There are connective bars
between cutis and galea
aponeurotica, so when the
damage is located in this
area these bars prevents
Head skull muscule-aponeurosis
Aponeurosis contains :
1.Forward - venter frontalis
2.behind- venter occipitalis
4. galea aponeurotica
If the damage is between aponeurosis
and periosteum process will spread
over the head
A head injury is any trauma resulting in injury to the scalp,
skull or brain.
A head injury particularly dangerous as, at first the injury may
appear only minor however major injuryes have occurred.
A victim with a suspected head injury should be monitored for
a numbers of days after the incident
There are five main types of head injuries:
(a deep cut or tear, especially in skin)
Swelling of injured
Symptoms of laceration
A concussion is a temporary change in
the way the brain works when it is
suddenly moved of jarred, it occurs
when the brain suddenly shifts inside
the skull and knocks against the skull’s
Concussion can last from a few
moments, to an unconscious state for
over 3 minutes
Your brain is a soft organ that is
surrounded by spinal fluid and protected
by your hard skull. Normally, the fluid
around your brain acts like a cushion that
keeps your brain from banging into your
skull. But if your head or your body is hit
hard, your brain can crash into your skull
and be injured.
Amnesia, short term memory lose
Nausea, vomiting headache
ringing in ears neck pain
Brain Contusion Neurology A head injury often
associated with a concussion, which is of sufficient
force to bruise the brain surface and cause
extravasation of blood without rupturing the pia-
Cerebral compression is a build up
of pressure on the brain.
Cerebral compression is the condition when there is a build up of pressure pushing
on the brain. This can be caused by bleeding in the skull or swelling of the brain
tissue after a head injury. It can also occur as the result of an infection
(eg. meningitis), stroke or brain tumour. Cerebral compression is a very serious
condition and you must get help quickly
Symptoms of compression
Recent head injury
Noisy, slow breathing
Unequal pupil size
Weakness of paralysis down one side of body
Change in behaviour
A subdural hematoma known as a
subdural haemorrhage (SDH), is a type of
hematoma, usually associated with
traumatic brain injury. Blood gathers
within the outermost meningeal layer,
between the dura mater and the
Symptoms of subdural hematoma can include:
• Change in behavior
• Nausea and vomiting
• Lethargy or excessive drowsiness
Epidural or extradural hematoma (haematoma) is a type of traumatic brain injury
(TBI) in which a build up of blood occurs between the dura mater and the skull
Symptoms of epidural hematoma
• Drowsiness or altered level of alertness
• Enlarged pupil in one eye
• Headache (severe)
• Head injury
• loss of consciousness,
• Nausea and/or vomiting
• Weakness of part of the body, usually on the opposite side from the side
with the enlarged pupil
• The symptoms usually occur within minutes to hours after a head injury
and indicate an emergency situation.
A skull fracture occurs a head injury and can be life threatening as
the fractured bone may cause damage to the brain
Types of Skull Fractures
A closed fracture, also called a
simple fracture, is one in which the
skin is not broken or cut
Also known as a
compound fracture, an
open fracture is one
in which the skin
is broken and
the bone emerges
from it.A basal fracture occurs in the
floor of the skull. This is any
area around the eyes, ears,
nose, or back, near the spine
•Bleeding from wound, ears, nose, or around eyes
•Bruising behind the ears or under the eyes
•Changes in pupils (sizes unequal, not reactive to light)
• Drainage of clear or bloody fluid from ears or nose
•Difficulties with balance
•Loss of consciousness
1.Check the airways, breathing, and circulation. If
necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
2. Avoid moving the victim (unless absolutely necessary) until
medical help arrives. Instruct someone to call 112 (In Georgia)
for medical assistance.
This is incorrect
3. If the victim must be moved, take care to stabilize the head
and neck. Place your hands on both sides of the head and
under the shoulders. Do not allow the head to bend forward
or backward, or to twist or turn.
4. Carefully check the site of injury, but do not probe in or
around the site with a foreign object. It can be difficult to
know if the skull is fractured or depressed (dented in) at the
site of injury.
5. If there is bleeding, apply firm pressure with a
clean cloth to control blood loss over a broad area.
6. If blood soaks through, do not remove the original cloth. Instead,
apply additional cloths on top, and continue to apply pressure.
7. If the victim is vomiting, stabilize the head and neck (as outlined
in number 3, above), and carefully turn the victim to the side to
prevent choking on vomit.
8. If the victim is conscious and experiencing any of the previously
listed symptoms, transport to the nearest emergency medical
facility (even if the patient does not think medical assistance is
•Do NOT remove protruding objects.
•Do NOT allow the victim to continue
to engage in physical activities.
••Do NOT forget to observe the victim
closely until medical help arrives.
•Do NOT give the victim any medications before
consulting a doctor.
•Do NOT leave the victim alone, even if there are no
complaints or obvious injuries.
•Do NOT move the victim unless absolutely necessary –
head injuries may be associated with spinal injuries.