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ROAD TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS                      1
Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch                            by Immanuel Kant 1795SECTION ICONTAINING THE PRELIMINAR...
4. "National Debts Shall Not Be Contracted with a View to the ExternalFriction of States";5. "No State Shall by Force Inte...
SECTION II             CONTAINING THE DEFINITIVE ARTICLES            FOR PERPETUAL PEACE AMONG STATESFIRST DEFINITIVE ARTI...
Idealism in internationalrelations usually refersto the school of thoughtpersonified in Americandiplomatic history byWoodr...
Idealism as a substantive theory of IR isgenerally associated with the claim that it ispossible to create a world of peace...
Idealism holds that a state should make itsinternal political philosophy the goal of itsforeign policy.For example, an ide...
Idealism is also marked by the prominent roleplayed by international law and internationalorganizations in its conception ...
Idealism transcends the left-right politicalspectrum.Idealists can include both human rightscampaigners (traditionally, bu...
Idealism may find itself in opposition toRealism, a worldview which argues that anations national interest is more importa...
LiberalismLiberalism manifested a tempered version ofWilsons idealism in the wake of World War II.Cognizant* of the failur...
These international regimes, such as theUnited Nations, NATO, the Bretton Woods system,and the GATT, were calculated both ...
NeoconservatismNeoconservatism drew from Liberalism its intensefocus on the promotion of "universal values",in this case d...
The Fourteen Points were listed in a speechdelivered by President Woodrow Wilson of theUnited States to a joint session of...
The speech was delivered over 10 months beforethe Armistice with Germany ended World War I,but the Fourteen Points became ...
Fourteen Points1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which   there shall be no private international unders...
4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that   national armaments will be reduced to the   lowest point consistent with dom...
6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such asettlement of all questions affecting Russia as will securethe best a...
7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuatedand restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereigntywhich s...
9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should beeffected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.10.The peopl...
12. The Turkish portion of the present OttomanEmpire should be assured a secure sovereignty,but the other nationalities wh...
13. An independent Polish state should be erected  which should include the territories inhabited by  indisputably Polish ...
Wilson’s view;“The balance of power is the great game now foreverdiscredited. It’s the old and evil order that prevailed b...
“Balance of power was no longer tolerable.” “Sovereign states could not be abolished. But force could be tamed by law and ...
Wilson accused of be an utopian. But he knewthat mere paper agreements and treaties wouldnot be sufficient.Moral force was...
Collective security involves two relatedconcepts; sovereignty andinternational law.Thus signing the pact of the League ofN...
• The American Senate refused to ratify  the Covenant.             The question(!) Why did the USA hold back when, to a   ...
• Most Americans wanted to return to “normalcy.”• Many defined “normal” as avoiding involement in  international affairs.•...
PURPOSES OF THE LEAGEU OF NATIONSThe League was created;1. To provide a world organization and thus   eliminate internatio...
SUCCESS, WEAKNESS AND FAILURES OF             THE LEAGUE• Successes;• Small nations boundary disputes (Finland-Sweden, Yug...
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Idealizm wilsonisim- League of Nations'

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Idealizm wilsonisim- League of Nations'

  1. 1. ROAD TO THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 1
  2. 2. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch by Immanuel Kant 1795SECTION ICONTAINING THE PRELIMINARY ARTICLES FOR PERPETUAL PEACEAMONG STATES1."No Treaty of Peace Shall Be Held Valid in Which There Is Tacitly ReservedMatter for a Future War";2. "No Independent States, Large or Small, Shall Come under the Dominion ofAnother State by Inheritance, Exchange, Purchase, or Donation"3. "Standing Armies (miles perpetuus) Shall in Time Be Totally Abolished"; 2
  3. 3. 4. "National Debts Shall Not Be Contracted with a View to the ExternalFriction of States";5. "No State Shall by Force Interfere with the Constitution or Governmentof Another State";6. "No State Shall, during War, Permit Such Acts of Hostility Which WouldMake Mutual Confidence in the Subsequent Peace Impossible: Such Arethe Employment of Assassins (percussores), Poisoners (venefici), Breachof Capitulation, and Incitement to Treason (perduellio) in the OpposingState"; 3
  4. 4. SECTION II CONTAINING THE DEFINITIVE ARTICLES FOR PERPETUAL PEACE AMONG STATESFIRST DEFINITIVE ARTICLE FOR PERPETUAL PEACE"The Civil Constitution of Every State Should Be Republican";SECOND DEFINITIVE ARTICLE FOR A PERPETUAL PEACE"The Law of Nations Shall be Founded on a Federation of FreeStates";THIRD DEFINITIVE ARTICLE FOR A PERPETUAL PEACE"The Law of World Citizenship Shall Be Limited to Conditions ofUniversal Hospitality"; 4
  5. 5. Idealism in internationalrelations usually refersto the school of thoughtpersonified in Americandiplomatic history byWoodrow Wilson, suchthat it is sometimesreferred to asWilsonianism, or Wilson was awarded theWilsonian Idealism. 1919 Nobel Peace Prize in 1920 for his peace-making efforts.5
  6. 6. Idealism as a substantive theory of IR isgenerally associated with the claim that it ispossible to create a world of peace.But idealism as a social theory refers to theclaim that the most fundamental feature of thesociety is social consciousness. 6
  7. 7. Idealism holds that a state should make itsinternal political philosophy the goal of itsforeign policy.For example, an idealist might believe thatending poverty at home should be coupled withtackling poverty abroad.Wilsons idealism was a precursor toliberal international relations theory, which wouldarise amongst the "institution-builders" afterWorld War II. 7
  8. 8. Idealism is also marked by the prominent roleplayed by international law and internationalorganizations in its conception of policyformation.One of the most well-known tenets of modernidealist thinking is democratic peace theory,which holds that states with similar modes ofdemocratic governance do not fight one another.Wilsons idealistic thought was embodied in hisFourteen points speech, and in the creation of theLeague of Nations. 8
  9. 9. Idealism transcends the left-right politicalspectrum.Idealists can include both human rightscampaigners (traditionally, but not always,associated with the left) and Americanneoconservatism which is usuallyassociated with the right. 9
  10. 10. Idealism may find itself in opposition toRealism, a worldview which argues that anations national interest is more importantthan ethical or moral considerations; however,there need be no conflict between the two (seeNeoconservatism for an example of aconfluence of the two).Realist thinkers include,Niccolò Machiavelli, Otto von Bismarck, HansMorgenthau George F. Kennan and others. 10
  11. 11. LiberalismLiberalism manifested a tempered version ofWilsons idealism in the wake of World War II.Cognizant* of the failures of Idealism to preventrenewed isolationism following World War I, andits inability to manage the balance of power inEurope to prevent the outbreak of a new war,liberal thinkers devised a set of internationalinstitutions based on rule of law and regularizedinteraction. 11
  12. 12. These international regimes, such as theUnited Nations, NATO, the Bretton Woods system,and the GATT, were calculated both to maintain abalance of power as well as regularizecooperation between nations. 12
  13. 13. NeoconservatismNeoconservatism drew from Liberalism its intensefocus on the promotion of "universal values",in this case democracy, human rights, free trade,womens rights and minority protections.However, it differs in that it is less wedded to theimportance of preserving international institutionsand treaties while pursuing assertive or aggressivestances which it deems morally worthy, and iswilling to use force or the threat of force,unilaterally if necessary, to push for its goals. 13
  14. 14. The Fourteen Points were listed in a speechdelivered by President Woodrow Wilson of theUnited States to a joint session of theUnited States Congress on January 8, 1918.This speech was intended to make a plan forpeace in Europe after World War I. The idealismdisplayed in the speech gave Wilson a positionof moral leadership among the Allies, andencouraged the Central Powers to surrender. 14
  15. 15. The speech was delivered over 10 months beforethe Armistice with Germany ended World War I,but the Fourteen Points became the basis for theterms of the German surrender, as negotiated atthe Paris Peace Conference in 1919 anddocumented in the Treaty of Versailles.However, only four of the points were adoptedcompletely in thepost-war reconstruction of Europe, and theUnited States Senate refused to ratify theTreaty of Versailles. 15
  16. 16. Fourteen Points1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. 16
  17. 17. 4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. This also said that this safety would be kept in place for years to come.5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. 17
  18. 18. 6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such asettlement of all questions affecting Russia as will securethe best and freest cooperation of the other nations of theworld in obtaining for her an unhampered andunembarrassed opportunity for the independentdetermination of her own political development andnational policy and assure her of a sincere welcome intothe society of free nations under institutions of her ownchoosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also ofevery kind that she may need and may herself desire. Thetreatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in themonths to come will be the acid test of their good will, oftheir comprehension of her needs as distinguished fromtheir own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfishsympathy. 18
  19. 19. 7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuatedand restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereigntywhich she enjoys in common with all other free nations.No other single act will serve as this will serve to restoreconfidence among the nations in the laws which they havethemselves set and determined for the government of theirrelations with one another. Without this healing act thewhole structure and validity of international law is foreverimpaired.8. All French territory should be freed and the invadedportions restored, and the wrong done to France byPrussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, whichhas unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years,should be righted, in order that peace may once more bemade secure in the interest of all. 19
  20. 20. 9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should beeffected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.10.The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place amongthe nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured,should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomousdevelopment.11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should beevacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accordedfree and secure access to the sea; and the relations of theseveral Balkan states to one another determined byfriendly counsel along historically established lines ofallegiance and nationality; and international guarantees ofthe political and economic independence and territorialintegrity of the several Balkan states should be entered 20into.
  21. 21. 12. The Turkish portion of the present OttomanEmpire should be assured a secure sovereignty,but the other nationalities which are now underTurkish rule should be assured an undoubtedsecurity of life and an absolutely unmolestedopportunity of autonomous development, and theDardanelles should be permanently opened as afree passage to the ships and commerce of allnations under international guarantees. 21
  22. 22. 13. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. 22
  23. 23. Wilson’s view;“The balance of power is the great game now foreverdiscredited. It’s the old and evil order that prevailed beforethis war. The balance of power is a thing that we can dowithout in the future.”“Balance of power policies do not give priority todemocracy or peace” 23
  24. 24. “Balance of power was no longer tolerable.” “Sovereign states could not be abolished. But force could be tamed by law and institutions as it was at the domestic level.”Wilson wanted to change the international systemfrom one based on balance of power toanother based on collective security. 24
  25. 25. Wilson accused of be an utopian. But he knewthat mere paper agreements and treaties wouldnot be sufficient.Moral force was important, but a military forcewas necassary to back up it.Security had to be a collective responsibility. 25
  26. 26. Collective security involves two relatedconcepts; sovereignty andinternational law.Thus signing the pact of the League ofNations, states would voluntarily giveup some sovereignty. (This would behappened first time since 1648) 26
  27. 27. • The American Senate refused to ratify the Covenant. The question(!) Why did the USA hold back when, to a large extent, the League was an American liberal plan to REORDER world politics? 27
  28. 28. • Most Americans wanted to return to “normalcy.”• Many defined “normal” as avoiding involement in international affairs.• The leader of opposition to the League of Nations, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, feared that Article 16 of the Covenant would dilute both American sovereignty and the constitutional power of the Senate to declare war. 28
  29. 29. PURPOSES OF THE LEAGEU OF NATIONSThe League was created;1. To provide a world organization and thus eliminate international anarchy,2. To prevent war by encouraging disarmament and by settling international disputes peacefully,3. To solve economic and social problems through international ccoperation. 29
  30. 30. SUCCESS, WEAKNESS AND FAILURES OF THE LEAGUE• Successes;• Small nations boundary disputes (Finland-Sweden, Yugoslavia- Albenia, Grecee-Bulgaria• Weaknesses;• USA never joined, Russia enter 1934 expell in 1939, Japan withdrew in 1933, Italy withdrew 1936.• Voting, decision required unanimously.• The League lacked the power to tax, to draft an army, to enforce its decision.• Failures;• Japanese invasion of Manchuria(1931), Italianconquest of Ethiopia(1935), Oppose German rearmament 30

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