 50 – 500 students killed on October 2nd, 1968<br />United States: Protests for Civil Rights, Anti-Vietnam war, student representation, social revolution, Anti-McCarthyism, Women’s rights<br />
  14. 14. Terrorism and Violence in 1970s<br />Violence in Germany, England France, USA, Japan, Mexico, Thailand, China, South Korea, South East Asia, Africa, and Iran<br />Students used terrorism and violence to protest <br />
  15. 15. Student Resistance<br />From the time Universities were founded students used unity and numbers to voice their concerns ordesires<br />Violence was often used successfully drawing media attention, but students usually did not succeed with the government<br />Non-violent movements were listened to more, although many student groups thought they could only draw attention with violence or terrorism<br />Student groups have left huge impacts on their nations throughout the world and altered history<br />

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