Enterprising Ladakh
Prosperity, Youth Enterprise and Cultural Values in Peripheral Regions




                        Wor...
Preface
During 2004-5, the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development, Leh (the ‘Hill Council’)
formulated a Vision Document entit...
Executive Summary

The Team held interviews and discussions in Delhi, Jammu and Leh with key
representatives from the Nati...
Table of Contents


Abbreviations                                         5

1. Introduction                              ...
Abbreviations


CBSE              Central Board of Secondary Education
CCVD              Children’s Committee for Village ...
1. Introduction

Extensive research was completed in Delhi, Jammu and Leh during January and
February 2006 to bring greate...
The aim of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) – as directed by the 1986
National Policy on Education – is to provide ...
Examinations

It is generally accepted that examinations are overburdening the education system,
and restrict learning to ...
These entry points and Supplements would encourage a move away from textbook-
based learning, by supporting the teacher in...
Dr Krishna Kumar recommended that if one can get ‘the teacher to stop religiously
following the textbook for up to 40% of ...
At Higher Secondary level, Classes XI -XII, three streams of study are available in
Ladakh:

1) Science: English, Physics,...
4. Remote Areas Curriculum

In the past, the remote areas suffered greatly from dropouts at the end of primary
level Class...
Over the past twenty years Save the Children has also played a significant role in
establishing educational initiatives. O...
•   Short- term – Life & Livelihood ‘pilot’ for Classes VI – VIII. A DVD will be
    produced demonstrating through activi...
Annex A

                                    Bibliography

J.H.M Fewkes & M. Sharif Bhat (ND), Children’s Committee for Vi...
Annex B
                         Interviews and Information Sources

Dr Bashir Ahmed - Director of Academics, Jammu & Kash...
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Wp13 curriculum final

  1. 1. Enterprising Ladakh Prosperity, Youth Enterprise and Cultural Values in Peripheral Regions Working Paper No 13 School Curriculum – content and delivery April 2006 Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society Drukpa Trust in association with SECMOL A project funded by the European Commission
  2. 2. Preface During 2004-5, the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development, Leh (the ‘Hill Council’) formulated a Vision Document entitled ‘Ladakh 2025’, aimed at transforming the Ladakh region to an economic powerhouse, without adversely affecting its unique culture and ecology. In order to help take the Vision forward, this ‘Enterprising Ladakh’ project investigated opportunities in eleven economic sectors, and set out the findings in a Discussion Paper entitled ‘Market Opportunities’. The findings were discussed at a Workshop in Leh in July 2005. (www.enterprisingladakh.org) Discussion Paper No 2 entitled ‘Developing Livelihood Skills & Self Reliance,’ addressed the enabling environment for ‘enterprise’ and ‘entrepreneurship’. This Paper considered their nature, summarised experience with initiatives in the European Union and India, reviewed the current status in Ladakh, identified obstacles and outlined an enabling policy for the future. The findings were discussed at a Workshop in Leh in March 2006. This Working Paper No 13: ‘School Curriculum – content and delivery’ was prepared by Annie Smith and Mahammad Hasnain. ‘Enterprising Ladakh’ is a project being conducted by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh, Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society and Drukpa Trust, in association with SECMOL. The project is co-funded by the EU-India Small Projects Facility Programme in Economic Co-operation (SPF), which is an initiative of the European Commission (EC) to support the on-going transformation and modernisation of Indian economy and systems of governance. The programme supports small and innovative projects that aim at facilitating enhanced interaction of European and Indian civil society, the networking of its policy makers and opinion formers as well as the linkage of Indian and EU operators in business and the media. You are kindly invited to communicate your views on this Working Paper to the project team: Project Coordinator 'Enterprising Ladakh' Hemis Complex, Zangsti Leh, Ladakh -194 101 Phone: +91 94191 77536; 252 133 enterprisingladakh@rediffmail.com This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council Leh, Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society and Drukpa Trust, and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. 19th April 2006 2
  3. 3. Executive Summary The Team held interviews and discussions in Delhi, Jammu and Leh with key representatives from the National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT), National Institute of Education Planning and Administration (NIEPA), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Jammu & Kashmir Board of School Education (J&KBOSE), the State Institute of Education (SIE), Jammu, the Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL), Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh (LAHDC) and the District Institute of Education & Training (DIET). The main conclusions are that: (1) there is sufficient scope to introduce ‘enterprise education’ within the existing curriculum; and (2) the approach should be to redefine how the curriculum is transacted in the classroom rather than to add ‘enterprise education’ as yet another subject in an already overburdened timetable. A curriculum analysis was conducted having regard to the ‘life & livelihood skills’ introduced in Discussion Paper No 2: Developing Livelihood Skills and Self-reliance. By embedding life & livelihood skills into the syllabus and expanding the boundary of the classroom experience through teacher training, a more activity-based, participatory approach to learning can be encouraged, thus providing a foundation of enterprise-related skills in Ladakhi schools. The Working Paper reviews the National Curriculum Framework 2005 from the points of view of the core curriculum, examinations and textbooks. Each state works to the core curriculum and can add further subjects if it requires. However, due to the core curriculum already creating a high workload for students, the inclusion of additional subjects, other than local language, seldom occurs. Nonetheless, it is through the gradual changing of textbooks that classroom practice can be changed, and life & livelihood skills gradually introduced. Under the Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education, the curriculum is limited to five core subjects: (1) English; (2) 2nd Language (Urdu); (3) maths; (4) science; and (5) social science. Other subjects could be added, but additional subjects are not generally present because of a lack of teachers with the subject knowledge to teach in these areas. The only exception to this norm is the inclusion of Bodhi or Hindi up to Class VIII. The Enterprising Ladakh Project aims to demonstrate what can be done within the existing curriculum. The proposed strategy is therefore as follows: • Long-term – Foundation Life & Livelihood Skills to be absorbed into J&K textbooks across the curriculum; textbooks to be analysed and recommendations made for suitable ‘entry points’. • Mid-Term – Life & Livelihood Skills Supplement to be added to existing Social Science textbooks. Supplements to be based on the outcomes of a pilot scheme and inserted into existing textbooks in place of a chapter or chapters with little educational value in Ladakh. • Short- term – ‘pilot’ for Classes VI–VIII: a DVD will be produced demonstrating through activity-based learning such as role-play, discussion and field trips how ‘life & livelihood’ skills can be introduced into the classroom. This DVD will be accompanied by an ‘activities handbook’ and together the package can also be used as a teacher training aid. 19th April 2006 3
  4. 4. Table of Contents Abbreviations 5 1. Introduction 6 2. National Curriculum Framework 2005 – an overview 6 • Core curriculum 7 • Examinations 8 • Textbooks 8 • Teacher education 9 3. Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education 10 • Curriculum 10 • Obstacles to efficient delivery of curriculum 11 4. Remote Areas Curriculum 12 5. Non-formal Sector 12 • Non-governmental Organisations 12 • Society & Private Schools 13 5. Recommendations 13 • Strategy 13 • Teacher education 14 • Remote areas 14 • Awareness building 14 Annexes A: Bibliography 15 B: Interviews and Information Sources 16 19th April 2006 4
  5. 5. Abbreviations CBSE Central Board of Secondary Education CCVD Children’s Committee for Village Development DIET District Institute of Education & Training DRP District Resource Person J&K Jammu & Kashmir J&KBOSE Jammu & Kashmir Board of School Education LAHDC Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh LNP Leh Nutrition Project MA Master of Arts MEd Master of Education NCERT National Council of Education Research & Training NCF National Curriculum Framework NGO Non-governmental Organisation NIEPA National Institute of Education Planning and Administration NIOS National Institute of Open Schooling NPE National Policy on Education SCF Save the Children Fund SECMOL Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh SIE State Institute of Education, SSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, (the Government of India’s Elementary Education for All Programme) VEC Village Education Committee 19th April 2006 5
  6. 6. 1. Introduction Extensive research was completed in Delhi, Jammu and Leh during January and February 2006 to bring greater understanding to the Enterprising Ladakh Project regarding the introduction of ‘life skills and self-reliance’ into the school curriculum in Ladakh (see Annex A, Discussion Paper 2). Interviews and discussions were held with key people from the National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT), National Institute of Education Planning and Administration (NIEPA), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education (JKSBOSE), the State Institute of Education (SIE), Jammu, the Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL), Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh (LAHDC) and the District Institute of Education & Training (DIET). This Working Paper draws on interviews and discussions as well as supporting literature to identify possible areas where ‘enterprise education’ may be introduced into the formal education system. It appears that the solution is not to add further subjects to the curriculum, such as ‘enterprise education’, but rather to redefine how the curriculum is transacted in the classroom. ‘Life skills’ are central to the focus of this project. There are close parallels between the ‘individual attributes and skills’ identified in Activity 2 and ‘life skills’ as defined by the World Health Organisation. Though their origins are different, both aim to equip and empower young people with the skills they need to cope in a modern society. ‘Life skills’ is currently a subject of discourse in India and is gradually being introduced into mainstream education by one or two states (see forthcoming Working Paper 15: Life & Livelihood Skills). By embedding ‘life & livelihood skills’ into the syllabus and expanding the boundary of the classroom experience through teacher training, a more activity-based, participatory approach to learning can be encouraged, thus providing a foundation of enterprise-related skills in Ladakhi schools. A study of the curriculum shows that Social Studies is best suited to the inclusion of ‘life & livelihood skills’. However, recommendations are initially geared towards Classes VI to VIII, due to the heavy constraints of examinations on the learning environment. 2. National Curriculum Framework 2005 – an overview The word ‘curriculum’ has subtly different meanings. The Director of NCERT, Dr Krishna Kumar, commented that ‘curriculum means different things to different people, in different countries’. Curriculum encompasses the essential and appropriate knowledge taught in schools. It involves the praxis of policy as well as the syllabi used in the teaching-learning process. Teaching and learning materials, classroom practices, evaluation and assessment procedures and language policy are all components of curriculum. To the average Indian teacher however, curriculum is defined by textbook content (K. Kumar 2005). 19th April 2006 6
  7. 7. The aim of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) – as directed by the 1986 National Policy on Education – is to provide a child with a set of learning experiences that impart a broad set of skills throughout the various stages of the child’s development and which are rooted within the child’s culture, traditions and livelihood. It also emphasises that learning is more effective when it is situated in the context of the child’s world and that the boundary between the school and its natural and social environment should be porous. These statements suggest that, at the national policy level for education in India, the way is open for the introduction of ‘life & livelihood skills’. However, there is a considerable difference between the NCF recommendations and what happens in the classroom in most government schools. The reasons are numerous and lie within the system’s deeply-entrenched resistance to change. For example, the term ‘National Curriculum Framework’ is intended to provide a means of evolving a national system of education capable of responding to India’s diverse geographical and cultural milieu, while ensuring a common core of values along with academic components. However, it is often wrongly construed to mean that an instrument of uniformity is being imposed (NCF 2005). Consequently, new educational initiatives – whether at state, district or school level – are seen as a move away from the mainstream and are often met with insecurity and resistance. Core Curriculum Up to Class X , the core curricular subjects identified by the NCF are: • language x 2 ( English + one other) • mathematics • science • social studies (geography, history and civics) with the recommendation that: • art education, • work education, • health & physical education, • education for peace • habitat & learning are embedded across the curriculum. The degree to which these latter five learning areas are imparted varies from state to state and depends on textbook content, teacher skills and competence, and time for extra-curricular activities. The teachers already struggle to deliver the existing curriculum within the given time, in a predominantly rote-based system driven by content-based testing. 19th April 2006 7
  8. 8. Examinations It is generally accepted that examinations are overburdening the education system, and restrict learning to the memorisation and regurgitation of facts and knowledge. According to NCF 2005, the report ‘Learning without Burden’ recommended that Class X and XII examinations that currently focus on text-based learning and quiz- type questioning, inducing high levels of stress, and promotion of rote learning should be replaced by a more flexible system. Given these existing burdens or obstacles, it is clear that ‘life & livelihood skills’ need to be incorporated into the system without creating further burden. However it is hoped, in the long run, that the introduction of ‘life & livelihood skills’ could shift learning away from textbook-centred study, lessen the burdens and bring some reform to the examination system. Textbooks Textbooks are the backbone of the Indian curriculum, and as such form the vehicle for the dissemination of NCF recommendations to the classroom. Change within this process, however, is very gradual. NCERT has its own publishing section, which produces books according to the NFC guidelines. Making changes to the books takes time, plus change needs to be incremental; too much change too soon could leave teachers confused about how to deliver the curriculum. Consequently, the books are considerably less evolved than NCF guideline recommendations suggest. However, some changes are occurring. By re-structuring textbook information to deliver the syllabi in a more child-centred, interactive way, teachers are being encouraged to use more initiative, and thus bring slow but steady change to the learning environment. To these ends, NCERT has already re-written Science books up to Class X, Environmental Studies to Class V and Mathematics to Class III, and recognises that many iterations will be required over time. It appears that each state works to the core curriculum and can add further subjects if it requires. However, due to the core curriculum already creating a high workload for students, the inclusion of additional subjects, other than local language, seldom occurs. Nonetheless, it is through the gradual changing of textbooks that classroom practice can be changed, and life & livelihood skills gradually introduced. For example: • In the long-term, foundation Life & Livelihood Skills could be absorbed into J&K textbooks across the curriculum, by analysing the textbooks and recommending suitable ‘entry points’. A similar process was carried out for environmental awareness and was called ‘greening up’ the text books. • In the mid-term, Life & Livelihood Skills could be added as a ‘Supplement’ to existing Social Science textbooks. These Supplements would be based on the outcomes of a pilot (to be conducted in this project) and inserted into existing textbooks in place of a chapter or chapters with little educational value to Ladakh. 19th April 2006 8
  9. 9. These entry points and Supplements would encourage a move away from textbook- based learning, by supporting the teacher in using role-play, discussion, team work, problem-solving etc. as the teaching/learning method for establishing ‘life & livelihood skills’. For example: role-play as a method encourages teamwork, discussion, communication, imagination, problem-solving etc. and as such can impart these ‘life skills’. If the theme of the role-play is linked to livelihoods, then knowledge and understanding can be imparted in this way. Teacher education Teacher education plays a vital role if implementation of a ‘life & livelihood skills’ programme is to be successful in the long-term. In a recent interview, Dr Krishna Kumar, the Director of NCERT said: “You talk about creating life skills, entrepreneurship and all that, but if teachers don’t have even this modest confidence of putting aside the text book, how are you going to give entrepreneurship or initiative to children? Gandhi made this point so brilliantly about 70 years ago in 1937 where he said that ‘the more the text book, the less the power and the character of the teacher involved.” In Ladakh, in-service teacher training is conducted during the winter vacation and is for 20 days’ duration. The main emphasis is on textbook “content”, for two reasons: first, textbooks are frequently updated and the contents changed; secondly most teachers are not well qualified and lack subject-specialist knowledge (the minimum qualification requirement to become a teacher is 10+2). Training is therefore focused on textbook ‘hot-spots’ across the five core subjects . During the 20 days, there is also “general awareness” training, which includes methodology, new strategies and changes as laid down by NCERT, e.g. multi-grade teaching, etc. Under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) programme, every elementary teacher (Classes I-VIII) must undergo training at least once during the winter; the SSA is in its third year of implementation in Leh. Though in-service training is provided to teachers, it is yet another area that meets with many obstacles: • To be a teacher trainer (District Resource Person, DRP) requires an MA or MEd. Few Ladakhi teachers have these qualifications, especially at primary and upper primary levels. Teacher trainers are posted to Ladakh for two years from other parts of J&K State. It is a hardship posting, they have little or no invested interest in the area, and no sooner have they settled, than they are thinking about leaving again. • Resources at the (DIET) training centre are poor. Textbook training is often held without the textbooks, because the books fail to arrive in time. Training spaces used by DIET also lack good training aids, such as a white board, flipcharts, pens etc. • Training continues to focus on textbook-centred learning and although teachers may be exposed to other methodologies, teachers need more support if they are to introduce these in a significant way into mainstream teaching. 19th April 2006 9
  10. 10. Dr Krishna Kumar recommended that if one can get ‘the teacher to stop religiously following the textbook for up to 40% of the time, we would have made a major breakthrough in changing education’. As well as training in activity-based learning, it is necessary to introduce ‘reflective practice’ and begin to involve teachers in the process of questioning what it is they do, why they do it, and how it contributes to the learning process. Such training is being given in Druk Padma Karpo Institute, Shey – and experience there can be used to design a mid- to long-term training programme in Ladakh. It will not be feasible to design an appropriate teacher training programme within the limited resources of this project, but a pilot DVD will be produced to demonstrate how ‘live & livelihood skills’ can be introduced and the methodologies teachers should be using. 3. Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education Curriculum In order that each state can produce textbooks that are attuned to the local culture and environment, three main options available. States can choose to: • write their own books, as long as they follow the NCERT books as a guideline; • modify the NCERT books; or • obtain the rights to reprint the NCERT books. In the case of Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education, the NCERT books are modified to reflect the cultural, social and environmental context in which the children live. However, this has not until recently included Ladakh. Only since 2003 has Ladakh had some books that are culturally-specific - produced by a local NGO, Students Educational & Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) - and when piloted, reviewed and completed, adopted for Ladakh. In the State of Jammu & Kashmir, the curriculum is limited to five core subjects and according to the Director of Academics, J&KBOSE (Dr Bashir Ahmed), all children from Classes I-X are expected to follow the curriculum as prescribed in the textbooks and teacher guidelines: • English; • 2nd Language (usually Urdu or Hindi); • maths; • science; • social science. Other subjects could be added, but additional subjects are not generally present because of a lack of teachers with the subject knowledge to teach in these areas. The only break from this norm in Ladakh is the inclusion of Bodhi up to Class VIII. A study of Class VI &VII Social Studies textbooks has shown that their content has the potential to act as a vehicle to impart ‘life & livelihood skills’ into the curriculum. 19th April 2006 10
  11. 11. At Higher Secondary level, Classes XI -XII, three streams of study are available in Ladakh: 1) Science: English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology or Mathematics 2) Arts: English plus three of the following: Economics Education, Hindi/Urdu, Political Science, History, Maths. 3) Commerce: Business Studies, Accountancy, Economic Activities, English & IT (optional) Arts is currently the most popular of these streams. Commerce has only picked up recently, but again, there are many obstacles to the success of this course: • The academic year is relatively short in Ladakh due to the prolonged winter holidays. Exams occur in April, only one month after schools re-open, and it is very difficult for teachers/lecturers to deliver the syllabus in time. • It is difficult to find enough well-qualified, specialist teachers. In commerce, nobody is available to run private tuition over the winter holidays. • J&KBOSE set the syllabus for commerce, but the course books are not available in Ladakh as: (a) not enough students study the subject to make it worthwhile for suppliers to order books, and the changes to the syllabus are so frequent that the books are quickly made redundant. The Boys Higher Secondary School therefore works with the CBSE books to meet the J&K syllabus requirements. Obstacles to efficient delivery of curriculum Textbook distribution In Ladakh, the distribution of textbooks is poor across all subjects and grades. Since the introduction of the government-funded free textbook scheme, distribution has failed to coincide with the start of the academic year and this is seriously undermining the education system. Parents or students no longer take the initiative to purchase textbooks, thus creating and controlling demand in the bookshops but, understandably, they await the free books. Year after year and term after term these books fail to be delivered on time – apparently due only to bureaucratic incompetence. Teacher Attendance One important factor that currently undermines the education system is ‘casual leave’. Under this system teachers in the state sector can take a total of 15 days leave with little or no notice. Though this leave is meant to be used for emergencies, sickness and essential travel - it is often abused. It is not unusual to find unattended classes in schools as there are no teachers available to cover. This shows a lack of consideration for colleagues, a lack of care for the student and also sends out a bad message to children about responsibility in the workplace. 19th April 2006 11
  12. 12. 4. Remote Areas Curriculum In the past, the remote areas suffered greatly from dropouts at the end of primary level Class V, this was due mostly to problems of access to middle and high schools which were often many miles away, whereas most areas had primary schools within a 1 to 3 km distance (statistics handbook). This was particularly the case for the nomad families of the Changtang Plateau. The problem then became socio- economic in that parents had to find bus fares or pay for lodgings if their child was to attend school, for many this was not possible. In response to this problem and with the aid of SECMOL the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh established centralised schools within these remote areas - one in Dubruk and one in Nyoma. These schools provide for Class VI–X and follow the J&KBOSE curriculum. The schools are residential and the education is free. In a discussion with Sonam Wangchuk, the Director of SECMOL, regarding the best way of introducing Life & Livelihood Skills into the remote areas, the suggestion was made that remote area primary schools should follow a different yearly timetable, enabling children to spend more times in their communities during the warmer months when sowing, reaping, breading, shearing etc take place. Assignments could then be set for the children to complete that relate to their communities and livelihoods. At present there is a long winter vacation due to the extreme cold, when nothing is happening, and children only huddle around the fire to keep warm. Non-formal Sector Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) The Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh (SECMOL) has been a significant player in introducing changes to the field of education. In 1994, Operation New Hope was established aiming to: • organise the village communities for active constructive participation in the running of the schools through formation of Village Education Committees (VEC). • introduce a child-centred, activity-based and locally-relevant approach to early primary education. • train the teachers in creative teaching methods in order to make schooling less painful and more joyful for children. • produce Ladakhi versions of primary text books and teaching materials in order to make them more relevant and meaningful to Ladakhi children. • use the above factors to revive the interest, strengthen the confidence, and enhance the dedication of government school teachers. The most significant and long-term contribution has been their production of culturally-relevant textbooks for English and Social Studies at primary level. These textbooks are now produced in collaboration with J&KBOSE and distributed to state primary schools throughout Ladakh 19th April 2006 12
  13. 13. Over the past twenty years Save the Children has also played a significant role in establishing educational initiatives. One such project is Children’s Committee for Village Development (CCVD), which aims to impart skills to children that enable them to become active participants in their community development rather than passive recipients of development. This project has identified and trained the children in ‘Seven Life Skills’ - through role play and discussion, skills of leadership, communication, teamwork, decision-making and problem-solving have been imparted, leading to a significant increase of confidence and skill within the children over a short period of time. Enterprising Ladakh is keen to promote the adoption of a similar skill base throughout the formal education sector. Society & Private Schools: There are approximately 30 society and private schools throughout the Leh district. These schools can chose from several examination boards but the majority stay with J&KBOSE or are affiliated with CBSE. CBSE offers a wider range of curricular subjects than J&KBOSE. CBSE also produce Life Skills textbooks for Classes VI-VIII. However, none of the private schools contacted in Ladakh have Life Skills on the curriculum Several Society Schools are also running their own in-service training schemes. Mahabodi, Lamdon Society and Druk Padma Karpo Institute, to name a few, have been or are running in-service training. At Druk Padma Karpo Institute, training takes place on a weekly basis after school hours and is based on planning and reflective practice. Non-formal education is the sector currently driving educational change in Ladakh in terms of delivering skills to both teachers and children that are fundamental to enterprise development. It is important, however that the same skills be adopted into the formal sector. SECMOL has strived for years to bridge this gap with some success, but the Director, S Wangchuk, said in a recent interview that what has been achieved is only a small step, so much more is needed. 3. Recommendations Strategy The aim within this Enterprising Ladakh Project is to demonstrate what can be done within the existing curriculum. The proposed strategy is as follows: • Long-term – Foundation Life & Livelihood Skills to be absorbed into J&K textbooks across the curriculum; textbooks to be analysed and recommendations made for suitable ‘entry points’. • Mid-Term – Life & Livelihood Skills Supplement to be added to existing Social Science textbooks. Supplements to be based on the outcomes of the pilot scheme and inserted into existing textbooks in place of a chapter or chapters with little educational value in Ladakh. 19th April 2006 13
  14. 14. • Short- term – Life & Livelihood ‘pilot’ for Classes VI – VIII. A DVD will be produced demonstrating through activity-based learning, such as role play, discussion, field trips etc. how ‘life & livelihood’ skills can be introduced into the classroom. This DVD will be accompanied by an activities handbook and together the package can also be used as a teacher training aid. Teacher Education • For successful implementation of both the long and mid-term recommendations above, an in-service teacher training programme is essential. This programme should encourage reflective practice, and build confidence and understanding of activity-based learning. Remote Areas – Dubruk & Nyoma • Yearly time table to be changed up to Class V • Livelihood assignments to be set during holiday periods • Community teacher (a parent) to be trained in assignment support Awareness building DVD/VCD to be produced to inform teachers and parents: • of the importance to society of children securing a local job • that the availability of government jobs is fast declining and is not a viable option • that many other possibilities for employment exist, and children need to be prepared for employment, not only academic study. 19th April 2006 14
  15. 15. Annex A Bibliography J.H.M Fewkes & M. Sharif Bhat (ND), Children’s Committee for Village Development - Our Voices ….. Are you listening? Save the Children Fund, Leh, Ladakh Krishna Kumar (2005), Making Education Reforms More Meaningful, NCERT, Delhi Life Skills Education Training Package 2005, Dr C.G. Venkatesha Murthy & Prof.A.V. Govinda Rao (Edt), Regional Institute of Education - Mysore. National Curriculum Framework 2005, National Council of Education Research and Training, Delhi National Focus Groups - Position Papers 2005 , National Council of Education Research and Training, Delhi Life Skills Education Training Package 2005, Regional Institute of Education - Mysore. Students Educational & Cultural Movement of Ladakh (2001) - Completion Report of Activities under Operation New Hope, Ladakh Students Educational & Cultural Movement of Ladakh (2003) - Educational Reforms in Ladakh, DVA Evaluation Report. 19th April 2006 15
  16. 16. Annex B Interviews and Information Sources Dr Bashir Ahmed - Director of Academics, Jammu & Kashmir Board of School Education Dr Krishna Kumar - Director, National Council for Education Research and Training* Dr R Govinda - National Institute for Education Planning and Administration* Maureen Songhurst - Principal, Druk Padma Karpo Institute Mrs, Yangchen - District Institute of Education and Training, Leh, Ladakh Professor. A. I. Ghanai - Chairman, Jammu and Kashmir, Board Of School Education* P. Mani - Senior Programme Officer, Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi* Sonam Wangchuk - Director, Students Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh* Tsewang Rigzin, Executive Councillor of Education, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh* *Interviews available in project files. 19th April 2006 16

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