With the onset of the Information Age, our nation is becoming
increasingly dependent upon network communications.
Computer-based technology is significantly impacting our ability to
access, store, and distribute information. Among the most
important uses of this technology is electronic commerce:
performing financial transactions via electronic information
exchanged over telecommunications lines.
The need for security is highlighted by the rise of the Internet,
which promises to be a leading medium for future electronic
Electronic payment systems come in many forms including digital
cheques, debit cards, credit cards, and stored value cards.
The usual security features for such systems are privacy,
authenticity, and no repudiation .
Paper cash has such features as being: easily carried, recognizable
hence readily acceptable, transferable, untraceable (no record of where
money is spent), anonymous (no record of who spent the money) and
has the ability to make "change."
The designers of electronic cash focused on preserving the features of
un traceability and anonymity.
Thus, electronic cash is defined to be an electronic payment system that
provides, in addition to the above security features, the properties of user
anonymity and payment un traceability.
This term is often applied to any electronic payment scheme that
superficially resembles cash to the user. However, electronic cash is
a specific kind of electronic payment scheme, defined by certain
The term electronic commerce refers to any financial transaction
involving the electronic transmission of information.
The packets of information being transmitted are commonly called
the storage medium as a card since it commonly takes the form of a
wallet-sized card made of plastic or cardboard.
The electronic payment scenario assumes three kinds of players
A payer or consumer, whom we will name Alice,
A payee, such as a merchant. We will name the payee Bob.
A financial network with whom both Alice and Bob have accounts. We will
informally refer to the financial network as the Bank.
There are four major components in an electronic cash system:
Issuers can be banks, or non-bank institutions; customers are referred to
users who spend E-Cash; merchants are vendors who receive E-Cash,
and regulators are defined as related government agencies. For an E-
Cash transaction to occur, we need to go through at least three stages:
Account Setup: Customers will need to obtain E-Cash accounts
through certain issuers. Merchants who would like to accept E-
Cash will also need to arrange accounts from various E-Cash
issuers. Issuers typically handle accounting for customers and
Purchase: Customers purchase certain goods or services, and
give the merchants tokens which represent equivalent E-Cash.
Purchase information is usually encrypted when transmitting in the
Authentication: Merchants will need to contact E-Cash issuers
about the purchase and the amount of E-Cash involved. E-Cash
issuers will then authenticate the transaction and approve the
amount E-Cash involved.
Key elements of a private e-cash system
Portable (physical independence)
Infinite duration (until destroyed)
Wide acceptability (trust)
2 Existing and Proposed Retail Payment Systems
Automated Teller Machines
How does E-cash work?
Basically, it's an ordinary card, made by Shlumberger, but with a very
smart mind. Instead of a magnetic strip, you have an actual microchip
containing all the data about that particular account is built into the
All you have to do is operate the card with a unique Personal
Identification Number (PIN) that gives you credit facilities as well as full
security against misuse as long as you keep it to yourself. The
customer has to pay an annual sum for the use of the card.
Electronic cash system must have a way to protect against multiple
Token forgery can be prevented in an electronic cash system as long as the
cryptography is sound and securely implemented, the secret keys used to sign
coins are not compromised, and integrity is maintained on the public keys