Prosperity, Youth Enterprise and Cultural Values in Peripheral Regions
Working Paper No 13
School Curriculum – content and delivery
Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh
Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society
in association with
A project funded by the European Commission
During 2004-5, the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development, Leh (the ‘Hill Council’)
formulated a Vision Document entitled ‘Ladakh 2025’, aimed at transforming the
Ladakh region to an economic powerhouse, without adversely affecting its unique
culture and ecology. In order to help take the Vision forward, this ‘Enterprising
Ladakh’ project investigated opportunities in eleven economic sectors, and set out
the findings in a Discussion Paper entitled ‘Market Opportunities’. The findings were
discussed at a Workshop in Leh in July 2005. (www.enterprisingladakh.org)
Discussion Paper No 2 entitled ‘Developing Livelihood Skills & Self Reliance,’
addressed the enabling environment for ‘enterprise’ and ‘entrepreneurship’. This
Paper considered their nature, summarised experience with initiatives in the
European Union and India, reviewed the current status in Ladakh, identified
obstacles and outlined an enabling policy for the future. The findings were discussed
at a Workshop in Leh in March 2006.
This Working Paper No 13: ‘School Curriculum – content and delivery’ was prepared
by Annie Smith and Mahammad Hasnain.
‘Enterprising Ladakh’ is a project being conducted by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill
Development Council, Leh, Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society and Drukpa Trust,
in association with SECMOL.
The project is co-funded by the EU-India Small Projects Facility Programme in
Economic Co-operation (SPF), which is an initiative of the European Commission
(EC) to support the on-going transformation and modernisation of Indian economy
and systems of governance. The programme supports small and innovative projects
that aim at facilitating enhanced interaction of European and Indian civil society, the
networking of its policy makers and opinion formers as well as the linkage of Indian
and EU operators in business and the media.
You are kindly invited to communicate your views on this Working Paper to the
Hemis Complex, Zangsti
Leh, Ladakh -194 101
Phone: +91 94191 77536; 252 133
This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The
contents of this document are the sole responsibility of Ladakh Autonomous Hill
Development Council Leh, Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society and Drukpa Trust, and can
under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
19th April 2006 2
The Team held interviews and discussions in Delhi, Jammu and Leh with key
representatives from the National Council of Education Research and Training
(NCERT), National Institute of Education Planning and Administration (NIEPA),
National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), Central Board of Secondary Education
(CBSE), Jammu & Kashmir Board of School Education (J&KBOSE), the State
Institute of Education (SIE), Jammu, the Students Educational and Cultural
Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL), Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council,
Leh (LAHDC) and the District Institute of Education & Training (DIET).
The main conclusions are that: (1) there is sufficient scope to introduce ‘enterprise
education’ within the existing curriculum; and (2) the approach should be to redefine
how the curriculum is transacted in the classroom rather than to add ‘enterprise
education’ as yet another subject in an already overburdened timetable.
A curriculum analysis was conducted having regard to the ‘life & livelihood skills’
introduced in Discussion Paper No 2: Developing Livelihood Skills and Self-reliance.
By embedding life & livelihood skills into the syllabus and expanding the boundary of
the classroom experience through teacher training, a more activity-based,
participatory approach to learning can be encouraged, thus providing a foundation of
enterprise-related skills in Ladakhi schools.
The Working Paper reviews the National Curriculum Framework 2005 from the points
of view of the core curriculum, examinations and textbooks. Each state works to the
core curriculum and can add further subjects if it requires. However, due to the core
curriculum already creating a high workload for students, the inclusion of additional
subjects, other than local language, seldom occurs. Nonetheless, it is through the
gradual changing of textbooks that classroom practice can be changed, and life &
livelihood skills gradually introduced.
Under the Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education, the curriculum is
limited to five core subjects: (1) English; (2) 2nd Language (Urdu); (3) maths; (4)
science; and (5) social science. Other subjects could be added, but additional
subjects are not generally present because of a lack of teachers with the subject
knowledge to teach in these areas. The only exception to this norm is the inclusion of
Bodhi or Hindi up to Class VIII.
The Enterprising Ladakh Project aims to demonstrate what can be done within the
existing curriculum. The proposed strategy is therefore as follows:
• Long-term – Foundation Life & Livelihood Skills to be absorbed into J&K textbooks
across the curriculum; textbooks to be analysed and recommendations made for suitable
• Mid-Term – Life & Livelihood Skills Supplement to be added to existing Social Science
textbooks. Supplements to be based on the outcomes of a pilot scheme and inserted into
existing textbooks in place of a chapter or chapters with little educational value in Ladakh.
• Short- term – ‘pilot’ for Classes VI–VIII: a DVD will be produced demonstrating through
activity-based learning such as role-play, discussion and field trips how ‘life &
livelihood’ skills can be introduced into the classroom. This DVD will be accompanied by
an ‘activities handbook’ and together the package can also be used as a teacher training
19th April 2006 3
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 6
2. National Curriculum Framework 2005 – an overview 6
• Core curriculum 7
• Examinations 8
• Textbooks 8
• Teacher education 9
3. Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education 10
• Curriculum 10
• Obstacles to efficient delivery of curriculum 11
4. Remote Areas Curriculum 12
5. Non-formal Sector 12
• Non-governmental Organisations 12
• Society & Private Schools 13
5. Recommendations 13
• Strategy 13
• Teacher education 14
• Remote areas 14
• Awareness building 14
A: Bibliography 15
B: Interviews and Information Sources 16
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CBSE Central Board of Secondary Education
CCVD Children’s Committee for Village Development
DIET District Institute of Education & Training
DRP District Resource Person
J&K Jammu & Kashmir
J&KBOSE Jammu & Kashmir Board of School Education
LAHDC Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh
LNP Leh Nutrition Project
MA Master of Arts
MEd Master of Education
NCERT National Council of Education Research & Training
NCF National Curriculum Framework
NGO Non-governmental Organisation
NIEPA National Institute of Education Planning and Administration
NIOS National Institute of Open Schooling
NPE National Policy on Education
SCF Save the Children Fund
SECMOL Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh
SIE State Institute of Education,
SSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, (the Government of India’s Elementary
Education for All Programme)
VEC Village Education Committee
19th April 2006 5
Extensive research was completed in Delhi, Jammu and Leh during January and
February 2006 to bring greater understanding to the Enterprising Ladakh Project
regarding the introduction of ‘life skills and self-reliance’ into the school curriculum in
Ladakh (see Annex A, Discussion Paper 2).
Interviews and discussions were held with key people from the National Council of
Education Research and Training (NCERT), National Institute of Education Planning
and Administration (NIEPA), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), Central
Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School
Education (JKSBOSE), the State Institute of Education (SIE), Jammu, the Students
Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL), Ladakh Autonomous Hill
Development Council, Leh (LAHDC) and the District Institute of Education & Training
This Working Paper draws on interviews and discussions as well as supporting
literature to identify possible areas where ‘enterprise education’ may be introduced
into the formal education system. It appears that the solution is not to add further
subjects to the curriculum, such as ‘enterprise education’, but rather to redefine how
the curriculum is transacted in the classroom.
‘Life skills’ are central to the focus of this project. There are close parallels between
the ‘individual attributes and skills’ identified in Activity 2 and ‘life skills’ as defined by
the World Health Organisation. Though their origins are different, both aim to equip
and empower young people with the skills they need to cope in a modern society.
‘Life skills’ is currently a subject of discourse in India and is gradually being
introduced into mainstream education by one or two states (see forthcoming Working
Paper 15: Life & Livelihood Skills).
By embedding ‘life & livelihood skills’ into the syllabus and expanding the boundary of
the classroom experience through teacher training, a more activity-based,
participatory approach to learning can be encouraged, thus providing a foundation of
enterprise-related skills in Ladakhi schools.
A study of the curriculum shows that Social Studies is best suited to the inclusion of
‘life & livelihood skills’. However, recommendations are initially geared towards
Classes VI to VIII, due to the heavy constraints of examinations on the learning
2. National Curriculum Framework 2005 – an overview
The word ‘curriculum’ has subtly different meanings. The Director of NCERT, Dr
Krishna Kumar, commented that ‘curriculum means different things to different
people, in different countries’. Curriculum encompasses the essential and
appropriate knowledge taught in schools. It involves the praxis of policy as well as
the syllabi used in the teaching-learning process. Teaching and learning materials,
classroom practices, evaluation and assessment procedures and language policy are
all components of curriculum. To the average Indian teacher however, curriculum is
defined by textbook content (K. Kumar 2005).
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The aim of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) – as directed by the 1986
National Policy on Education – is to provide a child with a set of learning experiences
that impart a broad set of skills throughout the various stages of the child’s
development and which are rooted within the child’s culture, traditions and livelihood.
It also emphasises that learning is more effective when it is situated in the context of
the child’s world and that the boundary between the school and its natural and social
environment should be porous. These statements suggest that, at the national policy
level for education in India, the way is open for the introduction of ‘life & livelihood
skills’. However, there is a considerable difference between the NCF
recommendations and what happens in the classroom in most government schools.
The reasons are numerous and lie within the system’s deeply-entrenched resistance
For example, the term ‘National Curriculum Framework’ is intended to provide a
means of evolving a national system of education capable of responding to India’s
diverse geographical and cultural milieu, while ensuring a common core of values
along with academic components. However, it is often wrongly construed to mean
that an instrument of uniformity is being imposed (NCF 2005).
Consequently, new educational initiatives – whether at state, district or school level –
are seen as a move away from the mainstream and are often met with insecurity and
Up to Class X , the core curricular subjects identified by the NCF are:
• language x 2 ( English + one other)
• social studies (geography, history and civics)
with the recommendation that:
• art education,
• work education,
• health & physical education,
• education for peace
• habitat & learning
are embedded across the curriculum.
The degree to which these latter five learning areas are imparted varies from state to
state and depends on textbook content, teacher skills and competence, and time for
extra-curricular activities. The teachers already struggle to deliver the existing
curriculum within the given time, in a predominantly rote-based system driven by
19th April 2006 7
It is generally accepted that examinations are overburdening the education system,
and restrict learning to the memorisation and regurgitation of facts and knowledge.
According to NCF 2005, the report ‘Learning without Burden’ recommended that
Class X and XII examinations that currently focus on text-based learning and quiz-
type questioning, inducing high levels of stress, and promotion of rote learning should
be replaced by a more flexible system.
Given these existing burdens or obstacles, it is clear that ‘life & livelihood skills’ need
to be incorporated into the system without creating further burden. However it is
hoped, in the long run, that the introduction of ‘life & livelihood skills’ could shift
learning away from textbook-centred study, lessen the burdens and bring some
reform to the examination system.
Textbooks are the backbone of the Indian curriculum, and as such form the vehicle
for the dissemination of NCF recommendations to the classroom. Change within this
process, however, is very gradual.
NCERT has its own publishing section, which produces books according to the NFC
guidelines. Making changes to the books takes time, plus change needs to be
incremental; too much change too soon could leave teachers confused about how
to deliver the curriculum. Consequently, the books are considerably less evolved
than NCF guideline recommendations suggest.
However, some changes are occurring. By re-structuring textbook information to
deliver the syllabi in a more child-centred, interactive way, teachers are being
encouraged to use more initiative, and thus bring slow but steady change to the
learning environment. To these ends, NCERT has already re-written Science books
up to Class X, Environmental Studies to Class V and Mathematics to Class III, and
recognises that many iterations will be required over time.
It appears that each state works to the core curriculum and can add further subjects if
it requires. However, due to the core curriculum already creating a high workload for
students, the inclusion of additional subjects, other than local language, seldom
occurs. Nonetheless, it is through the gradual changing of textbooks that classroom
practice can be changed, and life & livelihood skills gradually introduced.
• In the long-term, foundation Life & Livelihood Skills could be absorbed into
J&K textbooks across the curriculum, by analysing the textbooks and
recommending suitable ‘entry points’. A similar process was carried out for
environmental awareness and was called ‘greening up’ the text books.
• In the mid-term, Life & Livelihood Skills could be added as a ‘Supplement’ to
existing Social Science textbooks. These Supplements would be based on the
outcomes of a pilot (to be conducted in this project) and inserted into existing
textbooks in place of a chapter or chapters with little educational value to
19th April 2006 8
These entry points and Supplements would encourage a move away from textbook-
based learning, by supporting the teacher in using role-play, discussion, team work,
problem-solving etc. as the teaching/learning method for establishing ‘life & livelihood
skills’. For example: role-play as a method encourages teamwork, discussion,
communication, imagination, problem-solving etc. and as such can impart these ‘life
skills’. If the theme of the role-play is linked to livelihoods, then knowledge and
understanding can be imparted in this way.
Teacher education plays a vital role if implementation of a ‘life & livelihood skills’
programme is to be successful in the long-term.
In a recent interview, Dr Krishna Kumar, the Director of NCERT said: “You talk about
creating life skills, entrepreneurship and all that, but if teachers don’t have even this
modest confidence of putting aside the text book, how are you going to give
entrepreneurship or initiative to children? Gandhi made this point so brilliantly about
70 years ago in 1937 where he said that ‘the more the text book, the less the power
and the character of the teacher involved.”
In Ladakh, in-service teacher training is conducted during the winter vacation and is
for 20 days’ duration. The main emphasis is on textbook “content”, for two reasons:
first, textbooks are frequently updated and the contents changed; secondly most
teachers are not well qualified and lack subject-specialist knowledge (the minimum
qualification requirement to become a teacher is 10+2). Training is therefore focused
on textbook ‘hot-spots’ across the five core subjects .
During the 20 days, there is also “general awareness” training, which includes
methodology, new strategies and changes as laid down by NCERT, e.g. multi-grade
Under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) programme, every elementary teacher
(Classes I-VIII) must undergo training at least once during the winter; the SSA is in its
third year of implementation in Leh.
Though in-service training is provided to teachers, it is yet another area that meets
with many obstacles:
• To be a teacher trainer (District Resource Person, DRP) requires an MA or MEd.
Few Ladakhi teachers have these qualifications, especially at primary and upper
primary levels. Teacher trainers are posted to Ladakh for two years from other
parts of J&K State. It is a hardship posting, they have little or no invested interest
in the area, and no sooner have they settled, than they are thinking about leaving
• Resources at the (DIET) training centre are poor. Textbook training is often held
without the textbooks, because the books fail to arrive in time. Training spaces
used by DIET also lack good training aids, such as a white board, flipcharts, pens
• Training continues to focus on textbook-centred learning and although teachers
may be exposed to other methodologies, teachers need more support if they are
to introduce these in a significant way into mainstream teaching.
19th April 2006 9
Dr Krishna Kumar recommended that if one can get ‘the teacher to stop religiously
following the textbook for up to 40% of the time, we would have made a major
breakthrough in changing education’.
As well as training in activity-based learning, it is necessary to introduce ‘reflective
practice’ and begin to involve teachers in the process of questioning what it is they
do, why they do it, and how it contributes to the learning process. Such training is
being given in Druk Padma Karpo Institute, Shey – and experience there can be
used to design a mid- to long-term training programme in Ladakh.
It will not be feasible to design an appropriate teacher training programme within the
limited resources of this project, but a pilot DVD will be produced to demonstrate how
‘live & livelihood skills’ can be introduced and the methodologies teachers should be
3. Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education
In order that each state can produce textbooks that are attuned to the local culture
and environment, three main options available. States can choose to:
• write their own books, as long as they follow the NCERT books as a guideline;
• modify the NCERT books; or
• obtain the rights to reprint the NCERT books.
In the case of Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education, the NCERT
books are modified to reflect the cultural, social and environmental context in which
the children live. However, this has not until recently included Ladakh. Only since
2003 has Ladakh had some books that are culturally-specific - produced by a local
NGO, Students Educational & Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) - and when
piloted, reviewed and completed, adopted for Ladakh.
In the State of Jammu & Kashmir, the curriculum is limited to five core subjects and
according to the Director of Academics, J&KBOSE (Dr Bashir Ahmed), all children
from Classes I-X are expected to follow the curriculum as prescribed in the textbooks
and teacher guidelines:
• 2nd Language (usually Urdu or Hindi);
• social science.
Other subjects could be added, but additional subjects are not generally present
because of a lack of teachers with the subject knowledge to teach in these areas.
The only break from this norm in Ladakh is the inclusion of Bodhi up to Class VIII.
A study of Class VI &VII Social Studies textbooks has shown that their content has
the potential to act as a vehicle to impart ‘life & livelihood skills’ into the curriculum.
19th April 2006 10
At Higher Secondary level, Classes XI -XII, three streams of study are available in
1) Science: English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology or Mathematics
2) Arts: English plus three of the following: Economics Education, Hindi/Urdu,
Political Science, History, Maths.
3) Commerce: Business Studies, Accountancy, Economic Activities, English & IT
Arts is currently the most popular of these streams. Commerce has only picked up
recently, but again, there are many obstacles to the success of this course:
• The academic year is relatively short in Ladakh due to the prolonged winter
holidays. Exams occur in April, only one month after schools re-open, and it is
very difficult for teachers/lecturers to deliver the syllabus in time.
• It is difficult to find enough well-qualified, specialist teachers. In commerce,
nobody is available to run private tuition over the winter holidays.
• J&KBOSE set the syllabus for commerce, but the course books are not
available in Ladakh as: (a) not enough students study the subject to make it
worthwhile for suppliers to order books, and the changes to the syllabus are
so frequent that the books are quickly made redundant. The Boys Higher
Secondary School therefore works with the CBSE books to meet the J&K
Obstacles to efficient delivery of curriculum
In Ladakh, the distribution of textbooks is poor across all subjects and grades.
Since the introduction of the government-funded free textbook scheme,
distribution has failed to coincide with the start of the academic year and this is
seriously undermining the education system. Parents or students no longer take
the initiative to purchase textbooks, thus creating and controlling demand in the
bookshops but, understandably, they await the free books. Year after year and
term after term these books fail to be delivered on time – apparently due only to
One important factor that currently undermines the education system is ‘casual
leave’. Under this system teachers in the state sector can take a total of 15 days
leave with little or no notice. Though this leave is meant to be used for
emergencies, sickness and essential travel - it is often abused. It is not unusual
to find unattended classes in schools as there are no teachers available to cover.
This shows a lack of consideration for colleagues, a lack of care for the student
and also sends out a bad message to children about responsibility in the
19th April 2006 11
4. Remote Areas Curriculum
In the past, the remote areas suffered greatly from dropouts at the end of primary
level Class V, this was due mostly to problems of access to middle and high schools
which were often many miles away, whereas most areas had primary schools within
a 1 to 3 km distance (statistics handbook). This was particularly the case for the
nomad families of the Changtang Plateau. The problem then became socio-
economic in that parents had to find bus fares or pay for lodgings if their child was to
attend school, for many this was not possible.
In response to this problem and with the aid of SECMOL the Ladakh Autonomous Hill
Development Council, Leh established centralised schools within these remote areas
- one in Dubruk and one in Nyoma. These schools provide for Class VI–X and follow
the J&KBOSE curriculum. The schools are residential and the education is free.
In a discussion with Sonam Wangchuk, the Director of SECMOL, regarding the best
way of introducing Life & Livelihood Skills into the remote areas, the suggestion was
made that remote area primary schools should follow a different yearly timetable,
enabling children to spend more times in their communities during the warmer
months when sowing, reaping, breading, shearing etc take place. Assignments could
then be set for the children to complete that relate to their communities and
livelihoods. At present there is a long winter vacation due to the extreme cold, when
nothing is happening, and children only huddle around the fire to keep warm.
Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs)
The Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) has been a
significant player in introducing changes to the field of education. In 1994, Operation
New Hope was established aiming to:
• organise the village communities for active constructive participation in the running
of the schools through formation of Village Education Committees (VEC).
• introduce a child-centred, activity-based and locally-relevant approach to early
• train the teachers in creative teaching methods in order to make schooling less
painful and more joyful for children.
• produce Ladakhi versions of primary text books and teaching materials in order to
make them more relevant and meaningful to Ladakhi children.
• use the above factors to revive the interest, strengthen the confidence, and
enhance the dedication of government school teachers.
The most significant and long-term contribution has been their production of
culturally-relevant textbooks for English and Social Studies at primary level. These
textbooks are now produced in collaboration with J&KBOSE and distributed to state
primary schools throughout Ladakh
19th April 2006 12
Over the past twenty years Save the Children has also played a significant role in
establishing educational initiatives. One such project is Children’s Committee for
Village Development (CCVD), which aims to impart skills to children that enable them
to become active participants in their community development rather than passive
recipients of development. This project has identified and trained the children in
‘Seven Life Skills’ - through role play and discussion, skills of leadership,
communication, teamwork, decision-making and problem-solving have been
imparted, leading to a significant increase of confidence and skill within the children
over a short period of time.
Enterprising Ladakh is keen to promote the adoption of a similar skill base throughout
the formal education sector.
Society & Private Schools:
There are approximately 30 society and private schools throughout the Leh district.
These schools can chose from several examination boards but the majority stay with
J&KBOSE or are affiliated with CBSE. CBSE offers a wider range of curricular
subjects than J&KBOSE. CBSE also produce Life Skills textbooks for Classes VI-VIII.
However, none of the private schools contacted in Ladakh have Life Skills on the
Several Society Schools are also running their own in-service training schemes.
Mahabodi, Lamdon Society and Druk Padma Karpo Institute, to name a few, have
been or are running in-service training. At Druk Padma Karpo Institute, training takes
place on a weekly basis after school hours and is based on planning and reflective
Non-formal education is the sector currently driving educational change in Ladakh in
terms of delivering skills to both teachers and children that are fundamental to
enterprise development. It is important, however that the same skills be adopted into
the formal sector. SECMOL has strived for years to bridge this gap with some
success, but the Director, S Wangchuk, said in a recent interview that what has been
achieved is only a small step, so much more is needed.
The aim within this Enterprising Ladakh Project is to demonstrate what can be done
within the existing curriculum. The proposed strategy is as follows:
• Long-term – Foundation Life & Livelihood Skills to be absorbed into J&K
textbooks across the curriculum; textbooks to be analysed and recommendations
made for suitable ‘entry points’.
• Mid-Term – Life & Livelihood Skills Supplement to be added to existing Social
Science textbooks. Supplements to be based on the outcomes of the pilot
scheme and inserted into existing textbooks in place of a chapter or chapters with
little educational value in Ladakh.
19th April 2006 13
• Short- term – Life & Livelihood ‘pilot’ for Classes VI – VIII. A DVD will be
produced demonstrating through activity-based learning, such as role play,
discussion, field trips etc. how ‘life & livelihood’ skills can be introduced into the
classroom. This DVD will be accompanied by an activities handbook and together
the package can also be used as a teacher training aid.
• For successful implementation of both the long and mid-term recommendations
above, an in-service teacher training programme is essential. This programme
should encourage reflective practice, and build confidence and understanding of
Remote Areas – Dubruk & Nyoma
• Yearly time table to be changed up to Class V
• Livelihood assignments to be set during holiday periods
• Community teacher (a parent) to be trained in assignment support
DVD/VCD to be produced to inform teachers and parents:
• of the importance to society of children securing a local job
• that the availability of government jobs is fast declining and is not a viable option
• that many other possibilities for employment exist, and children need to be
prepared for employment, not only academic study.
19th April 2006 14
J.H.M Fewkes & M. Sharif Bhat (ND), Children’s Committee for Village Development
- Our Voices ….. Are you listening? Save the Children Fund, Leh, Ladakh
Krishna Kumar (2005), Making Education Reforms More Meaningful, NCERT, Delhi
Life Skills Education Training Package 2005, Dr C.G. Venkatesha Murthy &
Prof.A.V. Govinda Rao (Edt), Regional Institute of Education - Mysore.
National Curriculum Framework 2005, National Council of Education Research and
National Focus Groups - Position Papers 2005 , National Council of Education
Research and Training, Delhi
Life Skills Education Training Package 2005, Regional Institute of Education -
Students Educational & Cultural Movement of Ladakh (2001) - Completion Report of
Activities under Operation New Hope, Ladakh
Students Educational & Cultural Movement of Ladakh (2003) - Educational Reforms
in Ladakh, DVA Evaluation Report.
19th April 2006 15
Interviews and Information Sources
Dr Bashir Ahmed - Director of Academics, Jammu & Kashmir Board of School
Dr Krishna Kumar - Director, National Council for Education Research and Training*
Dr R Govinda - National Institute for Education Planning and Administration*
Maureen Songhurst - Principal, Druk Padma Karpo Institute
Mrs, Yangchen - District Institute of Education and Training, Leh, Ladakh
Professor. A. I. Ghanai - Chairman, Jammu and Kashmir, Board Of School
P. Mani - Senior Programme Officer, Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi*
Sonam Wangchuk - Director, Students Educational and Cultural Movement of
Tsewang Rigzin, Executive Councillor of Education, Ladakh Autonomous Hill
Development Council, Leh*
*Interviews available in project files.
19th April 2006 16