• It is derived from the belief that free will is an illusion.• Humans beings are shaped by the environment.• Behaviorists believe that learning consist of habit formation learned through stimulus and response association.
BEHAVIORISMPOSITIVE NEGATIVEREINFORCEMENT REINFORCEMENTPositive indicates Negative indicatesthe application of the withholding of aa stimulus stimulus
• Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again.• Punishment: decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again.• Punishment is a positive and negative reinforcement.
1. IVAN PAVLOV• Experiments with dogs.• Classical Conditioning: process of reflex learning investigated by Pavlov through which an unconditioned stimulus which produces an unconditioned response is presented together with a conditioned stimulus.2. B.F. SKINNER• Harvard professor.• Became the leading advocate of behaviorism.• He did much to popularize the use of positive reinforcement to promote desired learning.3. ALBERT BANDURA• He suggested that environment causes behavior, but behavior causes environment as well.• Reciprocal determinism: The world and a person’s behavior cause each other.• Steps involved in the modeling process: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation.
• Simple to understand. It relies only on observable behavior and describes several universal laws of behavior• Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective: treatments for human disorders including autism, anxiety disorders and antisocial behavior.• Behaviorism is often used by teachers who reward or punish student behaviors• Classroom management.• Integrating technology in the classroom can facilitate learning and address many educational issues.• Integrating technology in the classroom may be a solution but it is also the problem.• The learning environment is no longer reflected by frontal teaching.
• Negative reinforcement discourages the student from making bad decisions, which in turn encourages them to make the right decision. •Example: Bad scores lead to bad grades, which leads to more negative reinforcement i.e; punishment from parents. •Positive reinforcement encourages the student to make the right decision, for one, to avoid the outcome of making the wrong decision (negative reinforcement), and secondly, to receive the reward obtained by making the correct decision. •Example: good scores that lead to good grades, which leads to more positive reinforcement i.e; rewards from parents.•Technology incorporates behaviorism with programs that deny access to next levels or completion oftask for incorrect answers, which encourages the user to enter the correct response in order to reach thenext level or complete the task.