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Head trauma

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Head trauma

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Head trauma

  1. 1. Head Trauma
  2. 2. Head consist of facial area and brain area Remind of anatomy
  3. 3. I II III ____ The Border between the head and neck ____ The Border between the face area and brain area
  4. 4. Layer structure of the head and brain
  5. 5. There are connective bars between cutis and galea aponeurotica, so when the damage is located in this area these bars prevents process spreading
  6. 6. Head skull muscule-aponeurosis m.frontalis m.temporalis Galea aponeurotica m.occipitalis Aponeurosis contains : 1.Forward - venter frontalis 2.behind- venter occipitalis 3.m.temporalis 4. galea aponeurotica If the damage is between aponeurosis and periosteum process will spread over the head
  7. 7. Head injuries
  8. 8. A head injury is any trauma resulting in injury to the scalp, skull or brain. A head injury particularly dangerous as, at first the injury may appear only minor however major injuryes have occurred. A victim with a suspected head injury should be monitored for a numbers of days after the incident
  9. 9. Leading causes include
  10. 10. There are five main types of head injuries:  Lacerations  Concussion  Contusion  Compression  Skull fracture
  11. 11. Lacerations (a deep cut or tear, especially in skin)
  12. 12.  Bleeding  Pain  Numbness  Swelling of injured skin Symptoms of laceration
  13. 13. A concussion is a temporary change in the way the brain works when it is suddenly moved of jarred, it occurs when the brain suddenly shifts inside the skull and knocks against the skull’s bony surface. Concussion can last from a few moments, to an unconscious state for over 3 minutes
  14. 14. Your brain is a soft organ that is surrounded by spinal fluid and protected by your hard skull. Normally, the fluid around your brain acts like a cushion that keeps your brain from banging into your skull. But if your head or your body is hit hard, your brain can crash into your skull and be injured.
  15. 15. Amnesia, short term memory lose Nausea, vomiting headache blurred vision confusion ringing in ears neck pain dizziness Unconsciousness Irritability convulsions
  16. 16. Brain Contusion Neurology A head injury often associated with a concussion, which is of sufficient force to bruise the brain surface and cause extravasation of blood without rupturing the pia- arachnoid. Brain Contusion
  17. 17. Cerebral compression is a build up of pressure on the brain. Cerebral compression is the condition when there is a build up of pressure pushing on the brain. This can be caused by bleeding in the skull or swelling of the brain tissue after a head injury. It can also occur as the result of an infection (eg. meningitis), stroke or brain tumour. Cerebral compression is a very serious condition and you must get help quickly compression
  18. 18. Symptoms of compression  Recent head injury  Headach  Noisy, slow breathing  Slow pulse  Unequal pupil size  Weakness of paralysis down one side of body  High temperature  Drowsiness  Change in behaviour  Disorientation  unconsciousness
  19. 19. A subdural hematoma known as a subdural haemorrhage (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury. Blood gathers within the outermost meningeal layer, between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
  20. 20. Symptoms of subdural hematoma can include: • Headache • Confusion • Change in behavior • Dizziness • Nausea and vomiting • Lethargy or excessive drowsiness • Weakness • Apathy • Seizures
  21. 21. Epidural or extradural hematoma (haematoma) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a build up of blood occurs between the dura mater and the skull
  22. 22. Symptoms of epidural hematoma • Confusion • Dizziness • Drowsiness or altered level of alertness • Enlarged pupil in one eye • Headache (severe) • Head injury • loss of consciousness, • Nausea and/or vomiting • Weakness of part of the body, usually on the opposite side from the side with the enlarged pupil • The symptoms usually occur within minutes to hours after a head injury and indicate an emergency situation.
  23. 23. Skull fracture A skull fracture occurs a head injury and can be life threatening as the fractured bone may cause damage to the brain Types of Skull Fractures Closed Fracture Open Fracture Basal Fracture A closed fracture, also called a simple fracture, is one in which the skin is not broken or cut Also known as a compound fracture, an open fracture is one in which the skin is broken and the bone emerges from it.A basal fracture occurs in the floor of the skull. This is any area around the eyes, ears, nose, or back, near the spine
  24. 24. Symptoms •Bleeding from wound, ears, nose, or around eyes •Bruising behind the ears or under the eyes •Changes in pupils (sizes unequal, not reactive to light) • Drainage of clear or bloody fluid from ears or nose •Confusion •Convulsions •Difficulties with balance •Drowsiness •Headache •Loss of consciousness •Nausea/Vomiting •Restlessness, irritability •Slurred speech •Stiff neck •Swelling •Visual disturbances
  25. 25. 1.Check the airways, breathing, and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
  26. 26. 2. Avoid moving the victim (unless absolutely necessary) until medical help arrives. Instruct someone to call 112 (In Georgia) for medical assistance. This is incorrect
  27. 27. 3. If the victim must be moved, take care to stabilize the head and neck. Place your hands on both sides of the head and under the shoulders. Do not allow the head to bend forward or backward, or to twist or turn. 4. Carefully check the site of injury, but do not probe in or around the site with a foreign object. It can be difficult to know if the skull is fractured or depressed (dented in) at the site of injury. 5. If there is bleeding, apply firm pressure with a clean cloth to control blood loss over a broad area.
  28. 28. 6. If blood soaks through, do not remove the original cloth. Instead, apply additional cloths on top, and continue to apply pressure. 7. If the victim is vomiting, stabilize the head and neck (as outlined in number 3, above), and carefully turn the victim to the side to prevent choking on vomit. 8. If the victim is conscious and experiencing any of the previously listed symptoms, transport to the nearest emergency medical facility (even if the patient does not think medical assistance is necessary).
  29. 29. Do Not •Do NOT remove protruding objects. •Do NOT allow the victim to continue to engage in physical activities. ••Do NOT forget to observe the victim closely until medical help arrives. •Do NOT give the victim any medications before consulting a doctor. •Do NOT leave the victim alone, even if there are no complaints or obvious injuries. •Do NOT move the victim unless absolutely necessary – head injuries may be associated with spinal injuries.
  30. 30. Thank you for your attention

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