Guidelines for citations and bibliographies


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Adapted from the Polson High School stylesheet

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Guidelines for citations and bibliographies

  1. 1. Guidelines for Citations Polson High School
  2. 2. Note-taking <ul><li>First, skim the selection to make sure it is worthwhile to your purpose and to understand how it is organized. Read the selection, then list the main ideas, review the material, write a paraphrase in your own words, put quotation marks around key words or phrases, and indicate page numbers of the quotations. (Check your bibliography card to make sure you have complete author, title, and publication information) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Use note cards <ul><li>subject heading (you may have several note cards for one source) </li></ul><ul><li>information paraphrased in retrievable prose </li></ul><ul><li>source information–this can be a code to the appropriate bibliography card </li></ul><ul><li>quoted material enclosed in quotation marks with page number </li></ul>
  4. 4. Citations <ul><li>Credit is given to sources of information to enable the reader to verify such things as statistics, to find additional material on the subject, and to give authority to the paper. General information which can be found in various places is not usually credited e.g. “Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford, Republicans, served as President from 1969-1977&quot;. </li></ul>
  5. 5. In-line citations <ul><li>Give the source right in the text, e.g. “In an interview with U.S News and World Report, October 21, 1985, p. 27, Brian Jenkins said, ‘Americans are the number one targets for terrorists.’” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Parenthetical citation <ul><li>Where the flow is disrupted by crediting sources in context, use parenthetical documentation which refers your reader to the works-cited list. Place the parenthesis at the end of the sentence in your text. The source author’s last name and page number of the quotation go inside the parenthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Isn’t it ironic that as early as 1985 the threat to our citizens was recognized by Brian Jenkins who said, “Americans are the number one targets of terrorists.” (Chaze, 27) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Endnotes <ul><li>Endnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Endnote citation. Endnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number immediately after the quote or reference cited with no space . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Endnotes - 2 <ul><li>Endnotes must be added on a separate Endnotes or Notes page at the end of your essay just before the Works Cited or Bibliography page. </li></ul><ul><li>All first Endnote references must be cited in full. Subsequent references of the same work may be shortened to include only the author's last name and page number. If the source cited has no author stated, use whatever minimal information is needed to identify the same work previously cited, e.g. short title and page number. Formerly, the Latin terms ibid. and op. cit. were used but they are no longer preferred. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sample footnoted essay <ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bibliography <ul><li>In your research paper, separate your bibliography under the following titles. Titles of each list should be centered at the top of a piece of paper. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Works Cited – This will be the list of any work referred to in the parentheses in the text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 . Other Works Consulted – This is the list of other works you have consulted but which were not referred to directly in the text. This will give your instructor an idea of the extent of your research. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Bibliography – Basic Rules 1 <ul><li>All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work unless the work has more than six authors. If the work has more than six authors, list the first six authors and then use et al. after the sixth author's name to indicate the rest of the authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography – Basic Rules 2 <ul><li>When referring to any work that is NOT a journal, such as a book, article, or Web page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize all major words in journal titles. </li></ul><ul><li>Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bibilography – Basic Rules 3 <ul><li>Formatting examples for online resources: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>