<ul><li>Attorney at Law (2001, UBA, Argentina) </li></ul><ul><li>LLM in International Intellectual Property Law  </li></ul...
Trademark Clearance in Latin America: Why, When and How to Search?   April 1 st , 2010 Yale Club of New York
1 .   Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
1 .   Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2.   Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws
1 .   Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2.   Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws    ...
1 .   Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2.   Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws    ...
1 .   Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2.   Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws    ...
1.   Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
<ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Economic   </li></ul><ul><li>new markets and </li></ul><ul><li>consumers (600M) </li></...
<ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Economic   </li></ul><ul><li>new markets and </li></ul><ul><li>consumers (600M) </li></...
<ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Economic   </li></ul><ul><li>new markets and </li></ul><ul><li>consumers (600M) </li></...
<ul><li>Latin American region </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico down to Argentina (including the Caribbean) </li></ul>1 .  Why are ...
<ul><li>Latin American region </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico down to Argentina (including the Caribbean) </li></ul><ul><li>More ...
<ul><li>Latin American region </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico down to Argentina (including the Caribbean) </li></ul><ul><li>More ...
<ul><li>North America  </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico  (NAFTA) </li></ul>1 .  Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin Ame...
<ul><li>North America  </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico  (NAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Belize    </l...
<ul><li>North America  </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico  (NAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Belize    </l...
<ul><li>South America </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina  ( Mercosur) </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil   (Mercosur)   </li></ul><ul><li>C...
2.   Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
<ul><li>Exceptions:  </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico and some in the Caribbean </li></ul>2.  Basic features and differences ...
<ul><li>Exceptions:  </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico and some in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Minors set in TM Laws of Br...
<ul><li>Exceptions:  </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico and some in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Minors set in TM Laws of Br...
<ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul>2.  Basic features...
<ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal...
<ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal...
<ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal...
<ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal...
<ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal...
<ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul>2.  Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American T...
<ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require certain “intensity” of use </li></ul></ul>2.  Ba...
<ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require certain “intensity” of use </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require certain “intensity” of use </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>TM Particularities (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the  Principle of Territoriality  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>TM Particularities (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the  Principle of Territoriality  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>TM Particularities (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the  Principle of Territoriality  </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>TM Particularities (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of electronic filing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only in ...
<ul><li>TM Particularities (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of electronic filing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only in ...
3.   Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
<ul><li>Searches should detect conflicts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when filing, with senior identical/confusingly similar TM ...
<ul><li>Searches should detect conflicts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when filing, with senior identical/confusingly similar TM ...
<ul><li>Those risks are higher due to common practices like  </li></ul><ul><li>TM warehousing (including defensive, specul...
<ul><li>Those risks are higher due to common practices like  </li></ul><ul><li>TM warehousing (including defensive, specul...
<ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul>3.  Why are Latin American ...
<ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No similar prov...
<ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No similar prov...
<ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No similar prov...
<ul><ul><li>period of non-use varies between 3/5 years and certain non-uses are excusable </li></ul></ul>3.  Why are Latin...
<ul><ul><li>period of non-use varies between 3/5 years and certain non-uses are excusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mostl...
<ul><ul><li>period of non-use varies between 3/5 years and certain non-uses are excusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mostl...
Amounts of TMs in force  creating those risks   ( Source: WIPO, June 2009) 3.  Why are Latin American TM searches very imp...
<ul><ul><li>Examples based on experience:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 5 (in all the region) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
3.  Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? This may worsen with the Madrid Protocol!
3.  Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? This may worsen with the Madrid Protocol! Overall, the ...
4.   How and when to   conduct TM searches in Latin America?
<ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul>4.  How and when to co...
<ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference...
<ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference...
<ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference...
Screening:  public or private databases 4.  How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? Standardized regional ph...
Screening:  public or private databases Identical:  local  expertise and translations of data 4.  How and when to conduct ...
Screening:  public or private databases Identical:  local  expertise and translations of data Similarity:  broader results...
Screening:  public or private databases Identical:  local  expertise and translations of data Similarity:  broader results...
Screening:  public or private databases Identical:  local  expertise and translations of data Similarity:  broader results...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative search:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, graphical element...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative search:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, graphical element...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative search:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, graphical element...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Company names :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple commercial registries...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Company names :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple commercial registries...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Company names :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple commercial registries...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma in use :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for classes No. 5 an...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma in use :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for classes No. 5 an...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma in use :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for classes No. 5 an...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>GI  (Geographic Indications)  and DO  (Denominations of Origin) :   </...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>GI  (Geographic Indications)  and DO  (Denominations of Origin) :   </...
<ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>GI  (Geographic Indications)  and DO  (Denominations of Origin) :   </...
<ul><li>General tips for conducting TM searches in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among the Spanish spoke...
<ul><li>General tips for conducting TM searches in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among the Spanish spoke...
<ul><li>General tips for conducting TM searches in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among the Spanish spoke...
<ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul>4.  How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? Gen...
<ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or si...
<ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or si...
<ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or si...
<ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or si...
5.   Conclusions
<ul><li>Increasing importance of trade between U.S. and Latin America </li></ul>5.   Conclusions
<ul><li>Increasing importance of trade between U.S. and Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>TM use requirements too flexible, ...
<ul><li>Increasing importance of trade between U.S. and Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>TM use requirements too flexible, ...
<ul><li>A cost-benefit about searching is a must  </li></ul>5.   Conclusions
<ul><li>A cost-benefit about searching is a must  </li></ul><ul><li>For particular products TM searches before filing and/...
<ul><li>A cost-benefit about searching is a must  </li></ul><ul><li>For particular products TM searches before filing and/...
Questions and comments are very welcome! Also at mariano.municoy@moellerip.com
Many thanks! Av. L. N. Alem 1134, 10th fl. C1001AAT Buenos Aires. Argentina P  +54 (11) 4894 1551 F  +54 (11) 4894 1561 [e...
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Presentation Corsearch Mar31.2010

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These are the slides of teh seminar I conducted on March 31, 2010 at the Yale Club in NYC, which was sponsored by CT Corsearch

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Presentation Corsearch Mar31.2010

  1. 2. <ul><li>Attorney at Law (2001, UBA, Argentina) </li></ul><ul><li>LLM in International Intellectual Property Law </li></ul><ul><li>(2004, Chicago-Kent) </li></ul><ul><li>LLM Law & Economics, (2008, Universidad </li></ul><ul><li>Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina). </li></ul><ul><li>Joined Moeller in 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Member of IPO, ABA, INTA, RAPS, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Author of several publications </li></ul>Mariano Municoy
  2. 3. Trademark Clearance in Latin America: Why, When and How to Search? April 1 st , 2010 Yale Club of New York
  3. 4. 1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  4. 5. 1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2. Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws
  5. 6. 1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2. Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws 3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  6. 7. 1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2. Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws 3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  7. 8. 1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? 2. Differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws 3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? 5. Conclusions and Q&A
  8. 9. 1. Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  9. 10. <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>new markets and </li></ul><ul><li>consumers (600M) </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  10. 11. <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>new markets and </li></ul><ul><li>consumers (600M) </li></ul><ul><li> Legal </li></ul><ul><li>Free Trade Agreements </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  11. 12. <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>new markets and </li></ul><ul><li>consumers (600M) </li></ul><ul><li> Legal </li></ul><ul><li>Free Trade Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Counterfeiting </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  12. 13. <ul><li>Latin American region </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico down to Argentina (including the Caribbean) </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  13. 14. <ul><li>Latin American region </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico down to Argentina (including the Caribbean) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 40 countries with broad differences </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  14. 15. <ul><li>Latin American region </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico down to Argentina (including the Caribbean) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 40 countries with broad differences </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Official language but for Brazil and some Caribbean </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  15. 16. <ul><li>North America </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico (NAFTA) </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  16. 17. <ul><li>North America </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico (NAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Belize </li></ul><ul><li>Costa Rica (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>El Salvador (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Honduras (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicaragua (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Panama (pending FTA/US) </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  17. 18. <ul><li>North America </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico (NAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Central America </li></ul><ul><li>Belize </li></ul><ul><li>Costa Rica (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>El Salvador (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Honduras (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicaragua (CAFTA) </li></ul><ul><li>Panama (pending FTA/US) </li></ul><ul><li>The Caribbean (not today) </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America?
  18. 19. <ul><li>South America </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina ( Mercosur) </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil (Mercosur) </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia (CAN) </li></ul><ul><li>French Guyana </li></ul><ul><li>Paraguay (Mercosur) </li></ul><ul><li>Suriname </li></ul><ul><li>Venezuela (former CAN) </li></ul>1 . Why are U.S. businesses focusing more on Latin America? <ul><li>Bolivia ( C AN) </li></ul><ul><li>Chile (several FTAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Ecuador (CAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Guyana </li></ul><ul><li>Peru (CAN/FTA U.S.) </li></ul><ul><li>Uruguay (Mercosur) </li></ul>
  19. 20. 2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  20. 21. <ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico and some in the Caribbean </li></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures Civil Law countries based on first to file
  21. 22. <ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico and some in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Minors set in TM Laws of Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela </li></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures Civil Law countries based on first to file
  22. 23. <ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico and some in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Minors set in TM Laws of Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela </li></ul><ul><li>Registration is prima facie evidence of ownership and validity </li></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures Civil Law countries based on first to file
  23. 24. <ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  24. 25. <ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Examination </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  25. 26. <ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of the application </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  26. 27. <ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of the application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period for third parties to file oppositions </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  27. 28. <ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of the application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period for third parties to file oppositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjudication of oppositions </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  28. 29. <ul><li>TM registration procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing & problem of formalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication of the application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period for third parties to file oppositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjudication of oppositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substantive Examination </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  29. 30. <ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures Weak exceptional protection of “de facto” TMs
  30. 31. <ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require certain “intensity” of use </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures Weak exceptional protection of “de facto” TMs
  31. 32. <ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require certain “intensity” of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If well-known equal or even more protection </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures Weak exceptional protection of “de facto” TMs
  32. 33. <ul><ul><li>Developed by jurisprudence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require certain “intensity” of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If well-known equal or even more protection </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures Registration of TMs is more relevant in Latin American countries than in the U.S. for offensive and defensive purposes Weak exceptional protection of “de facto” TMs
  33. 34. <ul><li>TM Particularities (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the Principle of Territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andean Community of Nations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  34. 35. <ul><li>TM Particularities (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the Principle of Territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andean Community of Nations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pan American Convention (1929, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, USA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  35. 36. <ul><li>TM Particularities (1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the Principle of Territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andean Community of Nations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pan American Convention (1929, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, USA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of International Treaties </li></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  36. 37. <ul><li>TM Particularities (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of electronic filing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Panama. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  37. 38. <ul><li>TM Particularities (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of electronic filing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Panama. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of some documents/searching: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>possible in Argentina , Brazil, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>2. Basic features and differences between U.S. and Latin American TM laws and procedures
  38. 39. 3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  39. 40. <ul><li>Searches should detect conflicts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when filing, with senior identical/confusingly similar TM rights cited by examiner or used in oppositions </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? TM laws prohibit using signs causing confusion
  40. 41. <ul><li>Searches should detect conflicts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when filing, with senior identical/confusingly similar TM rights cited by examiner or used in oppositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when importing or commercializing, with TM holders that may send cease and desist letters or initiate legal actions </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? TM laws prohibit using signs causing confusion
  41. 42. <ul><li>Those risks are higher due to common practices like </li></ul><ul><li>TM warehousing (including defensive, speculative and repetitive registrations) </li></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  42. 43. <ul><li>Those risks are higher due to common practices like </li></ul><ul><li>TM warehousing (including defensive, speculative and repetitive registrations) </li></ul><ul><li>Whether they are legitimate or not depends on the laws of each country (TMs, Unfair Competition, Civil Law Principles and others) </li></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  43. 44. <ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  44. 45. <ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No similar provisions like US abandonment </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  45. 46. <ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No similar provisions like US abandonment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No requirement to file a specimen for renewal, in Chile and Uruguay use is not required at all! </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  46. 47. <ul><li>Those exist because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No proof of use before filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No similar provisions like US abandonment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No requirement to file a specimen for renewal, in Chile and Uruguay use is not required at all! </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? <ul><ul><li>TM Laws keep filing and maintenance costs low but lead to crowding registers and creation of those practices (RISKS) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><ul><li>period of non-use varies between 3/5 years and certain non-uses are excusable </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? Cancellation actions not efficient to control those risks
  48. 49. <ul><ul><li>period of non-use varies between 3/5 years and certain non-uses are excusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly used when a particular conflict arises </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? Cancellation actions not efficient to control those risks
  49. 50. <ul><ul><li>period of non-use varies between 3/5 years and certain non-uses are excusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly used when a particular conflict arises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resumption of use is possible (risk of dormant marks) </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? Cancellation actions not efficient to control those risks
  50. 51. Amounts of TMs in force creating those risks ( Source: WIPO, June 2009) 3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider?
  51. 52. <ul><ul><li>Examples based on experience: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 5 (in all the region) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 3 (in many countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 16 (Chile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 25 (Colombia and Mexico) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 30 (Ecuador) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. 9 (Argentina) </li></ul></ul>3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? THOSE RISKS ARE NOT HYPOTETICAL
  52. 53. 3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? This may worsen with the Madrid Protocol!
  53. 54. 3. Why are Latin American TM searches very important to consider? This may worsen with the Madrid Protocol! Overall, the value of considering to perform a TM search before filing and/or importing into Latin America should be recognized
  54. 55. 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  55. 56. <ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  56. 57. <ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in timing </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  57. 58. <ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences and similarities on quality </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  58. 59. <ul><li>Official Searches versus private searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences and similarities on quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities on scope (unpublished application s ) </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  59. 60. Screening: public or private databases 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? Standardized regional phonetic searches
  60. 61. Screening: public or private databases Identical: local expertise and translations of data 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? Standardized regional phonetic searches
  61. 62. Screening: public or private databases Identical: local expertise and translations of data Similarity: broader results but require time and expertise 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? Standardized regional phonetic searches
  62. 63. Screening: public or private databases Identical: local expertise and translations of data Similarity: broader results but require time and expertise ccTLDs: identical searches 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? Standardized regional phonetic searches
  63. 64. Screening: public or private databases Identical: local expertise and translations of data Similarity: broader results but require time and expertise ccTLDs: identical searches Ownership : search by owner 4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? Standardized regional phonetic searches
  64. 65. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative search: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, graphical elements or images without word elements </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  65. 66. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative search: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, graphical elements or images without word elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In almost all countries conducted manually </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  66. 67. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Figurative search: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, graphical elements or images without word elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In almost all countries conducted manually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their reliability and turnaround vary </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  67. 68. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Company names : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple commercial registries </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  68. 69. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Company names : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple commercial registries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No links between Commercial Registers (States) and PTOs (Federal) except in Mexico </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  69. 70. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Company names : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple commercial registries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No links between Commercial Registers (States) and PTOs (Federal) except in Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business names rights based on use </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  70. 71. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma in use : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for classes No. 5 and No. 3 </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  71. 72. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma in use : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for classes No. 5 and No. 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking official databases and private and official publications </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  72. 73. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma in use : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for classes No. 5 and No. 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking official databases and private and official publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory Division at Moeller </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  73. 74. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>GI (Geographic Indications) and DO (Denominations of Origin) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant for wines, spirits, beverages and foodstuff </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  74. 75. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>GI (Geographic Indications) and DO (Denominations of Origin) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant for wines, spirits, beverages and foodstuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration procedures being implemented but may differ from TMs </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  75. 76. <ul><li>Special regional searches </li></ul><ul><li>GI (Geographic Indications) and DO (Denominations of Origin) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant for wines, spirits, beverages and foodstuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration procedures being implemented but may differ from TMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty about conflicts with TMs </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  76. 77. <ul><li>General tips for conducting TM searches in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among the Spanish spoken in each country </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  77. 78. <ul><li>General tips for conducting TM searches in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among the Spanish spoken in each country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious backlogs to update official databases (information gaps) </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  78. 79. <ul><li>General tips for conducting TM searches in Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among the Spanish spoken in each country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious backlogs to update official databases (information gaps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the principle of territoriality (CAN and Pan American Convention) </li></ul></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America?
  79. 80. <ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? General and effective search strategies
  80. 81. <ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or similarity searches with legal opinion </li></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? General and effective search strategies
  81. 82. <ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or similarity searches with legal opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - reasonable costs : investigate TM use and profile of TM holder </li></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? General and effective search strategies
  82. 83. <ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or similarity searches with legal opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - reasonable costs : investigate TM use and profile of TM holder </li></ul><ul><li>Never import without, at least, searching </li></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? General and effective search strategies
  83. 84. <ul><li>Before filing – very low costs : screening </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - low costs : identical or similarity searches with legal opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Before filing/importing - reasonable costs : investigate TM use and profile of TM holder </li></ul><ul><li>Never import without, at least, searching </li></ul><ul><li>Use watching to track these risks </li></ul>4. How and when to conduct TM searches in Latin America? General and effective search strategies
  84. 85. 5. Conclusions
  85. 86. <ul><li>Increasing importance of trade between U.S. and Latin America </li></ul>5. Conclusions
  86. 87. <ul><li>Increasing importance of trade between U.S. and Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>TM use requirements too flexible, keeping maintenance costs low but creating risks for applicants and importers </li></ul>5. Conclusions
  87. 88. <ul><li>Increasing importance of trade between U.S. and Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>TM use requirements too flexible, keeping maintenance costs low but creating risks for applicants and importers </li></ul><ul><li>The number of TMs alive is increasing so do those risks </li></ul>5. Conclusions
  88. 89. <ul><li>A cost-benefit about searching is a must </li></ul>5. Conclusions
  89. 90. <ul><li>A cost-benefit about searching is a must </li></ul><ul><li>For particular products TM searches before filing and/or importing are highly recommended </li></ul>5. Conclusions
  90. 91. <ul><li>A cost-benefit about searching is a must </li></ul><ul><li>For particular products TM searches before filing and/or importing are highly recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Existing legal remedies and new technological solutions are developing </li></ul>5. Conclusions
  91. 92. Questions and comments are very welcome! Also at mariano.municoy@moellerip.com
  92. 93. Many thanks! Av. L. N. Alem 1134, 10th fl. C1001AAT Buenos Aires. Argentina P +54 (11) 4894 1551 F +54 (11) 4894 1561 [email_address] moeller ip.com

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