A Pwar&Peace


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A Pwar&Peace

  1. 1. War And Peace in the Middle East By Avi Shlaim Presentation by Catherine Collins Ap World History G Dr. Murnane
  2. 2. Background of Middle East <ul><li>Middle East has been an object of rivalry since 1798. </li></ul><ul><li>No sole power has controlled Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>Its geographical placement and its abundance of oil has made the Middle East an area of importance. </li></ul><ul><li>The entire Middle East has never been at peace to this day. </li></ul><ul><li>The politics of the Middle East are not based on regional issues alone but the relations of outside power and local power. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shlaim’s View on Middle East <ul><li>Shlaim’s Thesis: External forces were the largest determining factors in the development of the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>Shlaim divided the external involvement in the Middle East into four phases in time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European ( British and French) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superpower (American & Soviet Union) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Took place in the time period of 1516- 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Turks were in control from Constantinople; many were Sultan descendants </li></ul><ul><li>This empire was dynastic, Islamic, and multiethnic </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed local traditions and rules to be upheld </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman empire gave more regional power to Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire was successful in several areas but began to decline after the late 18th Century </li></ul>
  5. 5. Post Ottoman Syndrome <ul><li>British made promises to allies for military advantages </li></ul><ul><li>They made three very famous promises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised to split land with France between the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised to support Arab independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised to provide a national home for Jews in Palestine. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. European Power In Middle East <ul><li>European power began as the Ottoman empire was declining at the End of World War I until the 1956 Suez Crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>With European control new political and territorial orders were introduced to the Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New states, boundaries and rulers were introduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The British and French were the most involved in Middle Eastern politics in the European time period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start of significant Western involvement in Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New state and political systems caused instability </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. America Between Arabs and Israelis <ul><li>America became directly involved in the conflicts between the Arabs and the Israelis which resulted in a total of 6 wars </li></ul><ul><li>The United States had 4 vital interests in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cold War (power over Soviets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curbing Arab radicalism and terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security of Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first three interests are often contradictory to securing Israel and that has been a large problem for the USA </li></ul>
  8. 8. Super Powers in Middle East <ul><li>Superpower phase was 1950s-1991 </li></ul><ul><li>It began with the decline of the European phase & ended with the collapse of Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>The Superpowers were America and Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>M.E. was controlled locally, no political unit or military occupied M.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Worked through alliances, made economic & arms assistance </li></ul>
  9. 9. Politics of Persian Gulf <ul><li>Persian Gulf controls oil & Indian ocean trade </li></ul><ul><li>America focused on oil, arms supplies & keeping Soviet Union away from oil fields </li></ul><ul><li>Britain’s interest in Gulf for regional politics & internal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Neither could protect Gulf because of Vietnam war & other commitments </li></ul><ul><li>America assisted the shah of Iran who was disliked among Iranians --> made America unpopular also </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs revolted against America over Israel by refusing to sell oil to USA </li></ul>
  10. 10. Iran- Iraq War <ul><li>American hostages held over a year in Tehran </li></ul><ul><li>Iran was viewed as radical & Iraq as controlled </li></ul><ul><li>America took Iraq’s side without military support, only negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Longest war since WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Iran was larger worldwide threat with more military & technology support </li></ul><ul><li>America, once on Iraq side, later takes measures to remove Saddam from power & have his people revolt against him </li></ul>
  11. 11. American Phase <ul><li>America gains greater control once they defeat Soviets in the Cold war in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Main goal was to keep “status quo” </li></ul><ul><li>American entered Iraq war to set up government for Iraq and to help reduce terrorism in Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Shlaim often criticizes America for making Cold War & Israel more important than peace in Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>After gaining more power USA is now attempting to make Middle East a larger priority </li></ul>
  12. 12. Attempt for Peace <ul><li>America’s competition with Soviets is replaced with cooperation in early 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>After 20 months & 10 rounds of peace talks Israelis attempts peace with Palestinians </li></ul><ul><li>Israel is still a priority but more attention is on Arab rights and equal attention throughout Middle East </li></ul>