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Safety guidelines 2014 05-08 version & recommended governance

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नुकताच महाराष्ट्र सरकारचा साहसी क्रीडाप्रकारांसाठी सुरक्षितते संदर्भातील GR आला. त्यात अनेक त्रुटी आहेत आणि तो अनेक ठिकाणी ढिसाळ आहे. या संदर्भात विस्तृत लेख लिहावा असा मानस आहे. तत्पूर्वी २०१४ साली अखिल महाराष्ट्र गिर्यारोहण महासंघाने गठित केलेल्या तज्ञांच्या समितीने दिलेला अहवाल सर्वांसमोर ठेवत आहे.
ही तज्ञ समिती महासंघाने कुठलीही करणे न देता बरखास्त केली (का ते तेच जाणोत!). हाच अहवाल काटछाट करून सरकारकडे देण्यात आला. त्यातील काही मुद्दे 'Cut - Paste' पध्दतीने सध्याच्या GRमधे वापरल्यासारखे दिसतात. सध्याच्या GRची अंमलबजावणी तातडीने करण्यात येणार आहे असे समजते. गेल्या GRच्या वेळेस तीन महिन्यांचा अवधी सूचना/दुरुस्त्यांसाठी दिला होता. एकंदरीतच सारा प्रकार वेठ मारल्यासारखा भासतो.
निसर्गात, साहसी क्रीडाप्रकारात भाग घेणाऱ्या सर्वानीच ह्या प्रकरणाकडे गांभीर्याने पाहणे गरजेचे आहे. महाराष्ट्रात सर्व साहसी क्रीडाप्रकारात सुरक्षितता असावी याबद्दल कुणाचेच दुमत असण्याचे कारण नाही, परंतु सरकारचा हा पवित्रा गैर असून त्याविरुध्द विधायक चर्चा होणे गरजेचे आहे असे मला वाटते!

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Safety guidelines 2014 05-08 version & recommended governance

  1. 1. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 1 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Safety Guidelines Land Based Adventure Activities Prepared By Experts Committee Akhil Maharashtra Giryarohan Mahasangh (For Use in the Field)
  2. 2. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 2 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Index Section No. Heading Page Nos. 1 Preface and Introduction 3 - 5 2 Definitions 6 - 7 3 Scope, Applicability and Exclusions 8 - 9 4 Types of Organizations and Registration 10 - 11 5 Management Responsibility 12 - 13 6 Skills and Competencies 14 - 18 7 Capability Enhancement 19 - 21 8 Communication to Participants, and Others 22 - 23 9 Equipment, Storage, Maintenance and Inspection 24 - 28 10 Control over Service Providers 29 - 29 11 Field Guidelines for Trekking 30 - 32 12 Field Guidelines for Camps and Courses 33 13 Field Guidelines for Rappelling and Valley Crossing 34 - 35 14 Principles of ‘Leave No Trace’ (LNT) for Outdoor Ethics 37 - 39 15 Risk Management 40 - 43 16 Critical Incidents and Complaints 44 17 Document (Safety Guidelines) Revision Mechanism 45 18 Sample Templates 46 - 52 19 Closing Comments 53 - 54 20 Notes for Reference on Health Issues 55 - 57 21 Information on courses for capability enhancement 58-59 22 References 60
  3. 3. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 3 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 1 Preface and Introduction 1.0 Preface Today, an increasing number of people are venturing into outdoor adventure activities. This is especially true in the state of Maharashtra with its varied natural resources and a considerable number of adventure enthusiasts. By definition, adventure is an activity which has inherent risk, resulting in an uncertain outcome. Whether an adventure activity has a perceived risk or a real risk, it has an appeal that draws people. Besides the thrill that adventurers seek in facing and overcoming danger, there are other benefits that adventure is seen to have in aspects like educational and therapeutic value. Under the circumstances safety becomes an issue in its own right, and it is important that adventure activities are conducted in a way which minimises risks and yet provides the undeniable benefits of participation. 2.0 Background The genesis of this process of evolving comprehensive safety guidelines applicable to organizers of adventure activities from the state of Maharashtra lies in a Public Interest Litigation (No 184/2007) in the Honorable High Court of Judicature at Bombay by the parents of a 15 year old boy who lost his life due to high altitude sickness in the Himalaya. The parents of the child claimed that the organizers had not made adequate arrangements for the safety of the trekking group. The Honorable High Court vide its order, dated 12th July, 2013 in the matter directed the Maharashtra Government to formulate comprehensive policy, guidelines or regulations to regulate the activity of unregistered organizations. The Honorable High Court has expected that the State Government shall ensure the safety of the participants who will be taking part in mountaineering activities, camps and trekking expeditions. Akhil Maharashtra Giryarohan Mahasangh (hereinafter referred to as “AMGM”), as an apex body of Mountaineering Clubs in the State of Maharashtra, filed an application for intervention in the above referred PIL which was allowed by the Honorable Division Bench of Bombay High Court. While making the application for intervention, the sole object of AMGM was to assist the Honorable Court in formulating safety guidelines so as to ensure that proper precautions are taken while conducting various activities in the field of trekking, rock climbing and mountaineering.
  4. 4. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 4 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 3.0 Introduction In Maharashtra, many adventure organizations follow their own safety guidelines and procedures in order to function safely and effectively. Such safety guidelines have been derived after study of similar systems and procedures propounded by organizations like the Indian Mountaineering Foundation (IMF), Union Internationale Des Associations D’Alpinisme (UIAA), National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) and Outward Bound International (OB). In compliance with the order of the Honorable High Court, it is now imperative that a comprehensive document of safety guidelines for outdoor adventure activities is prepared, to appropriately guide organizations and individuals in their planning and operations during such activities. While devising any policy towards regulating adventure activities like trekking, rock climbing and mountaineering in Maharashtra, it is necessary to comprehend the nature and scope of the activity being conducted. Maharashtra is blessed with two major mountain ranges, the Sahyadri and Satpuda, in addition to a long coastline. Almost throughout the year adventure activities, especially land-based adventure activities are conducted by hundreds of organization catering to thousands of participants across age groups. These programmes are of varied nature, addressing different goals related to leisure, education including personal development and therapy. Also, trekking and mountaineering in the Himalaya evolves naturally for adventurers in Maharashtra. Many organizations in Maharashtra arrange Himalaya-based programmes independently as well as with the help of local operators. 4.0 Purpose of this Document Broadly: This Document aims at contributing to continuous enhancement of safety in land-based outdoor adventure activities by bringing in clarity about mandatory requirements and stating guidelines which will help organizations, and individuals as stakeholders in an adventure event, operate safely and in comfort in the outdoors. Specifically: This Document i. Aims at contributing to capability enhancement of organizations and individuals. It strives to create an adequate level of conceptual clarity behind recommendations included in guidelines. Such clarity not only fosters uniformity in operations – especially in risk mitigation – but also empowers individuals in responsible roles to take safe decisions, which is significant given the nature of ‘adventure’ along with its direct interaction with the natural elements, inherent risk and uncertainty in outcome.
  5. 5. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 5 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 ii. Believes that such guidance contributes to having robust foundation for operations and enables organizations and individuals to take on bigger challenges in a manner which is responsible toward safety of people and various environments. iii. Will contribute to enhancing the self-awareness of organizations and individuals, and facilitate aspirations for enhanced risk management in all operations, with a focus not only on ‘safety’ but also ‘comfort’. iv. Aims at contributing to ‘educating’ members of the public in order to help them take informed decisions about participation in various adventure based programmes. v. Aims at inspiring willingness to follow these guidelines through conceptual understanding. This Document believes that its guidelines and recommendations do not i. Intend to hamper any adventure activity, nor does it intend to curb the participation of outdoor enthusiasts either in extent or in numbers. ii. Curb the freedom or the capacity of individuals – especially those in responsible roles – to exercise judgment or take decisions. On the contrary, this Document will help in enhancing judgment of such individuals thereby empowering them for safer and more effective decision-making. On the whole, this Document strives to strike the crucial balance between helping minimizing risk in adventure operations and empowering organizations and individuals to undertake varied kinds of programmes as well as aspire for bigger challenges in a responsible manner. Disclaimer: the Experts Committee (EC) and the Akhil Maharashtra Giryarohan Mahasangh (AMGM) have developed this Document. The aim is to assist Organisations and individuals from Maharashtra in the prevention and reduction of injury in land based adventure activities in order to make them safer and more enjoyable. The EC and the AMGM cannot and do not warrant the accuracy or the completeness of this guide and content and, as a result, they will not be liable to any person or Organisation for any loss or damage of any nature, whether arising out of negligence or otherwise, which may be occasioned as a result of the use of this set of safety guidelines and recommendations.
  6. 6. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 6 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 2 Definitions 1. Adventure activity: an activity that involves greater than normal risk which may include a) travel into a relatively undeveloped area of the country in which vehicle contact is difficult and/or uncertain or b) confrontation with natural environmental challenges requiring greater reliance upon personal resources than would normally be required in day-to-day life. 2. Land based adventure activity: An adventure activity which is primarily conducted at the various geological features like hills, mountains, rock faces, pinnacles, valleys etc. on the earth’s surface 3. Service Provider: An individual or organization which provides service/s to the adventure program of a contracting organization which service/s it wishes to outsource. 4. Service: Service could be in the form of an activity associated with the adventure part of the program or an activity which complements the adventure part (e.g., transport to the adventure site, boarding and lodging, etc.). 5. Scrambling: strenuous walks, right up to easy (but sometimes exposed) climbs that don't necessarily need ropes. Another way to describe it is a gradual introduction to outdoor rock climbing, and usually less intimidating than actual climbing. 6. Trekking (short treks) – walking on different terrain for short period of time, i.e. one (1) hour to one (1) day; 7. Hiking /Backpacking (Multi-day treks) - walking on mountain and wilderness trails over an extended period of time, i.e. two (2) or more days; 8. Rock climbing: process of ascending a rock face requiring the use of naturally formed handholds and footholds and uses specialized equipment as a backup safety system. 9. Lead climbing: Lead climbing involves a climber ascending a rock face, safeguarded by the ongoing placement of protection while belayed from below. 10. Bouldering: Bouldering is an activity in its own right requiring the same techniques found in rock climbing; however, these techniques are usually applied no higher than a few meters off the ground (ref. ‘climbing – the complete reference’ by Greg Child) 11. Rappelling (sometimes referred as Abseiling) is an activity in which a person descends a rope in a controlled manner with the use of a friction device or descender. Abseiling may be used to descend a cliff face as part of a rock-climbing program or it may be practiced as a separate activity. 12. Rappelling (Abseiling) Camps and or Events including Waterfall Rappelling Camps and or Events: Camps or Events which include rappelling from a rock surface or a waterfall as the focused activity and also may introduce participants to the basic skills and techniques used in the activity. 13. Adventure Camps for Kids and or Adults: Camp includes any day camp, family camp, resident camp, trek camp, specialty-adventure camp, high-adventure camp, rope course, climbing, rappelling and orienteering etc. program introducing participants to skills and techniques in the outdoors.
  7. 7. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 7 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 14. Rock Climbing Courses: Rock climbing course (camps) are single or multiday courses teaching techniques and skills of rock climbing and allied activity like bouldering, sport climbing, traditional climbing, rappelling and risk management. 15. Rock Climbing Expeditions: This involves rock climbing in the outdoors over a period of days. 16. Valley Crossing Expeditions / camps: This is the technique used to cross a void using the method of Tyrolean Traverse, which involves a person slung on a rope tied across the void. 17. Experiential Learning based Programme: This is a programme designed using the methodology of experiential learning which uses a series of activities each one of which is followed by a review session where participants derive learnings through reflection in their experiences. 18. High altitude Adventure Camps for adults / kids: Camp includes any day camp, family camp, resident camp, trek camp, specialty-adventure camp, high-adventure camp, rope course, climbing, rappelling and orienteering etc. program introducing participants to skills and techniques in the Himalaya. 19. High Altitude Trek: shall mean walking on mountain and wilderness trails over an extended period of time, i.e. two (2) or more days at higher elevations. 20. Mountaineering Expeditions: A multi-day activity for climbing peaks in the Himalaya. 21. Exploratory Treks / Expeditions: shall mean walking on unexplored mountain and wilderness trails over an extended period of time, i.e. two (2) or more days at higher elevations. 22. Desert Trekking: walking in a desert. 23. Coastal Trekking: walking along the coasts. 24. Social Environment: That part of the environment that comprises of local populations and their cultures. 25. Historical: the component of the adventurer’s environment that comprises of archaeological structures and monuments. 26. Ecological: the natural environment of an adventurer 27. Organisation: individual or group of individuals, commercial or non-commercial entities organising any adventure activity 28. Management: The top management in any Organisation, responsible for policy-making, and direction to the rest of the organisation 29. Hazard: is something that can potentially cause harm; objective hazards are largely natural phenomena, and subjective hazards are largely related to human factors. 30. Risk Potential: arises when subjective a hazard comes into contact with an objective hazard 31. Critical Incident: Any significant incident that demands medication and/or first aid and/or extended care and/or conflict management and/or evacuation of person
  8. 8. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 8 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 3 Scope, Applicability and Exclusions 3.1 The ‘Safety Guidelines’ are applicable to the ‘Land based Adventure Activities’ listed in the section and therefore the Organizations conducting the same. 3.2 The list of activities for which the ‘Safety Guidelines’ are applicable. 3.2.1 Sahyadri and other areas except Himalaya: i. Scrambling ii. Short treks iii. Multi-day Treks iv. Adventure Camps for Kids / Adults v. Rock Climbing Courses vi. Rock Climbing Expeditions vii. Valley Crossing Expeditions / Camps viii. Rappelling (Abseiling) Camps / Events ix. Waterfall Rappelling Camps / Events x. Experiential Learning Programs 3.2.2 Himalaya: i. Adventure Camps for adults / kids ii. High Altitude Treks iii. Peak Climbing (Mountaineering) Expeditions iv. Exploratory Treks / Expeditions 3.2.3 Other Geographical Areas: (E.g. Deserts, Sea Coasts, Rock faces) i. Desert Trekking ii. Coastal Trekking 3.3 Exclusions - The following ‘Land based Adventure Activities’ are excluded from ‘Safety Guidelines’ do not include. i. Caving ii. Mountain Biking iii. Motor Sports iv. Water and air based activities
  9. 9. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 9 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 3.4 Type of Organizations conducting the above Adventure activities, to whom the ‘Safety Guidelines’ are applicable. Sr. No. Type of Organization Applicability 1 Un-Registered commercial / non-commercial organizations organizing adventure activities for general public. Mandatory. 2 Un-Registered Individuals organizing adventure activities of commercial / non-commercial nature for general public. Mandatory. 3 Registered Profit Making / Commercial Organizations organizing adventure activities for their clients, Mandatory. 4 Registered Non-Profit Making / Voluntary Organizations organizing adventure activities for their members and general public Mandatory. 5 Schools, Colleges and other types of organisations (like hiking clubs of commercial companies) which organize adventure activities, including those that are conducted by groups linked to government undertakings and public sector companies. Mandatory. 6 Organizations imparting Experiential Learning. Mandatory. 7 Individual adventure lovers enjoying adventure activities on their own Not mandatory. Refer this Document’s guidelines for safer and more enjoyable experience 8 Families / Family members enjoying adventure activities on their own, Not mandatory. Refer this Document’s guidelines for safer and more enjoyable experience 9 Group of Friends enjoying adventure activities on their own, Not mandatory. Refer this Document’s guidelines for safer and more enjoyable experience 10 People working in hilly areas in fields like medical aid and education Not Applicable 11 Pilgrims going to e.g., hilltop temples and other religious locations Not Applicable 12 People engaged in Surveys in mountainous regions Not Applicable
  10. 10. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 10 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 4 Types of Organizations and Registration 4.1 The Management shall ensure that the Organization is registered as applicable, and its membership valid throughout the time period of its operation. The Management shall ensure that the Organization is registered with the Apex Body from the field of hiking & mountaineering in Maharashtra State. 4.2 Types of Organizations and their mandatory registrations with the Government bodies are as follows: Entity Document Statutory Registration Legal Entity Adventure Registration Proprietorship None required Not Required No Apex Body Partner Partnership Deed Partnership Act Yes Apex Body Private Ltd Co. MOA Companies Act Yes Apex Body Public Ltd. Co. AOA Companies Act, SEBI Yes Apex Body Society Society charter Charity Commissioner Yes Apex Body Public Trust Trust Deed Charity Commissioner Yes Apex Body 4.3 Advantages of Registration i. To ensure that the field of adventure activities is regulated appropriately. ii. To ensure competence of operators and other service providers. iii. To ensure safety of all participants as the primary concern. iv. To take practices in the field of outdoors to the highest professional level through regulation and guidance, equal to the best in the world. v. To ensure that better and more consistent information on the adventure tourism sector is regularly collected, collated and disseminated to all stakeholders. 4.4 Registration of the Organization with APEX BODY The process of registration of the Organization with apex body is as follows i. Organization shall furnish required information in the prescribed format to apex body along with Management’s commitment on implementation of Safety Guidelines in the Organization.
  11. 11. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 11 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 ii. Apex Body shall review the furnished information and their commitment and register the Organization as ‘Member’. a. The registration is valid initially for one year and then valid for three years. b. Apex Body shall reject the application in case the furnished information and commitment are found to be inadequate. iii. During the period of registration, the organization shall furnish details on annual basis on ‘High Risk’ activities carried out along with assurance from the Management on implementation of Safety Guidelines. In case the information provided is not adequate, Apex Body shall request the Organization for required information to substantiate their claim for implementation of Safety Guidelines in the Organization. iv. Apex Body shall cancel the registration in case Organization fails to substantiate their claim regarding implementation of Safety Guidelines in the Organization. 4.5 Verification Evidence of i. Statutory Registration ii. Adventure Registration
  12. 12. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 12 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 5 Management Responsibility 5.1 The Organization shall drive implementation of safety guidelines for adventure activities by Implementing recommendations stated in this document, in order to minimize the risk associated with the activity The organization shall demonstrate its intent for environmental impact through appropriate practices derived from ‘Leave No Trace’ principles as well as its intent for enhancing capabilities. 5.2 Management shall ensure Implementation of review mechanism for review and develop a healthy culture of review-learn-implement- show. The Organization shall ensure feedback / complaints from the Participants as well as Leaders and Instructors with respect to Safety and analyze the same. The Organization shall take appropriate actions in order to prevent recurrence of the same. 5.3 Organization shall implement mechanism for Complaint Handling in order to ensure effective redressal. 5.4 Management shall ensure The review shall include analysis of accidents, incidents in order to determine root cause and take actions to prevent the same. The organization shall communicate the details of analysis to EC AMGM for circulation of information to all concerned in the field. 5.5 Management shall ensure that Internal audits are conducted to ensure that the ‘Safety Norms’ are implemented effectively in the Organization and corrective actions are initiated on the ‘Review Findings’ if any. i. The management shall nominate a person or group persons to conduct internal review in order to ensure implementation of Safety Guidelines in the activities conducted. The review activity shall be done on sample basis and shall include review of records as well as discussions with the concerned persons. ii. The Reviewer shall record the discrepancies, if observed, as findings and shall report the same to the Management. iii. The Management shall ensure root analysis and initiate actions so the same discrepancies do not recur in future. iv. The Organization shall conduct internal reviews at least once in six months.
  13. 13. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 13 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 5.6 The Management of the Organization shall demonstrate its commitment to adopt and implement best and safest practices in all its working by i. declaring aims and objectives ii. ensuring compliance with statutory and legal requirements iii. adopting operating procedures which consistently minimize risk to people, environment and equipment iv. interacting in a safe and healthy way with the cultural and social environments, in all of its areas of operations v. ensuring deployment of appropriately trained staff in sufficient numbers whenever adventure programmes are carried out vi. using appropriate equipment which has been maintained and logged for use vii. adopting risk management practices appropriately: preparing for regularly encountered risks through equipping staff/members with knowledge, training and equipment viii. empowering staff/members for being effective in risk management for minimizing unforeseen risks ix. providing appropriate training to staff/members in routine work in order to deliver program expectations while minimizing risks x. providing appropriate training to staff/members to handle emergencies xi. establishing effective emergency response procedure and deploying resources in anticipation xii. providing support and back-up to staff/member handling emergencies xiii. having robust review and feedback processes, complaint handling process, and critical incident review process xiv. conducting periodic Organizational reviews xv. setting up effective communication processes within the Organization, with other Organizations for networking and with program participants to fulfill objectives while minimizing risk 5.7 Records for Verification: i. Periodic review and feedback records, reports of Internal audits ii. Demonstrate action taken on review and feedback points iii. Continuous improvement manifesting in measurable performance criteria and feedback received from staff/members as well as program participants
  14. 14. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 14 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 6 Skills and Competencies 6.1 The Organization shall have clearly defined skill sets and competencies which will facilitate smooth and effective functioning to deliver program expectations while consistently minimizing risk in all its operations 6.2 It is to be noted that the different competencies mentioned here will primarily serve to: 6.2.1 Create awareness of the comprehensive skills required to execute the several roles that bear responsibility towards maximizing the effectiveness of healthy and safe practices while retaining the charm and benefits of adventure activities, and 6.2.2 Help Organizations and individuals to decide on directions of growth that will point at requisite training inputs required, given the continuous thrust towards maximizing safety Skills required can be classified into two broad categories Technical skills People skills 6.3 The areas of responsibilities which will require this set of multiple skills can be listed as follows: i. Programme design (based on, say, terrain difficulty, participant profile, programme-goals, concepts like outdoor education, etc.) ii. Risk Management – across functional areas iii. Group leadership -- with clarity in roles like escorts, instructors and leaders iv. Equipment purchase, care & maintenance, and repair and retire v. Logistics – especially for organised programmes in remote areas vi. Communication – within Organisation, with programme participants & public, and during critical incidents vii. Management & Administration -- including finance and legal aspects Note: 1. The following list of skills and competencies is adapted from the UIAA Model Training Standards for Voluntary Leaders and Instructors – please note that this list is to be used only as a reference list, ‘indicative’ of what is desirable and recommended. 2. The following list of skills and competencies also take cognizance of three criteria that would be relevant to forming a specific skill-set for a particular role: i) Qualification ii) Experience iii) Training
  15. 15. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 15 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 6.4 SKILLS 6.4.1 Specific Activity Expertise i. Courses undertaken and evaluations from same (e.g. rock climbing, basic & advance mountaineering, search-and-rescue, etc.) ii. Knowledge & Technique, including of equipment iii. Experience, primarily of personal trips and expeditions iv. Any noteworthy achievement or experience (e.g. awards, published material) 6.4.2 Mountain Environment i. Knowledge about geography and geology of Sahyadri, Satpuda, Himalaya, etc. ii. Experience in practices in conservation and protection: socio-cultural-ecological iii. Experience in application of Leave No Trace Principles through appropriate practices 6.4.3 Weather i. Basic understanding of weather in the Sahyadri, Himalaya, etc. ii. Comprehension of consequences of weather factors on various groups iii. Ability of interpreting signs of changes in weather which might be of concern to group 6.4.4 Orientation & Navigation i. Familiarity with the Sahyadri, Himalaya, etc. terrain – ability to navigate in all kinds of conditions, ability to estimate distances, ability to do micro-route-finding ii. Familiarity with navigation techniques and equipment iii. Map reading and use of maps iv. Use of compass for route finding with the help of maps v. Use of compass for organizing games relevant to diverse age groups and program requirements vi. Use of map and compass for planning, preparation and realization of routes in Sahyadri 6.4.5 Risk Management in mountains i. Comprehensive grasp and approach to risk management practices; ability to execute role as stated in Organization’s emergency response mechanism ii. Ability to relate organization’s accepted field practices to organization’s core values as well as program designs iii. Knowledge and techniques needed to safeguard groups in camps and terrain outside camps, taking into consideration objective hazards
  16. 16. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 16 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 6.4.6 Search & Rescue i. Knowledge of appropriate rescue equipment and other needs for proposed activity or program ii. Ability to independently take charge of emergency situations, deploy resources and manage others iii. Ability to administer first aid iv. Ability to effectively use communication systems set up by one’s organisation for handling emergency situations 6.4.7 Leadership i. Courses undertaken (leadership workshops, outdoor leadership) ii. Has demonstrated high self awareness iii. Ability and experience in leading teams and groups iv. Flexibility of leadership styles v. Presentation skills, especially in the context of briefing for activities and programmes vi. Organization and control of group vii. Ability to adapt a program to suit different group profiles viii. Grasp of and ability to balance diverse needs that can arise during operations ix. Personal traits like resilience, resourcefulness, assertiveness, communication, approachability 6.4.8 Teaching/instructing i. Courses undertaken (e.g. instructor training, teaching skills, coaching-mentoring) ii. Knowledge of subject matter iii. Knowledge and skill of teaching techniques iv. Knowledge about and experience in having worked with different groups; this is especially important for groups of children v. Ability to assess effectiveness of knowledge/skill being transmitted, and to be flexible in one’s role to enhance effectiveness if necessary vi. Knowledge and skill of evaluation for various purposes 6.4.9 Anatomy and physiology i. Characteristics of proposed activity/program ii. Physical preparation required for an activity or program iii. Diet considerations iv. Physical fitness for an activity or program v. Tiredness and recuperation in the mountains vi. Effects of weather vii. Ability to prevent emergencies and to administer first aid when necessary
  17. 17. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 17 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 6.4.10 First Aid i. Status of first aid certification: whether it is a ‘wilderness first aid’ certificate and whether it is current ii. Experience of having administered first aid in remote situations 6.4.11 Organizational and Managerial Skills i. Ability to plan, organize and implement things that go beyond the immediate task-level demands ii. Initiative in taking lead in organizing events iii. Ability to streamline individual efforts within teams iv. Alignment with organizational values, goals and culture 6.4.12 Legal Matters i. Knowledge of responsibilities and legislations relevant to undertaken activity/project ii. Knowledge of rights of operations iii. Knowledge of issues related to insurance iv. Knowledge of legalities related to rescue operations 6.5 The following table mentions the skill sets required for a few key program varieties most often undertaken by Organizations and individuals from Maharashtra. To arrive at adequate skills sets for a variety of roles, the following table is to be used in conjunction with a) the list of skills stated above, to choose one or more specific points listed under each skill-head, and b) content of the syllabi for a variety of adventure programmes mentioned elsewhere in this Document. Programme s In-charge Leader / Instructor Junior Leader / Instructor Hike in Sahyadri Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in mountains. Search & Rescue. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended). Organisational and Managerial Skills. Legal Matters. Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in mountains. Search & Rescue Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended. Legal Matters. Specific Activity Expertise. Orientation & Navigation. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology Hike in Himalaya Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in Specific Activity .Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation &
  18. 18. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 18 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Programme s In-charge Leader / Instructor Junior Leader / Instructor mountains. Search & Rescue. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended). Organisational and Managerial Skills. Legal Matters. mountains. Search & Rescue. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended). Legal Matters. Navigation. Leadership. Basic & advance Rock Climbing courses Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in mountains. Search & Rescue. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended). Organisational and Managerial Skills. Legal Matters. Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Risk Management in mountains. Search & Rescue. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended). Specific Activity. Expertise. Mountain Environment. Leadership. Adventure- based camps for children Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in mountains. Search & Rescue. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended). Organisational and Managerial Skills. Legal Matters. Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in mountains. Search & Rescue. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. Anatomy and physiology. First Aid (strongly recommended). Legal Matters. Specific Activity Expertise. Mountain Environment. Weather. Orientation & Navigation. Risk Management in mountains. Leadership. Teaching/instructing. 6.6 Records for Verification • Competency Records of In-charge, Leader s/ Instructors, Junior Leaders/ Instructors
  19. 19. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 19 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 7 Capability Enhancement The Organization shall ensure continuous improvement in functioning which leads to greater efficiency, minimum risk and hence, maximum efficacy in meeting program needs. 7.1 An Organisation shall look at the following entities when considering capability enhancement: 7.1.1 Organisational Development (OD) The Organization shall undertake improvement in its functioning with the objective of being aware of and getting trained in new and latest developments in the following fields: i. Technology and design of equipment ii. Research in crucial fields like first aid, rescue techniques & environment friendly practices iii. Systems and processes, especially in crucial fields like emergency response procedures iv. Opportunities for training and networking, especially to create internal training resource with which to spread such practices amongst staff/members v. Government rules and regulations, and amendments thereof 7.1.2 Training and Development of staff/members (TaD) Skills being considered here are classified into two broad categories Technical skills People skills Ideally, the courses should end with an evaluation along with a certificate of completion. The TaD requirements can be broadly classified as follows: i. Hiking skills for travel in in Sahyadri and Himalaya a. On-trail b. Off-trail c. Scrambling d. Snow travel e. Glacier travel f. River crossing g. Orienteering h. Environment safety (natural and socio-cultural environments)
  20. 20. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 20 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 ii. Steep terrain travel a. Rock climbing b. Bouldering in Sahyadri and Himalaya c. Traditional climbing, on pinnacles and big walls in Sahyadri and Himalaya d. Environment safety (natural and socio-cultural environments) iii. Extreme Himalayan adventure a. Hiking on routes involving extreme altitude and/or terrain and/or weather (e.g., winter ventures) b. Exploration of new routes c. Peak climbing expeditions d. Environment safety (natural and socio-cultural environments) iv. Search & Rescue a. For Sahyadri as well as the Himalaya v. First aid and extended care a. Basic first aid Courses b. Wilderness First aid Courses (which have ‘extended care’ as an inherent component) vi. People skills (i.e. soft skills) a. Outdoor Leadership short-duration Workshops and long-duration Courses 7.1.3 Special note on specific skills required for conducting adventure camps for children: Training modules by resource persons like child psychologists and educationists to address i. Communication ii. Teaching techniques iii. Supervision of children on sites iv. Relevant first aid aspects for children v. Difference in role execution as leaders/instructors for different age groups (8-14 years, 15-17 years and 18+ years) Note: Since it becomes impractical to have all staff/members get trained through external resources, it is recommended that 1 or 2 persons with willingness & potential get trained outside to become an ‘internal resource’ for spreading knowledge and skills within the Organisation. PLEASE NOTE: This is NOT valid for specific activity skills like rock climbing, mountaineering and first aid. 7.2 Information on a few courses available in India, and also the syllabi for some short duration courses. i Basic & Advance Rock Climbing Courses a. Girivihar Mountaineering Club, Mumbai b. Explorers & Adventurers Club, Mumbai c. Giripremi Mountaineering Club, Pune
  21. 21. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 21 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 ii. Basic & Advance Mountaineering Courses a. Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi b. Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, Darjeeling c. Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering & Allied Sports, Manali iii. Search and Rescue Courses a. Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi b. Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, Darjeeling c. Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering & Allied Sports, Manali iv. Method of Instruction Courses a. Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi b. Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, Darjeeling c. Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering & Allied Sports, Manali v. Basic and Advance First Aid Courses a. Red Cross (in multiple locations) b. St. John ambulance (in multiple locations) c. Home Guard (in multiple locations) vi. First aid Courses a. Wilderness Medicine Institute of NOLS, Ranikhet b. Rashtriya Life Saving Society, Pune c. Symbiosis Health Institute, Pune vii. Outdoor Leadership Courses a. Nandadevi Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS India), Ranikhet b. Hanifl Centre of Woodstock school, Mussoorie viii. Courses in outdoor education / experiential learning a. Outdoor Educators Course, Nandadevi Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS India), Ranikhet b. Diploma in Experiential Education & Practice, Kaveri Group of Institutes, Pune ix. A few commercial outdoors based outfits in cities like Mumbai, Pune and Bengaluru conduct short duration courses on topics like experiential learning, outdoor leadership and basic first aid. NOTE: Brief information on some of the courses mentioned here appears on pages 58 & 59 of this document. Quality of one’s judgment increases through o Education, training, reading, networking o Practice, reflect on experiences, learn, predict, implement, o Use coaches and mentors o Use feedback in a self-development plan
  22. 22. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 22 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 8 Communication to Participants, and Others The Organization shall ensure that the right information is communicated to the Participants of events and outings. The information provided by the Organization regarding the Event or Outing will be useful for the Participants to assess the risk levels, level of physical activity involved, which is helpful for the Participants to take informed decisions on participation. The Organization shall request Participants for mandatory disclosures for certain High altitude events / outings, such as fitness Certificates from Registered Medical Practitioners. The Organization shall communicate with other Organizations by networking, Government Authorities, as appropriate and also have Communication channels within its own authorities and members. 8.1 Organization shall maintain open communication as follows: i. Within the Organization ii. With program participants coming in from the public iii. With other outdoor organizations by networking iv. With requisite government authorities 8.1.1 Communication within Organization i. Statement of goals & objectives, to be communicated to staff/members for alignment ii. Plans for adventure programmes, to be communicated to staff/members iii. Role definitions along with responsibilities, to be communicated to staff/members iv. Updates in equipment technology, risk management practices, legalities and other relevant developments, to be communicated to staff/members v. Facilitating review & feedback between staff/members for individual and organizational growth 8.1.2 Communication with program participants coming in from the public i. Program information to be communicated with potential participants well in advance: key parameters like nature of natural elements, grade of difficulty, fitness expectations, qualification of leadership team and organizational information ii. Program details to confirmed participants: terrain quality, grade of difficulty and inherent risk, fitness preparation, role clarity and expectations during program, kit-list, timelines with route details and itinerary, emergency contact information iii. Pre-programme information should clearly state limitations existing in the programme (like possible aborting of progress due to weather/terrain related changes, lack of electronic –communication due to lack of coverage and non-availability of helicopter rescue). iv. Details of logistics and communication to be documented and shared with participants and parents of participating children. This document will especially make a mention of a) emergency
  23. 23. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 23 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 response plan and b) one/two telephone numbers of the Organisation and name of person to be contacted for updates/emergencies/etc. v. Briefing prior to an activity: activity information, safety rules & norms, role clarity of all persons present along with expectations from participants, instruction (if necessary) along with demonstration, idea about possible consequences of not sticking to expectations and safety rules & norms, obtaining acknowledgement of understanding key points of briefing vi. Continued instruction during activity to coach and mentor for safe and enjoyable performance of participants vii. Feedback: For operations and to individuals that participants have interacted with. 8.1.3 Communication with other outdoor organizations for networking i. Exchange of ideas and best practices, sharing success stories and analyzed data on critical incidents to learn from each other ii. Seminars and discussion forums, especially on topics related to risk management and organizational development iii. Contribution to associate-initiatives that help enhance overall effectiveness and safety in outdoor operations iv. Network on a wider spectrum – with overseas organizations in order to facilitate technology- knowledge-transfer and exchange programmes for staff/members 8.1.4 Communication with requisite government authorities i. Compliance related: finance, taxation, legal ii. Actively seeking information on developments related to outdoors and schemes that benefit outdoor organizations iii. Actively contribute in State initiatives that work toward the betterment of adventure operations, especially those related to minimizing risk 8.2 Records for Verification i. Evidence of Communication with Participants providing necessary information as per the Guidelines.
  24. 24. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 24 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 9 Equipment, Storage, Maintenance and Inspection The Organization shall implement mechanism to maintain its equipment. This shall include Preventive Maintenance, Storage Conditions, Frequency and mechanism for Inspection of equipment, replacement criteria, method for disposal of outdated and damaged equipment and criteria for Quality Purchases. 9.1 The details of Equipment used for the activity is as follow: Sr. No. Type of equipment Category Material Standard 1 Connectors {Carabiner (Plain gate, Lock gate )} PPE (Technical Equipment) Metal (Aluminum, Carbon Steel & Stainless Steel) EN12275, UIAA 12I 2 Rock Piton PPE (Technical Equipment) Metal (Carbon steel, Titanium, & Stainless steel) EN569, UIAA 122 3 Nut (Climbing ) PPE (Technical Equipment) Metal (Aluminum, Titanium & others ) EN12270, UIAA 124 4 Hex-centric PPE (Technical Equipment) Metal (Aluminum, Titanium & others) EN12270, UIAA 124 5 Spring loaded camming devices (SLCD) PPE (Technical Safety Equipment) Metal (Aluminum, Titanium) EN 12276, UIAA 125 6 Dynamic Rope (climbing Rope) PPE (Technical Equipment) Textile EN 892, UIAA101 7 Static ropes PPE (Technical Equipment) Textile EN 1891, UIAA 107 9 Quick draws (Q.D.S) PPE (Technical Equipment) Textile EN 566,UIAA104 10 Sling/Tape PPE (Technical Equipment) Textile EN 566/565,UIAA104/103 11 Helmet PPE (Technical Equipment) Polymer and Carbon fiber EN 12492,UIAA106 12 Basic Belay Devices Technical Equipment Metal (Aluminum ) EN(IN PREPARATION),UIAA 130 Sr. No Type of equipment Category Material Standard 13 Rappel Devices (Fig of ‘8’descenders) Technical Equipment (friction) Metal (Aluminum, Titanium) EN(IN PREPARATION),UIAA 129
  25. 25. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 25 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 14 Pulleys Technical Equipment Metal (Aluminum) EN 12278, UIAA 127 15 Nut tool / Nut key Technical Equipment Metal (Carbon steel, Titanium) Not applicable 16 Rock climbing Shoes Non Technical Equipment Textile (leather) and Rubber Not applicable 17 Chalk Non Technical Equipment Magnesium carbonate Not applicable 18 Sleeping Bags Non Technical Equipment Textile Not applicable 19 Tents Non Technical Equipment Textile Not applicable Note 1 - PPE - Personal Protection Equipment Note 2 - All the PPE equipments should be UIAA/EN/CE standards. Equipments mentioned above are suggestive. It should be selected as per the need of the event. 9.2 Storage of Equipment All technical equipment used in the delivery of Adventurous Activities must be designated as ‘Fit for Purpose’ by an appropriately qualified ‘technical advisor’. In addition, following care must be taken for storage of equipment. i. It should be used and stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. ii. It should be visually checked by a qualified person on each occasion before they are used. iii. The use of the equipment should be monitored and recorded in a log book. iv. It should be tested periodically. v. Proper records relating to each equipment in the store must be maintained. These records should include - Date of purchase, Discard date (shelf or usage life as per manufacturer’s guidelines), Checking and testing policy, Checking & testing records, Name and signature of person carrying out checks & tests. vi. It should be stored in a well-ventilated area out of direct sunlight (UV). vii. Any contact with harsh or corrosive substances (e.g. acids) is prohibited. If you have a doubt, retire your equipment. viii. Never store gear in a damp place where mold can develop (damp closets, bags and waterproof containers with moisture inside). For long-distance travel, beware of moisture in containers during transit, in ports or airports, especially in salty environments.
  26. 26. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 26 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 9.3 Maintenance of Equipment In broad terms this can be divided into: 9.3.1 Non-technical equipment Camp cookware, waterproofs, hats, gloves, walking boots, rucksacks, fleece tops and bottoms, orienteering kit, maps & compasses. Management of non technical equipment can be a relatively easy if time consuming task i.e. cleaning and drying after use, carrying out small repairs or making decisions on when to discard /replace items when they have reached the end of their useful life. The condition of non-technical items may have implications for the comfort of the user but should not have major safety implications. An individual without high levels of experience or technical skill could reasonably make decisions on the item’s suitability. 9.3.2 Technical equipment including Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must adhere to EN/UIAA standards. Mountain Sports: Harnesses, ropes and other climbing gear including equipment for artificial rock walls and all associated equipment. Any other equipment designed for adventurous activities in which specialist training is normally required. Technical equipment needs regular maintenance over and above the checks carried out prior to or after each use. Items may need adjustment by a qualified person before each use and for some items (e.g. climbing ropes), careful logging of each use. Failure or inappropriate use of an item is likely to have a direct impact on the safety of the individual user. The management of technical equipment requires a higher level of skill, knowledge and experience and should only be undertaken by individuals who are trained and qualified in the activity that the equipment relates to and/or have had technical training in relation to the specific tasks involved in its maintenance and management. 9.3.3 Washing Recommendations for washing are indicated for each product family. 9.3.4 Drying i. Remove your gear from packs after each activity, even if cleaning isn't necessary. ii. Let all your gear air-dry away from UV sources (ultraviolet rays). iii. Avoid proximity to heat sources such as direct sunlight, wood fires, or a radiator 9.4 Inspection The inspection of equipment should be done with the manufacturer technical notice (recommendation) 9.4.1 Historical Checks: The results of this PPE inspection are provided to you subject to the condition that the components to be inspected do not come into any of the categories listed below, any of which would require systematic rejection of the component, namely: i. Component has undergone modification or alteration outside the manufacturer’s production units.
  27. 27. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 27 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 ii. Component has received forces from a fall of factor 1 or more. iii. Component has been used in temperatures of less than -40 ºC or greater than +80 ºC. iv. Component has exceeded its lifetime. The inspector accepts no responsibility in the case of omission or inaccuracy in the information concerning the checking of the components history, which must be done by the client. i. Visual check of safety components ii. Condition of the webbing (cuts, wear, burns, marks, chemical contamination) iii. Condition of load-bearing stitching (cut, worn, torn or pulled threads) iv. Condition of metal pieces (deformation, marks, cracks, wear, corrosion) v. Condition of the adjustment buckles (deformation, marks, cracks, wear, corrosion) Check of comfort components i. Condition of the protection components (string, protective cover) Compatibility check i. Condition and compatibility of the connector (see connector form) Operational check i. Operation of adjustment system ii. Check of the locking system 9.4.2 Maintenance of Equipment Log: Verdict (tick): This product is fit to remain in service (PASS). This product is unfit to remain in service (FAIL) C: Comment (see below) / G: Good / TM: To Monitor / TR: To Repair / R: Reject Date of inspection: Date of next inspection: Inspected by: (name) on behalf of: (company) Signature: 9.5 Retirement Criteria Retiring products at the end of their lifetime. Organization makes sure to retire your gear when necessary. A product must be retired when: i. It is over 10 years old and made of plastic or textiles ii. It has been subjected to a major fall or load
  28. 28. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 28 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 iii. It fails to pass inspection iv. Its reliability is in question v. Its entire history is not known (e.g. found or second-hand product) vi. When it becomes obsolete due to changes in legislation, standards, technique or incompatibility with other equipment, etc. Warning: destroy retired equipment to prevent further use. 9.6 Verification i. Quality of Equipment used ii. Equipment Log
  29. 29. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 29 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 10 Control over Service Providers The Organization shall exercise adequate control over its Service Providers in order to minimize risks associated with the activities conducted by the organisation. The Organization should ensure that the safety aspects and quality of their programs are not compromised by utilizing outsourced services from service providers. The mechanism shall include criteria for selection of Service Providers, Communication regarding Organization’s expectations on Safety aspects, including clarity about liabilities. The organization shall issue written Work orders to its Service Providers for Critical Services with respect to Safety. 10.1 Selection Criteria for Service Providers The Organization shall determine criteria for selection of its Service Providers and ensure that the Service Contractors are selected on its basis. 10.2 Where outsourced services are obtained for the conduct of adventure activities, the service provider should, if possible, be registered as proposed by the EC of AMGM Guide lines. (Ref Section 4) i. In case of an unregistered outsourced service provider (who could have been registered in the respective states / countries), the contracting organization should ensure that the outsourced service provider has the individuals involved in delivery of the adventure activities and who meet the skills and competency criteria proposed by the EC of AMGM Guide lines. The said individuals are conversant with the risks associated with that activity, know the activity locality thoroughly, and have the requisite permits, if any, to operate in the area. ii. The SOPs for the activity outsourced should be explained to, understood by and agreed by the outsourced service provider. The detailed briefing / explanation should include best and safe practices, risk evaluation and mitigation, participant instructions, instructor/participant ratio, action plan in case of mishap or a near- miss, communication and evacuation plans etc. iii. There should be complete clarity regarding the respective roles and responsibilities of the contracting organization and outsourced service provider, especially with regard to first aid, emergency communication and evacuation. 10.3 Records for Verification i. Work Orders issued to Service Providers
  30. 30. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 30 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 11 Field Guidelines for Trekking Activity Covered: Trekking, Scrambling and Hiking at High altitude, Desert, Coastal, Sahyadri and other geographical areas. 11.1 Instructions: Trekking, Scrambling and Hiking in the Sahyadri and other geographical areas. i. Every Trek / Hike needs to be graded depending upon the level of difficulty. Method suggested is as follows: a. C: Easy hike/ trek with no technical difficulty foreseen b. B: Strenuous hike/ trek and/or with some technical difficulty. c. A: Very strenuous hike/ trek and with technical difficulties. ii. A Leader, Co-Leader and Supporting Leaders are to be appointed as per the requirement based on the difficulty level of that particular trek/hike. iii. Organisers and Leaders need to be aware of access restrictions of the specific area and they are expected to seek advice and permissions as necessary. iv. Leaders are suggested to have sufficient knowledge of and expected to respect local tradition and show interest in the social history to provide a stimulating and interesting trek / hike. v. A copy of the detailed planning including route detail and details of the members of the group will be kept in the office of the organisation. vi. It is expected from the leader to act as the role model for the participants. It is of vital importance that the instructions given to the participants are followed by the leaders themselves Leaders will hold the relevant qualification or equivalent Area Specific basic knowledge. vii. It is strongly suggested that a Leader has certain skills and qualifications as explained in the “Skills and Competencies Recommended by EC of AMGM” on page nos. 16 and 17. 11.2 Participant to Leader Ratio: Apart from Leader and co-leader, the availability of support leaders will determine the group size. The ratio will vary with the grade of the trek. The standard ratio is as under:- i. Grade ‘C’ treks - 8:1 (maximum group size has no limit as long as this ratio is maintained) ii. Grade ‘B’ treks – 5:1 (maximum Group Size 25 including leaders) iii. Grade ‘A’ treks – 3:1 (maximum Group Size 25 including leaders) 11.3 Information to be obtained from participants: It is strongly advised to gather following information from the Participants at the time of enrolment for treks. i. Name of the participant ii. Phone no. iii. In Case of Emergency (ICE) Contact Number
  31. 31. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 31 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 iv. Address v. Email Address vi. Previous hiking etc. experience vii. Blood group viii. Relevant medical history 11.4 Trek Briefs: Different briefs as following are highly recommended to organise a safe Trek and to improve communication and comfort level between the Organisation and Participant. 11.4.1 Pre Trek Brief by Organisers to Participants: It would include following points i. Name of the Trek ii. Date and Duration of the Trek iii. Contribution / fees charged iv. Inclusions and exclusions in the amount charged v. Brief information of the Objective of the trek / hike: about the places to be visited and potential Risks and Difficulties vi. Departure and Arrival Time: It will also include mode of transport vii. Brief Program: Tentative schedule, expected time log (e.g. 4 hrs climb etc) viii. Rules & Regulations of the Organisation for the conduct of the activity ix. Expected dress code x. Kit list of items for participants xi. Emergency contact numbers: The numbers in case family members of the participants want to enquire/ inform in case of emergency. Important: Participants to leave a printout of the Pre-Trek brief with someone at home. 11.4.2 Introductory Brief by the leaders to the participants i. Self Introduction, Declaration that the leader is the authority on the trek. ii. Roles and responsibilities of leader and participants iii. Brief Introduction of the Organisation iv. Declaration of Co-Leader and Support leaders v. Identification of hazards expected on route vi. Request participants to inform the leaders about any discomfort they are facing vii. Information about the importance of Hydration viii. Information about blisters and hot spots and how to avoid them ix. Time schedule of the trek x. Geographical information xi. Ask participants to disclose any specific medical problem like epilepsy, asthma, hypertension, diabetes, etc.
  32. 32. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 32 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 xii. Safety of people xiii. Safety of environments xiv. Social behaviour - communication with villagers etc. xv. Emergency response mechanism. xvi. Finally seek confirmation if they have understood the instructions xvii. Take signatures on Risk certificate or disclaimer. xviii. Inform participants about availability of a medical kit xix. Information on calling signals xx. General instructions to participants regarding how to walk on a trail and on difficult patches. xxi. Check with participants for their area of expertise which can be helpful to the group during the trek in general and a crisis in particular Important: These brief /relevant points are to be repeated at regular intervals as necessary. It is advisable to create a mechanism for Post-Trek Review and Analysis that will help to make future activities safer and more enjoyable. 11.5 Instructions: Trekking at High Altitude. i. In case of High Altitude Treks it is essential to consider and follow IMF Guidelines (Reference www.indmount.org). 11.6 Instructions: Trekking in the Desert (Additional guidelines for Desert Trekking) i. Drinking water: Carry 5 L per person for a full day's hike, and even more on exceptionally hot days. Water sources may not be available on the trails or in campgrounds. Natural water sources are few and unreliable, and most are suspected of contamination. ii. Flash floods: Be sure to check the weather forecast in advance, otherwise these may catch you completely by surprise. iii. Weather: Hot days and cold, windy nights rule this region. It is advisable to plan the trek accordingly and wear suitable clothing. Sudden changes in climatic conditions need to be anticipated and thus regular updates on weather forecast are to be acquired. iv. Complex Orientation: Due to lack of physical landmarks and monotonous uniformity of the land, it is advisable to follow only marked trails and used defined campsites. v. Many plants of this region are poisonous. They may be dangerous to consume, and also may give rise to allergic reactions Note While trekking, the presence of certain insects (e.g. honey-bees and wasps), reptiles (e.g. venomous snakes) and other animals (e.g. scorpions) is a serious hazard. Trekking leaders are expected to study about the presence of such hazardous wildlife and accordingly decide safe practices like compulsory hiking shoes, sweeping sleeping places and carrying appropriate first aid kits. Close to sea, stinging jelly fish and sea snakes pose a similar hazard.
  33. 33. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 33 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 12 Field Guidelines for Camps and Courses Activity Covered: Adventure Camps / Rock Climbing Courses / Adventure Camps at High Altitude 12.1 Instructions: i. All technical equipment must be logged in/out of stores, checked for damage before and after use and any defects reported. Return all equipment to the equipment –in -charge after the session. Appropriate technical equipment will be used and logged for use. (Ref “Equipment” Section 09) ii. Check that all participants and instructors are suitably clothed and equipped. iii. Periodic headcount of the group members is necessary iv. Helmets must be worn by participants and instructors while doing the activity and also when present in the activity area. v. There will be an appropriate supervision of participants around the activity area. vi. It is advisable to create a mechanism for Post-Activity Review and Analysis that will help to make future activities safer and more enjoyable. vii. Adequate Water availability needs to be confirmed and it’s management and use needs to be defined. viii. Food supplied during camp needs to be adequate in Quality and Nutritional Value, easy for digestion and sufficient in Quantity. ix. For a Multi Day Camps strict Hygiene and Cleanliness Protocol needs to be established. x. Adequate Sleeping arrangements need to be made. In case of staying in Tents, it needs to be made sure of the availability of Clean, Waterproof and Strong Tents sufficient in number. Similarly, clean, warm and proper in size Sleeping Bags to be made available. 12.2 Additional SOPs for Camps at High Altitude i. It is highly recommended that the Instructors must possess experience, skills and knowledge about: a. The process of acclimatization b. The symptoms and treatment for mountain sickness c. Emergency procedures in the event of acute mountain sickness ii A Doctor who is familiar with Altitude Related Illness is very desirable to be present in the Camp but at the very least advance arrangements need be made for medical help. Advance arrangements also need be made for evacuation assistance in case of emergency.
  34. 34. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 34 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 13 Field Guidelines for Rappelling and Valley Crossing (aka River Crossing) Activity Covered: Rappelling Camps and Events, Valley Crossing Camps and Events. 13.1 Instructions: i. Select the best site according to weather forecast and safe access. ii. A Chief Instructor (Overall In-charge) and other Instructors are to be appointed as per the requirement based on the difficulty level of that particular Rappelling / Valley Crossing Activity. iii. A copy of the detailed planning including location details and details of the members of the group will be kept in the office of the organisation. iv. It is strongly suggested that Chief Instructor has certain Soft Skills (e.g. communication skills, teaching skills to impart instructions, etc.) and Hard Skills (e.g. Technical Training such as Rope Fixing). Ref “Skills and Competencies” Section 6. 13.2 Participant to Instructor Ratio : i. As this is Potentially Hazardous Activity a high ratio of 5:1 (Maximum Group Size 25 including Instructors) is recommended. 13.3 Information to be obtained from participants and Students: It is strongly advised to gather following information from the Participants at the time of enrolment for Camp / Event. i. Name of the participant ii. Phone no. iii. In Case of Emergency (ICE) Contact Number iv. Address v. Email Address vi. Previous hiking etc. experience vii. Blood group viii. Relevant medical history 13.4 Event / Camp Briefs: Different briefs as following are highly recommended to organise a safe Event / Camp and to improve communication and comfort level between Organisation and Participant. 13.4.1 Pre-Camp / Event Brief by Organisers to Participants: It would include following points i. Nature of the Camp / Event. ii. Contribution / fees charged.
  35. 35. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 35 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 iii. Date and Duration of the Camp / Event. iv. Inclusions and exclusions in the amount charged. v. Location and Details of Camp / Event in terms of Objective and Safety Hazards. vi. Potential Risks and Difficulties. vii. Departure and Arrival Time: It will also include mode of transport viii. Brief Program: Tentative schedule, expected time log. ix. Rules & Regulations of the Organisation for conducting the activity. x. Expected dress code. xi. Kit list of items for participants. xii. Emergency contact numbers: The numbers in case family members of the participants want to enquire/ inform in case of emergency. Important: Participants to leave a printout of this Pre- Camp / Event brief with someone at home. 13.4.2 Introductory Brief by the Chief Instructor to the participants i. Self Introduction, Declaration that the Chief Instructor is the authority during the Camp / Event. ii. Roles and responsibilities of instructors and participants iii. Brief Introduction of the Organisation iv. Declaration of other instructors v. Identification of hazards expected during the activity. vi. Information on the procedures and sequence to be followed during the activity vii. Information on calling signals during the activity viii. Request participants to inform the leaders about any discomfort they are facing at any point of time during the activity ix. Time schedule x. Geographical information xi. Ask participants to disclose any specific medical problem like epilepsy, asthma, hypertension, diabetes etc xii. Emergency response mechanism. (Ref “Risk Management” Section 15) xiii. Finally seek confirmation if they have understood the instructions xiv. Take signatures on Risk certificate or disclaimer. xv. Inform participants about availability of a medical kit Important: Procedural instructions and suggestions are to be repeated as necessary.
  36. 36. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 36 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 13.5 Additional Standard Operating Procedures for Rappelling and Valley Crossing Activity i. All technical equipment must be logged in/out of stores, checked for damage before and after use and any defects reported. Return all equipment to the equipment–in-charge after the session. Appropriate technical equipment will be used and logged for use. (Ref “Equipment” Section 9) ii. Check that all participants and instructors are suitably clothed and equipped. iii. Periodic headcount of the group members is necessary iv. Helmets must be worn by participants and instructors while doing the activity and also when present in the activity area. v. There will be an appropriate supervision of participants around the activity area. vi. It is advisable to create a mechanism for Post-Activity Review and Analysis that will help to make future activities safer and more enjoyable. vii. A rescue kit and system will be readily available at each abseil and valley crossing site. The rescue kit must be sufficient to, depending on the situation, allow the instructors to reach, to retrieve an incapacitated participant. viii. All instructors must have practiced and mastered rescue techniques. ix. In case of Rappelling activity a special care to be taken that the end of the rope must be knotted to prevent abseiling off the end. a. In case of the activity variously called as ‘Valley Crossing’ and ‘River Crossing’, if the system called Tyrolean Traverse Technique is used, then either a wire rope of adequate diameter, along with a backup system or a ‘kernmantle’ low-stress rope (i.e. static rope) of adequate diameter, along with a backup system should be used.
  37. 37. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 37 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 14 Principles of ‘Leave No Trace’ (LNT) for Outdoor Ethics The Organization shall induct LNT principles into its organisational culture through consistent implementation of relevant practices and reviews. 14.1 Background The “Leave No Trace” name and program first appeared within the United State Forest Service (USFS) in Utah in an attempt to deal with visitor impact to the Uinta Mountains. Along with several others from primarily USFS and National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) who are experts in the field of Outdoor Education agreed to the initial draft of “Principles of Leave No Trace” in 1987. Further the Leave No Trace was incorporated in Colorado which was supported by “Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association’’ (SGMA) and “Outdoor Recreation Coalition of America’’ (ORCA). In 2002 the Leave No Trace Inc. changed its name to “The Leave No Trace Centre for Outdoor Ethics” to better reflect the organization’s broader scope. Wilderness Ethics is to enjoy wildlands without harming or impacting them. Millions of outdoor enthusiasts have shared the dream of sustainable outdoor recreation. The outdoors fraternity and Wildland Recreation Community all over the world full heartedly embraced the “LNT Principles” and supported imbibing and implementing them in the outdoors. LNT are the principles and we need to derive appropriate practices to be effective for a particular environment, especially in the Indian context, natural and socio-cultural aspects. It is strongly recommended to implement the LNT principles while conducting Trekking, Mountaineering and other land based adventure and nature activities organized in Maharashtra and carried out all over. 14.2 Principles of Leave No Trace 14.2.1 Plan and Prepare i. Know the regulations and special concerns for the area you’ll visit. ii. Prepare for extreme weather, hazards and emergencies. iii. Schedule your trip to avoid times of high use. iv. Visit in small groups. Split lager parties into groups of 4-6. v. Repackage food to minimise waste. vi. Use map and compass to eliminate the use of rock cairns, flagging or marking points. 14.2.2 Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces i. Durable surfaces include established trails and camp sites, rock, gravel, dry grasses or snow. ii. Protect riparian areas by camping at least 200 feet / 60 meter away from lakes, streams. iii. Good campsites are found, not made. Altering a site is not necessary.
  38. 38. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 38 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 In popular areas i. Concentrate use on existing trails and campsites. ii. Walk single file in middle of the trail, even when wet or muddy. iii. Keep camp site small. Focus activities in the areas where the vegetation is absent. In pristine areas i. Disperse use to prevent the creation of campsites and trails. ii. Avoid places where impacts are just beginning. 14.2.3 Dispose of Waste Properly i. Pack it in, pack it out. Inspect your campsite and rest areas for trash or spilled foods. Pack out all trash, leftover food and litter. ii. Deposit Solid Human waste in cat-holes dug 6 to 8 inches / 15 to 20 cm deep at least 200 feet / 60 meters from water, camp and trails. Cover and disguise the cat-hole when finished. iii. Pack out toilet paper and hygiene products. iv. To wash yourself or dishes, carry water 200 feet / 60 meter away from streams or lakes and use small amounts of biodegradable soap. Scatter strained dishwater. 14.2.4 Leave what you find i. Preserve the past: observe, but do not touch cultural or historic structures and artifacts. ii. Leave rocks, plants and other natural objects as you find them. iii. Avoid introducing or transporting non-native species. iv. Do not build structures, furniture or dig trenches. 14.2.5 Minimize Campfire Impacts i. Campfires can cause lasting impacts to the backcountry. Use light weight stove for cooking and enjoy a candle lantern for light. ii. Where fires are permitted, use established fire rings, fire pans or mound fires. iii. Keep fires small. Only use sticks from the ground that can be broken by hand. iv. Burn all wood and coal to ash, put out campfires completely and then scatter cool ashes. 14.2.6 Respect Wildlife i. Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach them. ii. Never feed animals. Feeding wildlife damages their health, alters natural behaviours and exposes them to predators and other dangers. iii. Protect wildlife and your food by storing rations and trash securely. iv. Control pets at all times or leave them at home. v. Avoid wildlife during sensitive times, mating, nesting, raising young or winter.
  39. 39. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 39 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 14.2.7 Be Considerate of Other Visitors i. Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience. ii. Be courteous. Yield to other users on the trail. iii. Step to the downhill side of the trail when encountering pack stock. iv. Take breaks and camp away from trails and other visitors. v. Let nature’s sound prevail. Avoid loud voices and noises. 14.3 Records for Verification i. Review records ii. Records of Personal Feedback
  40. 40. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 40 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 15 Risk Management The Organization shall implement process of Risk management which helps to identify, assess and mitigate or minimize the Risk factor, which is always present in adventure activities. Risk management maximizes the ability to deliver on objectives, promotes sound decision making, works to safeguard participants and organizers including the wellbeing of leaders, instructors and guides and contributes to meeting community and Government expectations for accountable and responsible way of conducting adventure activities. The Organization shall prepare Emergency Response Plan for high risk activities. The Management shall review and approve ‘Emergency handling and Response Plan’ prior to commencement of the event or outing. 15.1 Following procedure is recommended for Risk Management: i. Define objectives of the program / activity. ii. Study a document relevant rules and regulations specific to the country/region where the programme is going to happen. Ensure that all requirements, especially statutory ones, are complied with. iii. Identify the potential risks and classify by evaluating consequences of the assessed Risk into categories; Low, Moderate, High, Extreme. iv. Risks are further classified as Loss or Damage to Property, Damage to Environment, Personal Physical Injury and Damage and Personal Emotional Injury and Damage. v. Determine the acceptance level of Risk involved. vi. According to classification of Risk, necessary infrastructure is introduced such as requisite equipment, competent leaders and or instructors. It should also involve necessary external agencies such as Insurance Companies for monetary compensation to limit the monetary damage to the participants and organizers. vii. It is necessary to consistently monitor and document the Emergency Handling Mechanism (mentioned below) is followed during and after the crisis by the overall supervisor. viii. The Analysis of the review is to be communicated to the wider audience in the community to create awareness and to help in avoiding similar situations. 15.2 All participants and or stakeholders in an activity can be classified into four categories i. Novice: almost total lack of knowledge, unaware of possible consequences ii. Apprentice: basic awareness, but needs guidance for decision making
  41. 41. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 41 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 iii. Competent: has enough knowledge to take routine decisions but may need directions in crisis. iv. Expert: Competent and has sufficient knowledge and confidence to guide the Risk Management Procedures; can plan for and prevent adverse consequences 15.3 Risk Management is further complemented by setting criteria for participation and conduction of a program / activity: Level of Risks Involved Accepted level of Competency for Participation Types of Activities with involved Risk Levels Low Novices and Apprentices need to be accompanied by Competent and Experts in a fixed predetermined ratio For Example easy short or multiday treks, Adventure camps, easy high altitude treks etc Moderate Novices and Apprentices need to be accompanied by Competent and Experts in a fixed, predetermined but higher ratio e.g. Moderately difficult Short or Multiday Treks, High Altitude Treks, Rock climbing Courses, Easy Rock Climbing Expeditions etc. High Novices are completely excluded. Few Apprentices accompanied by Competent and Experts in a fixed predetermined ratio e.g. Difficult Short or Multiday Treks, High Altitude Treks, Rock Climbing Expeditions, Mountaineering Expeditions etc. Extreme Novices and Apprentices are completely excluded. Competent are accompanied by one or two Experts. Very Difficult Rock climbing or Mountaineering Expeditions etc.
  42. 42. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 42 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 15.4 Emergency Handling Mechanism is described as follows: 15.4.1 Evaluation (Assessment): qualified person or persons (Expert) specifically designated for the responsibility of evaluation or assessment and taking a decision about the Emergency Response is nominated. Mechanism of Responding to Emergency can follow the following path. Incident Response Misfortunes (e.g. Blisters, Thorn Prick etc) Response Level 1: Leader or the First Aider addresses the issue. Requisite treatment given. Incident documented. Schedule / Time Frame impact minimal. Minor Injuries / Incidents (e.g. Sprains, wounds etc) Response Level 2: Qualified First Aider addresses the issue and administers treatment. Incident documented. External help sought if necessary. Considerable Impact on Schedule / Time Frame. Serious Injuries (but not life threatening) where evacuation of the casualty is necessary. Response Level 3: Qualified First Aider addresses the issue and administers treatment. Incident documented. External help sought if necessary. Evacuation procedures acted upon. Major Impact on Schedule / Time Frame which may lead to abortion of the event. Fatal / Near Fatal Incidents Response Level 4: Leader along with Qualified First Aider addresses and evaluates, Emergency Handling Procedures are implemented. Communication and Evacuation procedures acted upon. Major Impact on Schedule / Time Frame which leads to abortion of the event. 15.4.2 Organization shall prepare pre-determined ‘Emergency handling and Response Plan’ for all high risk activities, which is pre-approved by the management of the organization. This plan is inclusive of i. Response Protocol assigning responsibilities and Roles of the qualified individuals such as Rescuers, First Aiders, Communicators, Supervision etc and to determine the path of handling the crisis. ii. Making sure the inclusion and availability of Necessary Equipment for Search, Rescue, Evacuation and Communication in the Group. iii. Making sure the arrangements for Providing First Aid and or Medical Assistance are in place. iv. Making sure that each group has with it requisite amount of ‘emergency-cash’ to help in handling emergency situations.
  43. 43. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 43 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 v. Communication and Reporting Mechanism will be taking care of the inclusion and availability of communication equipment e.g. walkie-talkie sets. Also it will ensure the inclusion of specific support persons e.g. Mail Runners, in case of very remote locations for quick communication and reporting to the outside world. vi. Rescue and Evacuation Protocols and Procedures clearly defining the steps to be taken in case of a crisis. vii. Post Incidence Debrief and Review. 15.5 Records for Verification • Emergency Response Plan which is pre-approved by the management
  44. 44. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 44 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 16 Critical Incidents and Complaints 16.1 In case of any accident or Critical incident, Apex Body shall nominate a team to analyze the situation and analyze the root cause. 16.2 Organization shall co operate with the Apex Body team and help them in their analysis. 16.3 Organization shall take appropriate actions in order to prevent the recurrence of the incident. 16.4 Apex body shall forward the details of the incident and actions initiated for its prevention to other members with the objective to extract learning from the incident. 16.5 In case of receipt of complaint regarding violation of Safety Norms from any participant or any other person, Apex Body shall nominate a team for analysis of the situation. The Organization shall co operate with the team and take appropriate actions based on the recommendations of the Apex Body team.
  45. 45. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 45 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 17 Document Revision Mechanism Changes to the Safety Guidelines 17.1 The sections in the ‘Safety Guidelines’ are dynamic in nature and can be revised on the basis of suggestions from the user community. The Organizations shall send their requests to the Secretary of the Apex Body suggesting changes in the existing Documents with details and justification. Apex Body shall review the suggestions and appropriate the change if satisfied. In case the suggestions are accepted, Apex Body shall amend the concerned Section and forward the same to all the concerned with amended Version status. Secretary, Apex Body shall maintain current versions of all sections of this Safety Guidelines. 17.2 The Organization shall receive the revised section of the document and ensure appropriate versions are adopted for performing adventure activities.
  46. 46. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 46 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 Section 18 Sample Templates 18.1 Critical Incident Review 18.2 Feedback 18.3 Leadership Workshop 18.4 Programme Review 18.5 Route And Description Plan Note: These are a few sample ‘templates’. Further versions of this Document will have more comprehensive sets. Organisations may also develop their own notes and templates from the content of training programmes and books.
  47. 47. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 47 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 18.1 Critical Incident Review Name of Organisation ________________________________________________________________ Event/Programme description _________________________________________________________ Location __________________________________________________________________________ Leader ____________________________ Co-leader(s) _____________________________________ Participant profile ___________________________________________________________________ Incident description (be concise, stick to facts, identify causes, state consequences & action taken) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Root Cause Analysis Risk assessment (identify environmental factor, state human action that led to Incident) Hazard_________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Human action ______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion _________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Learning __________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Action recommended to prevent recurrence of such an Incident in future ______________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________
  48. 48. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 48 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 18.2 Feedback Feedback: information which communicates the impact of someone’s actions on you or a situation Organisations which value the well-being of their staff/members and aspire for growth through self-awareness and development of people incorporate a culture of feedback in their functioning. Giving and receiving feedback is a skill that needs to be learned through conceptual understanding and practice. It is recommended that the terms ‘positive’ and ‘constructive’ feedback be used. 18.2.1 Characteristics if effective feedback i. Growth oriented Is aimed at a ‘better future’ Acknowledgement that receiver will ultimately choose whether to function differently or not Receiver told what he/she should continue to do or change ii. Timely Close in time to the event Usually best if given after an event; to be given during the event only of consequences of some action are going to be critical At a time and place when receiver is ready to hear iii. Specific Behaviour/action described in a clear way Feedback is direct – not ‘softened’ to an extent where meaning is lost iv. Showing cause-and-effect relationships ‘When you did this, it resulted in this’ v. Preserves dignity Behaviour/action stated as distinct from identity – no judgmental statements on person Mood is generally upbeat – not aggressive or suppressive vi. Inquires Questions asked to seek clarity Giver shows intent to learn as well as tell Giver keen to understand how his/her behaviour/actions impacted receiver vii. Use of ‘I’ and ‘you’ language Avoidance of generalising (e.g. ‘everyone thinks...’) Readiness to own statements and be open to different perspectives 18.2.2 Suggested Mechanism Of Feedback One person to be given feedback by two colleagues: Continue-Change-Stop Method Continue Behaviour, way of functioning to be continued by receiver Change Behaviour, way of functioning to be changed/modified, with giver giving specific suggestions Stop Behaviour, way of functioning to be preferably stopped, with clarity on unwanted consequences
  49. 49. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 49 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 18.3 Leadership Workshop 18.3.1 Participants: Members who lead and co-lead weekend hikes 18.3.2 Topics to be addressed during the workshop: i. Fitness a. Criteria regarding ‘fitness’ for a weekend hike leader b. The ‘why’ of being fit c. Practical session: introduction to stretching exercises including some yogasanas, especially those pertinent to preparation for hiking and end-of-day recovery d. Discussion on diet for hikers – discussed separately ii. Technical competence (footing, scrambling, basic rock moves for help on steep terrain, basic rope work) a. Footing: What care needs to be taken to ensure that participants get some inputs consciously (e.g., the ‘resting step’, safety concerns like slippery surfaces and stepping on outer edges of paved stones, defining ‘easy pace’, etc.) b. Scrambling: definition, need for this skill on weekend hikes, skills needed, leaders’ role, and safety concerns c. Rock moves: as above d. Basic rope work: need for this skill on weekend hikes, expectations, conceptual clarity (friction, the ‘why’ of a certain technique of belaying, etc.), anchor station for a top rope & rappel (with related aspects like knots). e. River crossing: need for this skill on weekend hikes, basic ‘hydrodynamics’ (so as to understand why a technique works and is safe), expectations, introduction to river crossing techniques with practice runs (either dry or in actual flowing water). iii. First aid skills: practice sessions on basic, simple and crucial topics a. Emphasis on: conceptual clarity and practical skills. b. Topics: dehydration, heat injuries including blisters, cold injuries, stings & bites, sprains-strains-and- fractures. c. Discussion and procedure for response to emergency. iv. Communication skills (briefing, person-dependent communication, necessary paper work) a. The need to make briefings ‘interesting’ so as to be effective (so the maximum number of participants understand safety aspects, expectations from them, etc.). b. Key conceptual aspects will be introduced; e.g., communication gap, and learning styles. Discussion on the need for different communicating styles for a disparate group. c. Practical sessions: some participants of the workshop will be invited to ‘present briefing’ and will receive feedback on their presentation. v. Leadership within leader-team (staying healthy, being consultative when required, being a role model to each other, seniors contributing to the growth of juniors) a. ‘Staying healthy’ refers to the teamwork within the leaders’ team: this will be touched upon with a clear focus (why of it, some aspects with examples, etc.). b. Role clarity (and responsibilities) to be discussed: for both, field leaders and support persons in the office. Other points as listed in the previous paragraph.
  50. 50. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 50 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 vi. Leadership of the group: a. role modeling, b. communicating appropriately and at appropriate times, c. generating comfort in terms of technical aspects, d. being capable of handling emergencies – medical as well as non-medical, e. maintaining dignity of all throughout) f. Additional point: ‘time and group management’ on trail: evolving a system that will help keep the group together on trail. vii. Admin-responsibilities with respect to club’s expectations and processes a. Need and importance for pre-hike and post-hike ‘formalities’ to be clarified and emphasized. b. Invitation to all to extend ‘good practices’ being practiced by some leaders (like spending time with participants at destination, pouring over the region’s map, drawing sketch-map of place visited, etc.). viii. Environment safety issues Few topics that could be immediately managed by leaders will be taken up: a. waste management: human waste and kitchen waste, b. sensitivity to ‘water’ encountered in various forms while hiking in the Sahyadri, c. relevant socio-cultural aspects. ix. Food management a. Different types of stoves needed depending on the group size, b. food quantities with respect to group size for a day/multi-day trek.
  51. 51. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 51 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 18.4 Programme Review Date ___________________ Name of Organisation ______________________________________________________________ Programme description _____________________________________________________________ Location ___________________________________________________________________________ Leader ____________________________ Co-leader(s) _____________________________________ Participant profile __________________________________________________________________ Write briefly. Use data to illustrate comments. Be objective. Avoid judgmental statements. Suggest only for betterment of programme. State things that worked well and areas for improvement. 1. Planning. What did we do well? What could we have done differently? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 2. Goals. Did we achieve stated goals? To what extent? What could we have done differently? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 3. Risk management. What did we do well? What could we have done differently? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 4. Leadership. What did leaders do well? What could they have done differently? (State any feedback given to specifically to leaders) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 5. Teamwork. What did we do well? What could we have done differently? (State any feedback given to specifically to any team member) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 6. Incident of significance (could be a critical incident) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________ 7. Summarise feedback received from programme participants and anyone else associated with this programme ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________ 8. What are our learnings? What will we do differently in the future in such a programme as well as elsewhere? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________
  52. 52. Safety Guidelines for Land Based Adventure Activities Page 52 of 66 Rev 08 05 2014 18.5 Route and Description Plan Date: ____________ Name of Organisation ________________________________________________________________ Event/Programme description _________________________________________________________ Leader ____________________________ Co-leader(s) _____________________________________ Origin (major landmark and description of location & if possible, map coordinates or GPS reading) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Destination (major landmark & description of location & if possible, map coordinates or GPS reading) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Distance (estimated or from documented figure or measured on map) _________________________ Elevation gain (estimated or from documented figure or measured on map) ____________________ Time estimated for stated distance _____________________________________________________ Expected Time of Departure (ETD) ______________________________________________________ Expected Time of arrival (ETA) _________________________________________________________ Route description (mention terrain type, route information, landmarks on the way, elevation gains-drops, expected hazards (e.g. streams/rivers, rockfall/landslide, rain/snow, etc.) ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Contingency plan (back-up plan) _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________

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