Teachers Handbook:
 Activity Based Learning
       For Class VI &VII




             A pilot aimed
            at introdu...
‘Enterprising Ladakh’ (2005- 2006): a project conducted by the Ladakh Autonomous
Hill Development Council, Leh, Druk Pema ...
Preface

The introduction of Life Skills into the curriculum is a recent development, not only in
India, but in many count...
The Frog in the Well

Do you know the story of the ‘frog in the well’? It lends itself as a good analogy
for understanding...
Contents:


How the Book Works:                                                     1
1.00 For    the Teacher             ...
How the Book Works
This handbook is laid out in ‘easy to read’ sections that first guide the teacher
through the process o...
Most new teachers and indeed many very experienced teachers feel safer adopting
the role of ‘expert’ or ‘instructor’ but t...
Set clear aims for each lesson. Aims are what you intend to do in the lesson
       and these aims should be made clear to...
Resources/materials:

   o Text on sources of electricity for discussion (from: textbook, library, internet
     etc.).
  ...
Then ask yourself what else would you like your learners to have? Here
are some suggestions of answers you might give:

  ...
2.00 Life & Livelihood Skills




What are Life and Livelihood Skills?

What is a skill? A skill can be simply defined as ...
1) Communication & interpersonal skills




      Communication skills are about learning to interact with others and expr...
Creativity can be expressed visually through art, design, craft, photography,
      etc. and in our actions, thoughts and ...
4) Problem solving & decision making




     Life is full of problems to be solved and decisions to be made. Being able t...
Leadership and teamwork can be developed through:

          ☺   Communication – communication is key when working with ot...
Effective communication is quite impossible without language skills. To
     develop spoken and (basic) written language s...
something helps us learn from the experience and refer to it in the future, if
     required.

     Effective planning inv...
5) Basic Computer/ICT skills




       Using a computer is an important skill in today’s world. It helps us find
       i...
Start by asking yourself some questions, and answer them honestly:

       Is Ladakh’s education helping to prepare its st...
The kind of skill education proposed through this handbook is to help you make
learning more fun for your students, while ...
3.00 Helpful Hints & Guidelines
3.1 - How to plan a project




 o Choose a theme that has plenty of potential for researc...
3.3 - How to write a project report




This section helps you explain to your students how to write a project report.
Kno...
3.4 - How to plan a role play




A role play essentially means enacting a theme or a situation, recreating it right in
yo...
3.5 - How to plan activity-based lessons




   o When planning a lesson set clear aims and outcomes and make these clear
...
Now ask yourself do the students understand what they have answered or are they
simply learning how to repeat the words of...
4.00   Activities - ideas & examples
4.1. Summary of activities

1) ‘Who am I?’ for Class VI (lesson & game)
   This is a ...
appropriate building design. The aim of the project is to introduce students to
  traditional and modern construction in L...
1) Lesson & Game - Who am I?
                         Learning Level Class VI
                     Subject: Social Studies...
pairs become mixed. Students need to be standing and easily able to
          move around (you can do this outside if it’s...
Resources                   Skills                       Personality attributes
skilled labourers           communication ...
1                                           17
 I am found in a jar. I am sweet,               I know about local fruit an...
5                                         21
I am made mostly from mud brick,           I work with my hands & my head,
 w...
9                                           25
I am not very big and can be held            I use lenses & filters, someti...
13                                          29
 I am made of wood and am very              I am very skilled at my work. I...
2) Solid Waste Management
                              Project + field trip

                     Learning Level Class: V...
Who handles all this waste? Typically it is the Municipality (Notified Area Committee) or
the informal sector of ‘rag-pick...
Classroom Lesson 2 (45 min)

Discussion

There are four main types of waste: wet waste, dry waste, field & garden waste an...
Apple                  Fruit




    Vegetables        Plastic bottles




Engine Oil            Newspaper




Metal Bicyc...
Meat                Cotton Clothes




Plastic Doll        Leaves/ twigs




Rubber Tyre
                    Leather Bag

...
In the classroom, or outside, make a time-line (see below). One end is ‘2
weeks’ and the other end is ‘never’. Ask the stu...
3.) ‘1,000 YEARS OF LIGHT’

                     Classroom activities and field trip
                          Learning Le...
Discussion:
Electricity comes to our homes and workplaces through a network of power stations
and cables. But electricity ...
For discussion divide the students into groups. Encourage the group to discuss
the questions and find the answer. Help eac...
FIELD TRIP 1 - ALCHI


 Introduction: In Ladakh people have relied on different sources of light
 over the last 1,000 year...
Field Trip Activities




Activity 1 – On the bus

On the route from Leh to Alchi you will pass through a number of villag...
Activity 1

Group Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   ...........................
.............................
9) As we travel to Alchi are we going North, South, East or West? How can you
tell?




10) On route we will stop at the M...
Map of Ladakh for Activity 1




                               43
Activity 2


  Questions you can ask during the Alchi hydro power station visit:


 1. How does a hydro power station work...
Activity 3
Group Names: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . ...
9. What animal accompanies the golden resplendent (Vairocana) Buddha in
    the Du Khang temple?


10. Can you find the fi...
Field Trip 2 – Leh/ Choglamsar Generator




Classroom activity before the field trip
 Discussion

 In Leh district there ...
Students’ Questions to Chief Engineer


   1. How does the generator work?
   2. How much power does it produce every day?...
Follow up lessons to field trips 1 & 2
After returning from the field trip there are many different things you can
do. Her...
Alternative to micro-hydro or in addition is solar energy. Solar energy occurs
 when the suns ultraviolet light-rays are c...
Site Surveyor: one whose job it is to examine the land and to record the details
they find and in doing so they assess the...
4) Amchi World
                        Learning level – Class VI & VII
                Subject: Social Studies (Geography,...
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06
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Enterprising ladakh life & livelihood skills handbook jul06

  1. 1. Teachers Handbook: Activity Based Learning For Class VI &VII A pilot aimed at introducing Life & Livelihood Skills into the school curriculum in Ladakh Enterprising Ladakh, July 2006 A project funded by the European Commission
  2. 2. ‘Enterprising Ladakh’ (2005- 2006): a project conducted by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh, Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society and Drukpa Trust, in association with SECMOL. The project was co-funded by the EU-India Small Projects Facility Programme in Economic Co-operation (SPF), which is an initiative of the European Commission (EC) to support the on-going transformation and modernisation of Indian economy and systems of governance. This handbook was produced by: Aparna Sethi - Education Adviser, Enterprising Ladakh Annie Smith - Lead Education Adviser, Enterprising Ladakh With the support, commitment and advice of Tsetan Angchok, Sr. teacher - Govt. Middle School, Skalzangling, Leh, Ladakh With thanks to the following for their support: Education Dept, Leh, Ladakh Save the Children (UK), Leh Ladakh SECMOL, Leh, Ladakh E.K. Nareshwar - Enterprising Ladakh Mohammad Hasnain – Enterprising Ladakh Maureen Songhurst - Principal, and the teachers of Druk Padma Karpo Institute, Shey, Ladakh Teachers of Government Middle Schools, Leh, Skalzangling and Spituk This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council Leh, Druk Pema Karpo Educational Society and Drukpa Trust, and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union. ii
  3. 3. Preface The introduction of Life Skills into the curriculum is a recent development, not only in India, but in many countries world-wide where empowering young people and equipping them for life is considered a valuable and meaningful outcome of education. Originating from the World Health Organisation and aimed at preventing AIDS and HIV in school children, Life Skills are adaptable to many situations. In the past, children have learnt skills and values within the family and the village community. These communities were tight with little mobility and outside influence and their survival depended on social coherence. Today’s communities have become much more complex. As interaction with the outside world increases so does the drive for development and this is changing lifestyles. There is more travel, more communication and with that more ideas and more demands. Children need to learn new skills and values in order to be able to cope. ‘Life Skills’ have been defined as: ‘the abilities of adaptive and positive behaviour that enable young people to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday’ (RIE, Mysore,). Whether they are used at home, in the workplace or society in general, these skills can provide an enabling foundation for many aspects of adult life. They are the foundation to living a prosperous and happy life. ‘Life Skills’ coupled with ‘Livelihood’ education can encourage the confidence and competence required to adapt to a changing and developing work place. The contents of this handbook have been prepared as part of a ‘pilot’ demonstrating to teachers how to introduce Life and Livelihood Skills into the curriculum. Life and Livelihood Skills can be imparted in any subject across the curriculum by changing the learning experience and the way knowledge and understanding is transacted in (and outside) the classroom. This is most effectively done through activity based learning. Through activity based learning the student interacts with knowledge, others and the world around from several perspectives using a range of senses. When the learner is actively involved in the learning process s/he will have more opportunity to experience and understand the subject. This book therefore focuses on introducing the teachers to a range of activities, for in and outside the classroom, explains how to implement them and the educational benefits behind them. The book is also accompanied by a demonstration video (Digital Video Disc or DVD) to help the teacher understand more fully how the activities in the book can be implemented into school life and the classroom experience. This handbook (and DVD) has been completed as part of a project called Enterprising Ladakh headed by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh, and funded by the European Union; this project aims at addressing the problems of unemployment in Ladakh. The project initially focused on identifying ‘Market Opportunities’ and then looked at the enabling environment required for ‘enterprise’ and ‘entrepreneurship’. The final part of this project has focused on what is required in the school learning experience to equip young people for the world of work in a modern day society. Various Working Papers have been produced and can be viewed at www.enterprisingladakh.org or are available through the ‘Hill Council’. iii
  4. 4. The Frog in the Well Do you know the story of the ‘frog in the well’? It lends itself as a good analogy for understanding the limitations of the present education system that serves only to develop skills of memorisation through rote learning in order to pass examinations. Confined in the narrow understanding of the world around us formed through our school experience, very few of us begin to imagine a more rounded and whole way of being. We are like the ‘frog in the well’ lacking any imagination of what education can truly be, and through good education what future can be available to us. Once there was a frog, which lived all his life in a well. One day a frog from the sea paid him a visit: “Where do you come from?” asked the frog in the well. “From the great ocean” he replied. “How big is your ocean?” “It’s very big, enormous” “You mean about a quarter of the size of my well here? “Bigger” “Bigger?” – you mean half as big?” “No … even bigger” “Is it as big as this well?” “There is no comparison” “That’s impossible” said the frog from the well, “I’ve got to see this for myself” So they set off together. When the frog from the well saw the ocean it was such a shock that his head couldn’t expand enough take it all in and it exploded into pieces. So let’s not allow our education system to prepare young people to be ‘frogs in wells’ but instead, through using their heads and their hands, open their minds and their hearts to an ocean of experience and learning that lasts for life. The story of the ‘Frog in the Well’ was told by the Venerable Patrul Rinpoche and is quoted in the ‘Tibetan Book of Living and Dying’ written by Sogyal Rinpoche iv
  5. 5. Contents: How the Book Works: 1 1.00 For the Teacher 1 1.1 - Activity based learning 1.2 - Lesson planning 1.3 - Reflection 2.00 Life and Livelihood skills 6 2.1 - Core Life Skills 2.2 - Core Livelihood Skills 2.3 -The importance of Life and Livelihood Skills in education 3.00 Helpful Hints & Guidelines 16 3.1 - Projects 3.2 - Field trips 3.3 - Role plays 3.4 - Planning 3.5 - Questions 4.00 Activities: ideas & examples 21 4.1 - Summary of activities 4.2 - Activities 1-8 5.00 Guidelines on Assessment 83 5.1 - Advice for the teachers 5.2 - Assessment sheets and criteria 5.3 - Teacher Handbook questionnaire 6.00 Information and Resources. 88 6.1 - Making Recycled Paper 6.2 - Resources v
  6. 6. How the Book Works This handbook is laid out in ‘easy to read’ sections that first guide the teacher through the process of understanding activity-based learning and the need to plan and reflect on lessons in order to develop a professional approach to child-centred, participatory learning methods. The next section introduces the teacher to the concept of Life and Livelihood Skills and their educational value in a fast changing modern world. The third section tells the Teacher about how to plan certain activities, how to guide the students in writing a report and how to ask and answer questions. The fourth, and most extensive section, gives a variety of activities that can be used in or outside the classroom. This section is divided into learning levels and activity types. Each starts with how to plan the activity, then a series of activity examples to be used in or outside the classroom, and finally some outline ideas for the teacher to develop when s/he has the confidence of teaching through activity- based learning. Most of the activities can be used either as stand alone lessons or as a series of lessons that make up a project. Some of the activities are accompanied by field trips, role plays or games. This approach enables a teacher to dip in to the book and select an activity that best suits the time s/he has available, whether it be one lesson or several lessons. The fifth section guides the teacher on ways to assess the students’ progress through activity based learning and how to report back on the handbook’s contents. Finally there is a resources section on how and where to find further information. Learning should be and is a joyful experience so we hope you have fun reading this book and sharing the activities with your students. 1.00 For the Teacher 1.1 – ACTIVITY-BASED LEARNING Activity-based learning encourages the teacher to move from being an expert-centred instructor to a facilitator or guide. 1
  7. 7. Most new teachers and indeed many very experienced teachers feel safer adopting the role of ‘expert’ or ‘instructor’ but there is a general consensus that the teaching from the front, teacher-centred/instructor style, is not effective. Effectiveness is measured in terms of the depth of learning which takes place. Rote learning relies on memory and recall but no, or very little understanding, whereas when the learner is actively involved in the learning process s/he will have more opportunity to experience and understand the subject. Most teachers would like their learners to have some understanding, and one of the most effective ways of encouraging deep learning is to give learners more control over their learning and more responsibility for their own learning. Activity- based work is one strategy which can be used, the teacher becomes the facilitator and the learner takes an active role in the learning process. It involves the teacher being able to let go, to step outside of her/his own comfort zone, being able to say “I don’t know everything” and not being afraid if the learners question the teacher. If the latter happens it is not a failure on the teacher’s part but a great success. Active learning is challenging for both the learner and the teacher, it needs careful planning and facilitating but it is very rewarding. Some of the benefits of activity-based learning are: Active and deep learning Learners are learning to learn. i.e. they seek out knowledge and don’t wait to be told Learners develop new skills and knowledge Recognition of the learners’ experience Encouragement of self belief, confidence and independent learning More enjoyment for the teacher when the learners are ‘buzzing’ and fully engaged Learning becomes a meaning making process 1.2 LESSON PLANNING Lesson planning is essential if the learning experience is going to be meaningful for the learners. Points to remember: Know your group: their social composition and individual learning needs 2
  8. 8. Set clear aims for each lesson. Aims are what you intend to do in the lesson and these aims should be made clear to the learners. Remember if you are not clear about the aims of the lesson your students also will not be clear Set clear learning outcomes: i.e. what you want your students to have learnt by the end of this lesson. Learning outcomes should be related to what has been covered already and what will be covered in the future. The learning outcomes should be differentiated, an example of this is ‘must be able to …’, ‘should be able to…’, ’could be able to…’. The learning outcomes should be made clear to the learners Learning strategies and methods should be appropriate for the topic and the learning group. Points to consider are: (i) what new knowledge needs to be given and how; (ii) do you need to consolidate knowledge and skills before new activities will be successful; (iii) the prior knowledge and experience of the learners; (iv) activities which encourage the learners to find out for themselves;(v) the accommodation of different learning styles; (vi) the development of the use of language and the development of independent learning Assessment methods should be clearly identified and appropriate Resources should be appropriate for delivering the session successfully and prepared in advance. ‘Failing to plan is planning to fail’ An unplanned lesson is not conducive to a successful learning experience for either the learner or the teacher. Teaching is more than “talking from the book”. Below is an example of a lesson plan (for the detailed lesson see page 36/ 37): Sources of Electrical Power Aims: o To familiarise students with different sources of power, especially those available in Ladakh o To give students first hand experience of how hydro and diesel generated power works and the differences between them. Outcomes - students should: o Be able to name at least three sources of power available in Ladakh and know the differences in the source type, such as which are renewable and which are not. o Be aware of where power is used in every day life in both the home and school. o Be aware of some of the environmental issues around these different sources of power 3
  9. 9. Resources/materials: o Text on sources of electricity for discussion (from: textbook, library, internet etc.). o Photos, diagrams or images of: a) sources of electricity b) electrical items in home or school or community. o Pre-planned questions for the students - copy for each student o Pens, pencils, crayons, paper Lesson structure 1) Introduce the lesson. Explain what the intended aims and outcomes are. Make a note of how long this will take (5min). 2) Discuss the text with the whole group (10 min). 3) Divide the class into groups and give them the questions to discuss on the text. Explain clearly what you want them to do: discuss and then write down the answers. Visit each group to facilitate their understanding and to answer their questions. Give sufficient time to discuss and answer questions (15 min). 4) Ask the group to feedback their answers and write on the board, sum up the lesson. (10 min) 5) Homework - draw a picture of 2 electrical items they have at home (5 min). Total time - 45 min. 1.3 REFLECTION To understand if your activity-based learning is working you need to reflect on your practice and its outcomes: To help do this you can ask yourself some questions. For example: What are you trying to achieve by your teaching? Your answer should be: For my learners to learn successfully! 4
  10. 10. Then ask yourself what else would you like your learners to have? Here are some suggestions of answers you might give: Curiosity and interest in their subjects Self-confidence and self-belief Empathy and a sense of personal, moral responsibility Creativity, self expression and personal development Spiritual understanding and development Appreciation of people, their values and culture Appreciation of environmental and social issues These can become personal goals for you, which can direct and inspire your teaching and allow you to take control and achieve your own vision of good teaching and learning. This does not mean that you ignore the textbooks or the syllabus. It means that you enhance the learning by broadening it. On a sheet of paper list any other personal goals you might wish to achieve in your teaching. Each day try one of your goals and at the end of the day, think back and ask yourself: did I achieve it? 5
  11. 11. 2.00 Life & Livelihood Skills What are Life and Livelihood Skills? What is a skill? A skill can be simply defined as ‘the ability to do something well’. We are all born with certain abilities, and need encouragement from a very young age to help develop these abilities into skills. Finding out about our abilities helps us to become confident adults capable of making choices in life. The school environment and you as teachers play a very important role in the development of a child. CHOICE is a basic human right, and to empower the young people of Ladakh to make choices, their education and schools must help equip them with the skills of confidence and competence required to adapt in a fast-changing world. Confidence + Competence = Choice What are these skills? The skills that help us make choices can be defined as Life Skills (skills of confidence) and Livelihood Skills (skills of competence). Although in the explanations that follow these skills have been broken down and defined separately, all of them are interconnected. 2.1 LIFE SKILLS Skills that help us to understand ourselves, others, the world around us, prepare us for life, and develop self-confidence can be called ‘Life Skills’. We can help children become confident and self-aware individuals by providing them with an environment that builds on their natural abilities. This would enable them to develop skills of communication, critical thought, creativity, problem solving and decision making, and working together in any situation. These Life Skills – whether they are applied at home, in the workplace or society in general – provide children with the ability to build a strong foundation for a prosperous and happy life. Given below are the five ‘core’ Life Skills that we shall focus on through this handbook, and an explanation of what they are: 6
  12. 12. 1) Communication & interpersonal skills Communication skills are about learning to interact with others and express ourselves clearly. We express ourselves through the spoken word, through gestures or body language, or through writing. Developing successful communication helps us in knowing ourselves better while being able to maintain good relationships with people we interact with as well. Effective communication skills can be achieved through developing the following: o Talking - it is important to know when to speak and how to speak, especially in a group situation. It is important to be assertive but not aggressive and when we speak to be clear in what we say. o Listening – communication is not a one-way street. We must listen to, understand and respect the people we are communicating with. o Analysing and reflecting – we must think about what we are trying to express and why – which will help us understand how to communicate it. o Body language/ non-verbal expression – understanding and knowing the use of appropriate gestures, facial expressions and actions, which help us express ourselves better o Expression – this helps us present our thoughts, ideas, feelings clearly and effectively through the use of spoken language/verbal communication, or writing it down/ written communication. 2) Creativity & Creative thinking Developing our creativity helps us think and do things/act differently. It helps us to think ‘out of the box’ and to use our imagination. This helps us develop a sense of originality and confidence in ourselves. 7
  13. 13. Creativity can be expressed visually through art, design, craft, photography, etc. and in our actions, thoughts and writing. Creativity can be achieved through the following : o Creative thinking - developing the ability to look at situations, things or issue from different angles. o Originality and independence of thought - developing the confidence and awareness to ‘dare to be different’. o Our imagination - developing the ability to recreate in our minds things we already know and understand in order to make new things. o Practical skills: developing dexterity between our hands and minds. • Drawing/painting or model making skills • Shows a range of interesting thoughts and ideas • Shows imagination or curiosity and interest in surroundings 3) Critical thinking == Being able to think critically helps us analyse information, situations, thoughts or issues – and as a result helps us make better choices. Critical thought can be developed through: ☺ Objectivity – sometimes when we are too close to an issue it might affect our judgment. So to be objective is to be able to think of something in an impersonal way – from a distance, which gives us a different perspective on the same. ☺ Reflection – means to think deeply into an issue - looking at it from all angles, questioning and debating it in our minds, and taking into account its consequences as well. ☺ Logical thought – is to be able to think systematically and in a clear, balanced manner and reason things out in our mind 8
  14. 14. 4) Problem solving & decision making Life is full of problems to be solved and decisions to be made. Being able to identify and understand problems helps us to make decisions. The ability to weigh up pros and cons of a situation and to foresee possible outcomes is all part of the decision making process. Problem solving and decision making are skills that can be developed through: ☺ Rational thinking – to identify and understand what exactly the problem is and work it out in a calm manner. This helps us find a solution and make appropriate decisions. ☺ Foresight – is to be able to foresee and understand the possible consequences of our actions, which helps us make decisions. ☺ Self-knowledge – to know our personal limitations and strength, helps us understand how to tackle a problem and make decisions. ☺ Analysis – is the ability to break down a problem and understand all its components. This is possible only if we have a complete knowledge of the situation. ☺ Being positive. 5) Leadership & team-work To be able to work with others towards achieving a common goal is a skill that helps us through life, whether it is at home, in school, at work or in any situation. To be a good team player is an essential skill in life. Effective leaders need to be confident and self-assured, yet communicate and work well with people. They also need to be good decision makers. 9
  15. 15. Leadership and teamwork can be developed through: ☺ Communication – communication is key when working with other people - imagine what would happen if everyone spoke a different language and no one could understand each other! Effective communication when working within a team is essential in sharing thoughts and ideas, discussions and debates, delegating tasks and therefore achieving a common goal. ☺ Sensitivity – it is essential to try to understand other people and to respect their opinions and beliefs while working together. ☺ Objectivity – to know when to step aside! The ability to be impartial and patient, and not allow our personal feelings and opinions about something affect our relationships with others while working in a team. ☺ Being positive. 2.2 LIVELIHOOD SKILLS Livelihood Skills can help develop an individual’s competence at doing something. These skills build on life skills to help students develop knowledge & expertise on how to perform a task efficiently. Livelihood Skills are practical skills knowledge and understanding related to the world of work (the ability to DO not just to KNOW). Change is happening all around us at a very fast pace and young people need to be equipped with skills that help them cope with change successfully. It is essential that young people in Ladakh know how to deal effectively with changes brought in by a modern world, while understanding the importance of maintaining their unique and rich cultural identities and traditions. Given below are the five core Livelihood Skills we shall focus on through this handbook, and an explanation of what they are: Whe zajunshyern 1) Language skills 5 5 294 !!?? !!! Imagine people trying to communicate with each other and no one understanding what the other is saying, because they are all speaking totally different languages. 10
  16. 16. Effective communication is quite impossible without language skills. To develop spoken and (basic) written language skills in order to communicate is important. ☺ In Ladakh, a good knowledge of Ladakhi, English, Urdu/Hindi would be most useful. 2) Basic Numeracy skills 120 x 50 = All of us cannot be mathematics geniuses – but a basic knowledge of practical maths takes us a long way. Being able to work out basic numerical problems both on paper and mentally helps us save time and money. Basic numeracy skills should include: ☺ Addition & subtraction ☺ Multiplication & division ☺ Calculating percentages & fractions 3) Planning & keeping records Any venture or task must be planned beforehand in order to accomplish it successfully and efficiently – whether this is setting up a small business like a travel agency, agricultural work through the year on a farm, or even planning a lesson in school. To maintain records through the process of carrying out any plan helps us observe our progress and communicate it to others as well. Recording 11
  17. 17. something helps us learn from the experience and refer to it in the future, if required. Effective planning involves: ☺ Analysis of a situation – to be able to identify each step required in accomplishing a set task in a rational and objective manner. ☺ Foresight - to be able to foresee any possible problems that might arise while working out a plan, and being prepared in advance. 4) Management skills So much work – such little time!!! Management skills can be applied in almost any situation through life – whether it’s at home, in the workplace, it can be useful to structure a day and make a timetable. Proper management skills help us deal with people or situations more effectively. Effective management involves: ☺ Time management – the ability to understand the importance of time in executing any plans or dealing with a situation. When other people are involved it is important to understand and respect their time availability and limitations as well. ☺ Teamwork – see previous section. ☺ Clearly defining objectives and goals, and planning. ☺ Foresight – the ability to think ahead clearly and logically. 12
  18. 18. 5) Basic Computer/ICT skills Using a computer is an important skill in today’s world. It helps us find information on anything we need, communicate for work and to keep in touch with family and friends. Being familiar with a computer begins with knowing its basic features: ☺ How to use a keyboard. ☺ How to use ‘Word’ and do word-processing ☺ How to access and use the internet – to search for information and sending and receiving e-mail. 2.3 The importance of Life & Livelihood Skills in education Life is all about choices. In the previous section we discussed ‘Choice’ and the skills that enable individuals to make choices more competently. Choices such as: what job they are going to do and what are the skills and attributes they need to do it? The school environment and you as teachers play a key role in the development and growth of children into informed, aware and competent young adults. Our school system at present leaves very limited scope for skill development, focusing mainly on preparing students for their exams. How much does making a child learn a few sentences through rote memorisation, with little or sometimes no understanding of what s/he is learning, help him or her through life? Education in Ladakhi schools needs to support the all-round development of the student and help them to become adults capable of dealing with the changes around them and making choices. Young Ladakhis should be confident individuals with an awareness of others and Ladakh’s development needs. And this starts with YOU the teacher. Teachers can BE THE CHANGE that Ladakh needs! 13
  19. 19. Start by asking yourself some questions, and answer them honestly: Is Ladakh’s education helping to prepare its students for LIFE? Does the school & classroom environment help bring out what is within each child - their own innate skills and understanding? Are you as teachers using all the available skills and learning methods to ensure the full development of the students you are teaching Are you equipping students to deal with a modern, changing world by preparing them to be confident young adults, mentally and practically capable of DOING different jobs? If your answer to any of these is NO then you are not preparing young people for ‘Life’. Life Skill education can begin at any age, and continue until students leave school. In the same way, Livelihood Skills and awareness regarding alternative ‘livelihoods’ in Ladakh can be introduced to children at a very young age and continue through their school years in varying complexity. The idea is to initiate an alternative thinking process in these students, which develops as they progress through school. How Life and Livelihood Skills education can help Ladakh? Ladakh has numerous unemployed youth, who lack the initiative, confidence and skills to set up in their own business or seek work in the available job market, despite a wealth of opportunities waiting to be exploited. Many educated youth look only for a government job. Every year there are less and less government jobs and more and more applicants. Recently 25 government jobs were advertised in Leh district and more than 8,000 applications were received! As teachers you have access to a large number of young children and throughout their school your influence plays a big part on who and what they become as adults. Ladakh’s future lies in the hands of today’s youth and teachers therefore have a responsibility to prepare them adequately. Teachers can help children to: Grow as individuals, discover themselves and appreciate and respect the value of the world and people around them. Translate knowledge, attitudes and values into practical abilities – ‘what to do and how to do it’. Learn while relating information in their textbooks with their environment and lives – as you know, most of the information given in textbooks has very little relevance to Ladakh’s environment and the realities Ladakhi children deal with. Develop into confident and self-aware adults capable of dealing with change, while understanding the significance of their rich cultural traditions and heritage. Understand the potential job market in Ladakh, and also return respect to traditional livelihoods such as agriculture, Amchi medicine, etc. To know themselves and make informed choices in life – especially in relation to work/choosing a career. 14
  20. 20. The kind of skill education proposed through this handbook is to help you make learning more fun for your students, while developing in them the core skills discussed in the previous section. The activities in this handbook are aimed at assisting you in delivering your curriculum in a child-centred way that helps the child learn ‘how to learn’ independent of the teacher and hence develop self awareness and confidence. Why Life & Livelihood Skills are best taught through activity-based learning? Activity-based learning brings the whole child into the process of learning. By ‘whole child’ we mean a child’s head (intellect), heart (feelings & innate understanding) and hands (practical skills). Through using all these senses in the process of learning a much richer, broader and meaningful experience is gained. Activity-based learning can lead to the following: Active and deep learning. Learners are learning to learn i.e. they seek out knowledge and don’t wait to be told. Learners develop new skills and knowledge; they learn the joy of discovery. The learners recognise the value of their own experiences. Encouragement of self-belief, confidence and independent learning More enjoyment for the teacher when the learners are ‘buzzing’ and fully engaged. The methods of activity-based learning suggested in this handbook are: o Projects o Role plays o Games o Field trips o Art & design lessons All of which contain some component of discussion, group and team work. 15
  21. 21. 3.00 Helpful Hints & Guidelines 3.1 - How to plan a project o Choose a theme that has plenty of potential for research, discussion and activities. Set clear aims and outcomes. o The project should run over a period of time and include class work with activities, group discussion, art work and an element of home/out of school study. o It should also include one or more Life & Livelihood Skills and relate to livelihoods if possible. o The outcome will be the submission of either individual or group reports with written and visual elements. o If there are computers at your school or students have access at home then research can be done online and word processing used for the final project presentation. Cameras can also be used! 3.2 - How to plan a field trip ☺ Choose the location carefully, taking into account distance, travel time, and visit it before you go. ☺ Arrange travel (bus) time, lunch etc. ☺ Why this location? What will the children learn through this trip? ☺ Planning is essential! If you are not clear in advance as to why you’ve planned a trip here, then the whole exercise will be a waste. ☺ Remember, the aim of the field trip is to have fun while learning. ☺ Plan your day’s activities - what subjects are being covered? How can this be made clear to the children through what they will see? ☺ Preparatory lesson before you leave - explaining to the children where you are going, what they will learn, how, etc. so that they are also prepared. ☺ Make some activity sheets for the children to work on in groups during the trip. ☺ Report (by children) to be completed after the trip. 16
  22. 22. 3.3 - How to write a project report This section helps you explain to your students how to write a project report. Knowing how to write a report is an important skill we can use all through our lives, and it is really very easy. A report can be a lot of fun, because a report is mostly about putting together information YOU have researched yourselves and with your friends and classmates. It can be colourful with photographs and pictures as well as written information. 1. Focus on the issue or main topic your report is about. While collecting information it is easy to get distracted - and confused! So keep in mind what you are trying to communicate at all times. 2. Who is the report for? It is very important to know who is going to read this report and for what purpose…keeping this in mind helps you with how to write it. 3. Structure is key. It helps you think your way clearly through the report and to produce a good document in the end. i. Begin with an INTRODUCTION – which will tell the person reading it what to expect in a short easy-to-understand way, also mention briefly where and how you got all your information! ii. Next is the CONTENT – which is all your information, written under different sub-headings – and communicated in a simple way. Basically, your MAIN content can be broken up into, and answer the questions - ‘what’, ‘why’, ‘how’ – ☺ ‘what’ – what am I writing about? ☺ ‘why’ – why did I choose to write about this topic? ☺ ‘how’ – how did I collect the information for this report? iii. Finish up with a CONCLUSION, which again pulls together the main content in your report, and your thoughts and opinions! How to take notes. Effective note taking is a skill we can use at any time in our lives, especially when studying. Here are a few pointers that might help: Focus on what is the main theme of the lesson and then you will know what to write down and not get distracted. Pay attention to what is being said; this will help you catch key words and phrases which you must write down. Even if you do not get the entire sentence noted during a lecture, make sure you write down the key words and phrases, which will help remember what was said when you refer to your notes later. 17
  23. 23. 3.4 - How to plan a role play A role play essentially means enacting a theme or a situation, recreating it right in your classroom. Role play is a great way for children to learn and helps to develop their creativity, problem solving & communication skills. A lot of times it is not possible for students to go out into the field and observe things for themselves. Therefore role play can be an excellent way of recreating a situation in the classroom and with the students actively participating in the process and learning through this. Planning and doing a role play helps develop the following skills in children: ☺ Communication and language ☺ Creativity and creative thinking ☺ Teamwork ☺ Planning and time-management ☺ Problem solving ☺ Self-confidence and self-awareness A few basic guidelines on how to plan and set-up a role play: As this is a new concept, it might take some time in the beginning for the children and you to get used to it. Students might even feel a bit self conscious at first, but you will soon find their excitement helps them to overcome this. Duration – the entire process of discussion, planning and enacting the role play may at first take three periods/lessons, but once the students become familiar with role plays it should take less time. Begin the role play exercise with a discussion in class around the broad theme of the role play. This helps the students plan for themselves by familiarizing themselves with the broad area/theme and then focusing on a particular situation they are going to develop through their role play. Based on this theme, give them a situation they are to enact, or ask them to think of a situation. Once the situation is decided on, ask the students (help them with this) to think of the different people or characters involved in acting it out. The students can then decide from amongst themselves, or you can give them the roles they are each to play. With your help, they can now write a basic script for their role play, and plan how to enact it. To make it more fun and if resources allow, you can even include different costumes and masks for the characters in the role play. (For an example of role play see Section 4 - Activities) 18
  24. 24. 3.5 - How to plan activity-based lessons o When planning a lesson set clear aims and outcomes and make these clear to the students at the start of the lesson. Remember if you don’t know what you are doing, neither will the students. So always think through what you are going to do and what you need in advance. o You will need a theme, subject materials and possibly some text for discussion. Gather these materials to help you plan your lesson. Now think how you can get the students actively involved in the learning process. What can be discussed? What will help make the discussion meaningful and memorable? Is there a game you can play? Are there visual aids that can be used or some artwork that students can do? Perhaps there is a role play or a theatre that can be developed. o Try to put the lesson’s activities into a time frame so that you do not run out of time to complete tasks. o Plan homework in advance and make it relative and interesting to the lesson e.g. ask children to do some research at home, or to draw a picture or to bring in something for the next lesson. Let the homework be personal to them and build on their experiences as well as the lesson. For an example of a planned lesson see section 1.2 3.6 - Notes on asking and answering questions. If you have been taking an ‘expert or teacher centred’ approach to teaching, then asking questions will have been a one-sided experience. By this we mean if you, the teacher, read out from the textbook and then ask the students a question on the text to see how well they have memorised the information, then you are probably using a teacher-centred, rote-learning approach. Here is an example: Teacher: “The Vedic religion was a religion of many rites and sacrifices.” Teacher to student: “What was the Vedic religion?” Students chorus: “It was a religion of many rites and sacrifices, ma’am.” 19
  25. 25. Now ask yourself do the students understand what they have answered or are they simply learning how to repeat the words of the textbook as a response to your question? Did your question make them think about what a ‘rite’ or a ‘sacrifice’ is? If it didn’t then what sort of learning has taken place? Here is another way of asking questions that encourages understanding and therefore learning: Teacher: “The Vedic religion was a religion of many rites and sacrifices.” Teacher to students: “Who knows what a ‘rite’ or a ‘sacrifice’ is?” Tashi puts up her hand. Teacher: “OK Tashi” Tashi: “I don’t k now what a rite is but a sacrifice is when you give something up”. Teacher: “That’s true Tashi, but does anyone know what is usually given up in a religious sacrifice.” Thundup calls out: “the life of an animal like a goat or a chicken.” Teacher: “Yes Thundup - good!” Angmo puts up her hand. Teacher: “Yes Angmo?” Angmo: “I don’t think it is right to take an animal’s life I saw it done once in another part of India and I was very upset!” Teacher to class: “What do the rest of you think?” This way the knowledge in the book is discussed and various children contribute their experience, knowledge and views to create learning that is meaningful to them. So, always try to encourage an atmosphere of questioning. Ask the children if they understand and don’t be afraid if they ask you a question. They are not challenging you they are being inquisitive and taking the initiative to learn. And if you don’t know the answer this is also OK. You can say: I am not sure of the exact answer and will find out. This shows the student that you too are always learning new things and that learning goes on for life. Also remember that in some cases there is not one correct answer, there may be several different answers based on individual points of view. 20
  26. 26. 4.00 Activities - ideas & examples 4.1. Summary of activities 1) ‘Who am I?’ for Class VI (lesson & game) This is a one period lesson with a game and a follow up activity. The lesson looks at different types of jobs that are done in Ladakh and some of the skills and the resources required to do them. It makes learning about jobs fun and helps the student to think critically about the world of work around them. 2) ‘Solid Waste Management’ for Class VI or VII (project, game & field trip) This is a three period project, two in the classroom and one in the field. It looks at different types of solid waste and how it is disposed of and or/ recycled in the Leh area. There is a game and a field trip that helps the students to learn experientially and the project concludes with a creative essay. 3) ‘1000 years of Light’ for Class VI & VII (project & 2 field trips) This project consists of one introductory lesson followed by two field trip options. There are then recommendations for two follow up lessons and the project should conclude with a project report. The project looks at the importance of Hydro and Micro-Hydro power and other renewable sources of energy in contrast to diesel generated power in the region of Ladakh. 4) ‘Amchi’ for classes VI & VII (project, field trip & guest speaker) This project is in two parts. Part 1 covers 2-3 periods, and Part 2 covers 3 lesson periods. The first part gives a simple background to the Amchi medical system in Ladakh. The idea is to familiarize the students with the traditional philosophy and practise of the Amchi and involves inviting the local Amchi to school for a talk, as well as the students writing a report on information they research. There is also the option of a field trip to the local Amchi clinic, where students can collect some of the herbs and plants used and learn more about these. The second part introduces the concept of physical and psychological balance to be healthy, as well as expressing our inner thoughts creatively through making a collage. 5) ‘Our Buildings’ for Classes VI & VII (project, guest speaker & art activity) The project covers 3 lessons, including inviting a civil engineer or architect for a discussion in school, and making a clay model for a new school library using 21
  27. 27. appropriate building design. The aim of the project is to introduce students to traditional and modern construction in Ladakh and can also familiarize the students with ‘human relationships to the built environment’. 6) ‘Adopt a Monument’ for Classes VI & VII (project, field trip, community work). The concept of ‘heritage’ and the importance of its conservation are introduced to the students through this activity, which follows on from ‘Our Buildings’. The students are taken for a field trip to a (local) historical monument, which they then ‘adopt’ as their own. They are to communicate with the local authority (ASI, NIRLAC or local tsogspa) responsible for the maintenance of this monument and work with them. The students are also to set up a fund towards their monuments’ upkeep. This project covers 2 lessons, and includes a guest speaker (representative from ASI, NIRLAC or local tsogspa) coming into your school. 7) ‘Knowing Our Land’ for classes VI &VII (project, role-play, & festival) This project is in two parts, and is based on the regions of Ladakh. To make it easier for the students to gather information (research), we focus on Leh district of Ladakh (Leh, Sham, Changthang, Nubra). The children are to write a comprehensive report at the end of Part 1, comparing each region based on society and culture, economy and occupations, natural resources and environment. Part 2 of this project includes creative activities – organising a small cultural festival highlighting the different regions in Ladakh, a school play based on ‘Change’ in Ladakh, and a role play. These activities – especially role play can be adapted to teach any subject in a fun way! 8) ‘School News Club’ for classes VI &VII This is an ongoing activity that can be part of your Social Studies lessons or an extra curricular activity. It aims to familiarise the students with the news. The news can be used to teach subjects across the school curriculum – be it Science, Social Studies or English! It involves the children forming a news club in school, with members recording and following given topics from the news. For schools where newspapers are not available easily or regularly, the same activity can be adapted to the radio news instead. 22
  28. 28. 1) Lesson & Game - Who am I? Learning Level Class VI Subject: Social Studies (Civics) Key learning areas: communication, language, problem solving, critical thinking, team work, leadership Can you guess what I do for a living? Aims - to introduce students to: o Different livelihoods and some of the skills and resources required to do them. o Simple problem solving, communication skills and team work. Outcomes- students will: o Learn basic skills of how to communicate & question effectively. o Think critically to solve problems. o Become familiar with some of the basic requirements to set up a business. Key learning areas: o Communication & language: through group discussion and interaction amongst themselves and the teacher. o Problem solving: discovering who they are in the ‘who am I’ game. o Teamwork/leadership: working together in groups. o Critical thinking: thinking about what is required to do different jobs. Time required: 40 -45 minutes Resources/ materials ‘Who Am I’ game cards (see following pages) Paper, pens, pencils Lessons structure: Activity 1: Play the ‘Who am I’ game: take as many cards as you need for the size of you class, but make sure they are in pairs. Shuffle the cards so the 23
  29. 29. pairs become mixed. Students need to be standing and easily able to move around (you can do this outside if it’s easier!) Get the class around and give one card to each student. First each student has to read the card and work out ‘who or what’ they are from the information written on the card. They should come to the teacher to check they are correct. Once they know ‘who or what they are then they should start asking the other students ‘who or what’ they are till they think they have found their partner or pair. For example: cake should be looking for baker, and building constructor should be looking for house etc. The correct identity of each card and the pairs are given below. Once the students are all in pairs then you can begin Activity 2. (Time 15 min) Activity 2: Draw on the blackboard a table with 3 columns and three headings. See the table below (based on building contractor): Resources Skills Personal attributes skilled labourers numeracy initiative office engineering confidence computer problem solving Now ask the students to discuss in pairs what resources, skills, and personal attributes they need to do the job that their cards are referring to. First you will need to explain these categories and give examples - you can write some examples on the board, but only one or two as the students must do the thinking. o Resources are the physical things need to set up in that job. For example it could be office, computer, staff, materials etc. o Skills are the knowledge and abilities you need. For example: language, numeracy, computer, communication etc. o Personal attributes are things like creativity, initiative, patience, understanding, etc. Give each pair some paper to write on and ask them to copy the table onto the paper or in their books and to fill in the columns. As they work in their pairs you should go to each group and facilitate (hint and guide) their understanding of what they are doing. Try only to tell them answers as a last resort! And remember some answers may be matter of view or opinion. If they are struggling, write a few more examples on the blackboard (not in the table) and ask them to decide if these are applicable to their job and which category they might go in. For more skills etc. see table below: (15 min) Homework: At the end of the lesson write 10 of the jobs on the blackboard, ask the children to copy into their books and to decide for homework which of these jobs needs the most communication skills, which the least and why? (10 min) 24
  30. 30. Resources Skills Personality attributes skilled labourers communication creativity office staff numeracy motivation computer language determination land management initiative money/ finance planning punctuality seeds design confidence water customer care adaptability car note taking sensitivity telephone letter writing humour electricity computer skills enthusiasm company name driving licence time keeping Why don’t you add some of your own? Answers to ‘Who Am I’ cards: 1: Apricot jam → 17: Food Processor 2: Cake → 18: Baker 3: Hand-loom → 19: Weaver (thagskan) 4: News paper → 20: Journalist 5: House → 21: Building Contractor 6: Green house → 22: Vegetable Seller 7. Yak → 23: Farmer (Jhingbadpa) 8: Tourist → 24: Tour Operator 9: Camera → 25: Photographer 10: Aeroplane → 26: Air hostess/steward 11: Koshen sulma → 27: Tailor 12: Computer → 28: Graphic Designer 13: Chogtse → 29: Shingkhan (carpenter) 14: Bank Note → 30: Bank Manager 15: Sorig (herbal pill) → 31: Amchi 16: Hotel → 32: Hotel Manager 25
  31. 31. 1 17 I am found in a jar. I am sweet, I know about local fruit and sticky and orange in colour. They making jams and juice. I have a spread me on bread. I am made factory with many people working from a local fruit. for me. What am I? Who am I? 2 18 I am delicious. I have icing on top. I know about baking & make I am spongy and sweet from bread, pastries, and cakes. People inside. Many have me for buy tasty things from my shop. birthdays. What am I? Who am I? 3 19 I am made mostly of wood. There I am skilled at my work. I pass a are four large wooden frames and shuttle over a wooden frame a bench. They pass wool or cotton strung with wool or cotton. I make strings over me to make beautiful beautiful patterned fabric. fabrics. What am I? Who am I? 4 20 I am good at writing. I like to be I carry news and views. People where there are events happening need me for information. I am and write about them. My articles made of paper. are in magazines and newspapers. What am I? Who am I? 26
  32. 32. 5 21 I am made mostly from mud brick, I work with my hands & my head, wood, stone and glass I keep my I order & buy building materials family safe and warm in winter and and organise labourers. I am good cool in summer at maths & planning as well as knowing quality in the What am I? goods I buy. Who am I? 6 22 I am made from polythene and in I grow plants through the winter to winter daytime it gets very hot sell in the market so that people inside me, so people can grow all can have fresh food to eat sorts of plants. Who am I? What am I? 7 23 I am usually black with long hair I work on the land, grow things hanging from my belly. I am and take care of animals. I strong, sometimes stubborn and sometimes use my animals to help pull a plough. plough the fields What am I? Who am I? 8 24 I only come to Ladakh in the I have a small office in Leh with summer, I listen to music a lot and maps on the wall & a computer. I like visiting the monasteries and speak English and Hindi, am good taking photographs at organising people and take care of my clients. Who am I? Who am I? 27
  33. 33. 9 25 I am not very big and can be held I use lenses & filters, sometimes in one hand. I have buttons, lights the images I produce are digital, and a round glass lens. I need some are on film. I work for batteries to operate & can record newspapers, magazines and record visual history. weddings, special events etc. What am I? Who am I? 10 26 I am very big, made of metal and I travel short and long distances at carry lots of people through the air a great height and always have to who travel on business or pleasure. put the comfort and happiness of my passengers first. What am I? Who am I? 11 27 I am made from beautiful brocade I own a shop and I work with fine and look very elegant on women. I materials and a sewing machine. I am worn out on special occasions. have several people working for me. What am I? Who am I? 12 28 I work for an advertising company I run on electricity and am used by and produce all their leaflets, operating a keyboard. One of my advertisements and information for programmes can help you design their website. I am good at visual websites, leaflets, advertisements art and am creative. etc. What am I? Who am I? 28
  34. 34. 13 29 I am made of wood and am very I am very skilled at my work. I turn beautiful. On me you can find wood into beautiful shapes that are dragons and flowers. My top is flat used for fancy furniture, window and people rest prayer books on frames and doors. me and sometimes cups of tea. Who am I? What am I? 14 30 I am made of paper, have a I work at a desk and am picture of Gandhiji on one side and responsible for looking after on the other buildings or people’s savings. I also loan money mountains. I am different colours to people when they want to start according to my value. up a business. What am I? Who am I? 15 31 I have studied my skill for many I am made from rare plants that years. I understand how the body are carefully picked, dried and and mind are interdependent and mixed into a hard pellet. I can cure treat people for their illnesses with illnesses. rare herbs and plants. What am I? Who am I? 16 32 I have many rooms, all with Many people stay in my rooms. I attached bathrooms. My beds are have a team of people who clean, very comfortable and there is cook and manage the gardens. excellent food with room service Customer care is very important in too! my profession. What am I? Who am I? 29
  35. 35. 2) Solid Waste Management Project + field trip Learning Level Class: VI or VII Subject: Social Studies (Civics) Key learning areas: communication, language, critical thinking, problem solving, teamwork/leadership, creativity Aims: o To introduce students to and encourage discussion about local waste disposal management and the processes involved. Outcomes - students will: o Become familiar with recycling and disposal processes and be aware of the role they can play in its management and how this contributes to society. Key learning areas: o Communication/ language: through group discussion and interaction amongst themselves, the teacher and guest speaker o Critical thinking : thinking critically about waste management in their area and why this is important o Problem solving: working out what the biodegradable time is for different waste materials and how they can be disposed of. o Teamwork and leadership: through group work o Creativity: writing a story on the life of a plastic bag Classroom Lesson 1 (45 min) Discussion Every day around the world human beings produce billions of tons of waste. Delhi alone produces 7000 tons of waste each day. Waste varies according to the amount that is consumed. Studies show that poorer people (earning under Rs 2000 per month) throw out about 200gm per day and wealthy people (earning above Rs 8000 per month) throw out approximately 800gms per day. Discuss: Why do you think this is? 30
  36. 36. Who handles all this waste? Typically it is the Municipality (Notified Area Committee) or the informal sector of ‘rag-pickers’ or ‘kabadiwallah’. Many of the non-biodegradable material have re-use and recycle value in the “waste market”. In Leh glass bottles, clear plastic bottles (PET bottles), aluminium foil, newspapers, magazines, etc. are collected by the local “kabadiwallah” and sold to the waste market. In Leh, 1 Kg of clear plastic can be sold for Rs. 4.00, while glass bottles go for Rs.5.00 per Kg, tin cans go for Rs. 4.00 per Kg. Discuss with the students: What happens to the waste from your home? Leh’s rag-pickers take the recyclable materials to the municipality also known as the NAC (Notified Area Committee), where they get paid for the materials. The rag-pickers income is small but the waste recycling centre makes much more money when it sends large quantities of bottles, paper, plastic etc to Jammu for re–use or recycling. But it is not just the NAC who recycle waste - anyone can and make money out of it! Some people in Leh recycle paper and handmade paper can be made very attractive and is popular. Try and find some in the market in Leh. (Teacher, bring in an example to show the children if you can). Recycled paper can be made at home or in the classroom. (See information on paper making in section 6) The same can be done with cloth! This can be made into other items using patches of cloth or can be recycled like the paper for making ‘felt’. Felt is very popular in the west and is used to make fashionable bags and hats. Discuss: Did you know that money can be made from recycling? What do you think of recycling as a livelihood? Is it doing a good job for society? For Homework: make a list of as many different things that you can think of in and around the home that are recycled through the Notified Area Committee (NAC), re- used for same or other purpose ( this includes composting and fodder) or disposed of by burning or dumping! Item Recycled or Re-use , compost or Burnt or dumped disposed of fodder through NAC Plastic bottle Paper Vegetable peel (Now add your own) 31
  37. 37. Classroom Lesson 2 (45 min) Discussion There are four main types of waste: wet waste, dry waste, field & garden waste and toxic waste. Ask the students to name some examples and where they come from! Here is a list below to help you guide their answers. Wet waste: this is mainly kitchen waste and comes from our homes, hotels, restaurants etc. For example: vegetable peel, old food, meat, tea leaves etc. Dry waste: this is mainly household and business waste and includes paper, cloth, glass & plastics such as water bottles and containers for liquids. Field & garden waste: organic materials such as leaves & branches. Toxic waste: this waste comes from the home, businesses and industries and includes engine oil, batteries, old paint, pesticides & their containers, old toys or other things made from PVC. Of these different types of waste, some are biodegradable and some are non- biodegradable. Biodegradable waste is basically organic in nature and breaks down, or turns into soil over a short or medium period of time, due to the action of bacteria and other micro and macro-organisms. Discuss: Which waste materials from the list above are biodegradable? Non-biodegradable waste materials are often, but not always, man made and take many years to degrade or break-down and some never break-down! Discuss: Which waste materials from the list above are non-biodegradable? Now play ‘The Waste Game’! See below The Waste Game Below are a set of cards with many different items on them that decompose at different rates. Depending on the size of your class, distribute the cards one each or one between two. (You will find the same set of cards in section 6 that you can cut out and make or photocopy). 32
  38. 38. Apple Fruit Vegetables Plastic bottles Engine Oil Newspaper Metal Bicycle Aluminium Can Cardboard Box Batteries 33
  39. 39. Meat Cotton Clothes Plastic Doll Leaves/ twigs Rubber Tyre Leather Bag Wooden Fence Wool Sweater 34
  40. 40. In the classroom, or outside, make a time-line (see below). One end is ‘2 weeks’ and the other end is ‘never’. Ask the students to arrange them- selves along the line according to how long they think their item takes to decompose and return to the soil. 2 wks → I mnth → 6 mths → I yr → 5 yrs → 10 yrs → 50 yrs → never Here are some examples to help you guide the students: Vegetable peel: 2-3 weeks Paper bag: 1 month Cotton cloth: 5 months Woollen hat: 1 year Wood: 10-15 years Leather bag: 40 – 50 years Tin or aluminium can: 50 – 100 years Plastic bag ‘Glass bottle: never When the students have arranged themselves get each to call out their item and how long they think it takes to decompose. Get the rest of the group to discuss and agree. If the group consensus is that the person should be somewhere else in the line then the person should move. Using the time headings above now draw a chart on the blackboard showing which materials are biodegradable and in what length of time. Try to think of as many different waste items as you can! Homework: Imagine you are a plastic bag! Write a 500 word story on your life and illustrate it wherever possible! You may also find it valuable to make a visit to the Ladakh Ecological Development Group (LEDEG) in Leh, to study some of their information on waste disposal and ask the director to talk to the students. 35
  41. 41. 3.) ‘1,000 YEARS OF LIGHT’ Classroom activities and field trip Learning Level: Class VII Subject: Social Studies (Geography/History/Civics) Key learning areas: communication, critical thinking, teamwork, creativity, problem solving, leadership, language, planning & reporting, computer skills Classroom activity before the field trip Aims: o To familiarise students with different sources of power, especially those available in Ladakh o To give students first hand experience of how hydro and diesel generated power works and the differences between them. Outcomes - students should: o Be able to name at least three sources of power available in Ladakh and know the differences in the source type, such as which are renewable and which are not. o Be aware of where power is used in everyday life in both the home and school. o Be aware of some of the environmental issues around these different sources of power Key learning areas: o Communication/language: through group discussion and interaction amongst themselves, the teacher and guest speaker o Critical thinking: through questioning and forming own opinions on the different power sources and effects they have on the environment o Problem solving: through finding the answers to the field trip questionnaires and building the hydro model o Creativity: through illustrating the report and building the hydro model o Teamwork / leadership: through discussion and working in groups o Planning & reporting: though preparing an end of project report o Computer skills: through research and report writing (if possible) 36
  42. 42. Discussion: Electricity comes to our homes and workplaces through a network of power stations and cables. But electricity is not a source of energy it is only a way of moving it around. Most of the energy to make electricity comes from fossil fuels such as oil, gas or coal. It can also come from nuclear fuels or from water – hydro-electric power. These sources, particularly fossil fuels will not last for ever. In future more of our electricity will need to come from renewable sources such as sunlight and wind. Source: something that can produce energy and/or makes electricity. Nuclear power: powerful form of energy produced by splitting atoms and used to produce electricity. Fossil Fuels: fuels found under the ground or sea that have been produced by the breakdown of organic (plant/ animal) matter due to pressure over a very long period of time. Renewable energy: energy sources that are replaced naturally and can be used without risk of finishing it all. Discuss: o How many different sources of energy can you think of in Ladakh? o What is nuclear power? o What is a fossil fuel? Why will these not last for ever? o What is renewable energy, and what are its sources? Renewable energy sources. Renewable energy comes from water, sunlight and wind. Ladakh’s geographical conditions and a distribution of population are well suited to the use of renewable energy as a source of electricity, which has the following advantages: • Renewable energy sources typically generate up to a maximum of 100 KW of power. Though not sufficient to provide for a large area it is sufficient for a localised industrial unit, residential blocks or cluster of villages. • Running costs are comparatively low as water and sunlight are freely available • Minimal damage to the ecosystem and no polluting by-products • Maintenance is minimal compared to conventional methods of power generation such as diesel. Discuss: o What sources of energy are used to create electricity in your area? o Which are the best sources of energy to use in Ladakh and why? 37
  43. 43. For discussion divide the students into groups. Encourage the group to discuss the questions and find the answer. Help each group but try not to tell them the answers but to guide them in finding the answers. Once the questions have been discussed ask each group to tell you what they think the answers are and make comparisons between each group’s response. You can write the different answers on the board. If an answer is wrong ask the other students what they think and discuss till you reach the right answer. Remember: sometimes there is not always a right answer, there may be views or opinion, and it may be that there is more than one right answer. Materials: pens, pencils, crayons, paper For Homework o Name the different types of things you use in your home/ school that run on electricity. Draw 2 examples. o When the power fails what do you do for light at home? Draw an example. o What are the differences between these two different light sources? 38
  44. 44. FIELD TRIP 1 - ALCHI Introduction: In Ladakh people have relied on different sources of light over the last 1,000 years, from the simple butter lamp to more modern sources such as solar powered light. In order to study this concept a field trip to Alchi has been organised to visit the Choskor or religious enclave, one of the most important historical and cultural sites in Ladakh, and the hydro power station which is currently under construction and when complete will provide light for most of the Ladakh region. Here you will witness modern technology emerging against a patchwork of cultivated fields and ancient buildings including the Gompa, which houses some of the most ancient examples of Buddhist art. Aims: o To introduce students to the idea of energy from water as a source of light and how this has changed over the last 1000 years. Outcomes - students will: o Be able to describe a range of light sources that have been used by the people of Ladakh over the last 1000 years. o Be able to explain the idea of energy as a source of light. o Gain some basic knowledge of the principles and technology involved in a hydropower station to supply electricity as a source of light. o See the working environment and responsibilities of electrical and structural engineers. o Appreciate the context of modern technology set against the ancient culture of Alchi. o Learn how to keep notes & records both written and visual to produce a group report back at school. o Experience working in groups and as a team. Teacher: Method: photocopy the following 6 pages from the handbook and make a folder for each group. Divide the students into groups, about 5-6 in each! Materials: pens, pencils, crayons, paper clip board/file Students: please bring a camera (if you have one) & a packed lunch If it is not possible for you to organise a field trip to Alchi, Stakna or Hemis Hydro, them make a visit to the central Leh, Diesel Power Generator. See Field trip 2. 39
  45. 45. Field Trip Activities Activity 1 – On the bus On the route from Leh to Alchi you will pass through a number of villages. You will be given a questionnaire to complete in your group about things you will see on your journey. Please study the map and be ready to observe and record what you see. (Teacher: You will need to copy a map of Ladakh) Activity 2 When we arrive in Alchi you will first be taken to see the construction site of the new hydro-power station. Here the chief engineer from the project will tell you all about hydro-electric power and how it works. Be ready to ask some questions. To help you there is a list of questions in your folder. Ask your teachers if you are uncertain about anything you see or hear. Be sure to make some drawings of what you see and to keep some notes as you will be asked to write up a group report when you return to school and to give a presentation. The report will then be submitted and assessed. Activity 3 In Alchi we will visit the Dharma Chakra monastery. Here there are a number of very old temples. If you look in your pack you will see there is an activity/question sheet to complete in your group about things you will observe in the temples. You will need your pencil and crayons to draw some pictures. (Teacher: You will need a plan of Alchi) If you have a camera, don’t forget to take some photos of what you see: o On and from the bus o At the Hydro-power station o And at Alchi Gompa 40
  46. 46. Activity 1 Group Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................... ................................. ........................... ................................. ........................... ................................. ........................... 1) How far is Alchi from Leh? 2) a) if we travel at 40km/hr how long will it take to get there? b) if we travel at 50km/hr how long will it take to get there? c) if we travel at 60km/hr how long will it take to get there? 3) If you continue on the Leh to Alchi road where does it go to? 4) About 8 km out of Leh at the far end of the airport runway we pass Spituk Gompa. a) Which Buddhist sect does this belong to, the ‘red hats’ or the ‘yellow hats’. b) What is the name of the sect: Galukpa, Sakya, Kargyud or Nyingma. 5) About another 8 Km on and 16 km from Leh we pass a road leading off to the right to Phyang. There is a big Gompa here - which sect does it belong to? 6) By now you have already passed many trees - write down the names of all the different trees you see. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7) Have you seen any birds or animals, if so write down their names? If you do not know their names then try and describe them or draw a picture. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8) On the left close to Nimo you can see two rivers meeting. What are their names? What do you call the meeting of two rivers? 41
  47. 47. 9) As we travel to Alchi are we going North, South, East or West? How can you tell? 10) On route we will stop at the Magnetic Hill. a) What is a magnet? b) What is supposed to happen here if you park your vehicle in the white box in the middle of the road? Does it happen? c) Do you think this hill IS magnetic? d) What effect does a magnet have on a compass? 11) Near Basgo there is a large stone wall running alongside the road. It has stones with prayers carved on them lying on the top. What is this type of wall called? 12) What is the monastery at Basgo famous for? (Stop and read the information board at the side of the road.) 13) The next village after Basgo is Saspol. Just before you reach Saspol there is a road on the right hand side. Where does this lead to? 14) To get to Alchi we cross a bridge. What type of bridge is this? a) a cantilever bridge b) a suspension bridge Draw a picture! 42
  48. 48. Map of Ladakh for Activity 1 43
  49. 49. Activity 2 Questions you can ask during the Alchi hydro power station visit: 1. How does a hydro power station work? 2. Why was Alchi chosen as the site for the hydro power station? 3. When will the project be completed? 4. Will the construction of the dam and the power station cause any damage to the environment or the ancient temples at Alchi? 5. How much energy will the Hydro power station produce when it is completed? 6. Does this mean there will be a constant supply of electricity for Ladakh? 7. How many people will be employed in the project? 8. What do you need to become a chief engineer of such a project? 9. Is Hydro power more or less efficient than other sources of electricity? 10. Will the creation of a dam have any influence on the irrigation system of this area? 11. Does the building of a dam pose any threat on the wildlife in the area or on the fish in the river? 12. Where can we study more information on hydro power? 44
  50. 50. Activity 3 Group Names: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................ ............................................. 1. Who founded Alchi? 2. From which country did he travel? 3. In what century was it founded? 4. Inside the first stupa you will find a painting of this man. Draw his picture in the space below! 5. How many temples are there at Alchi? 6. What are the names of the temples? 7. Which temple is the oldest? 8. In the Du Khang temple, find the painting of the two rowing boats and make a drawing of it. 45
  51. 51. 9. What animal accompanies the golden resplendent (Vairocana) Buddha in the Du Khang temple? 10. Can you find the figure of the wrathful deity Mahakala in the Du Khang Temple? Where is it? 11. What is the name of the temple that houses Manjushri? 12. What colours are the four faces of Manjushri painted? What do these colours represent? 13. How many tiers (levels) are there in the Sum-stek temple. 14. Name the sources of light in the temples. 15. What is a butter lamp used for? 16. From what monastery do the monks come from who look after Alchi Choskor? 17. How does Alchi differ from other monasteries you have seen? 46
  52. 52. Field Trip 2 – Leh/ Choglamsar Generator Classroom activity before the field trip Discussion In Leh district there are two main diesel generators one in Leh and one in Choglamsar and a few smaller ones, with a total capacity of 8.38 MW (mega watts). Hydro power makes up the rest of the provision for electricity 7.5 MW with a small amount produced through renewable energy i.e. solar 0.31 MW. The total capacity from all sources is 16.19 MW (8.38 + 7.5 + 0.31 = 16.19), but the demand for electricity is 58.53 MW. About 7000 litres of diesel is consumed every day to drive the various generators that produce Ladakh’s electricity. The cost of diesel is around Rs. 27/- per litre in the market, thus requiring Rs. 5 crore annually. Diesel needs to be transported from elsewhere in India and stored causing logistical, environmental and safety problems in Ladakh. Air pollution and water pollution are other problems associated with electricity generation using diesel. Ask the students: • For everyone to have as much electricity as they need (demand) how many more MW need to be produced? • What do you think are the solutions for generating more electricity? • Which are the cheaper, cleaner options and why? In this lesson you should also discuss with the students what questions they want to ask when they go on the field trip and then make a questionnaire. There is a suggested questionnaire below. Teacher: Visit to Leh Generator: The teacher should first pay a visit to work out the practicalities of taking the students, and to request the Chief Engineer to be present to explain how the generator works and to answer questions. Alternatively the Chief Engineer can come to the school before or after the students go on the field trip. 47
  53. 53. Students’ Questions to Chief Engineer 1. How does the generator work? 2. How much power does it produce every day? 3. How many hours per day, on average does it run for? 4. Is it expensive to run? 5. What are the pollution effects? 6. What can go wrong with a diesel generator? 7. Is it ever too cold to run a diesel generator? 8. When was it built? 9. Are there any plans to replace it? If so what with? Then add any of the students’ questions. Questions for students to answer: 1. What capacity is the generator? 2. How many engines does it have? 3. Is it a clean method of producing electricity? 4. If not what is the evidence? 5. Where do they store the diesel? Do you think this is safe? 6. How secure is the site area? Is it easy or difficult to get in when the gates are closed? Draw pictures of some of the aspects of the generator you find interesting! This could be the building, the exhaust pipes, the engine and/ or the pylons (wires taking the electricity from the building). 48
  54. 54. Follow up lessons to field trips 1 & 2 After returning from the field trip there are many different things you can do. Here are some suggestions and ideas. 1) Model Making If you went to one of the hydro power stations then get the students, in their groups, to make a model of the power station. Materials • For the mountains – clay* or mud and water. Alternatively you can use fence wire to make a frame and cover with ‘paper mache’ or with cloth dipped in plaster. • Buildings can be made from recycled card • Power cables from wire and sticks • Water can be blue plastic or silver paper. • You will also need paints to paint the model and probably some glue for sticking the card together. *You can get very good clay from Spituk, on the road close to Spituk Gompa 2) Micro-hydro and Solar Electricity - the solution to Ladakh’s power problem. Discuss You have probably visited, or if not, know about one of the three hydro- power plants in Ladakh: Stakna, Hemis and Alchi (the latter is currently under construction). Large hydro projects like this provide almost half of Ladakh’s power, but such projects takes a long time and a lot of money to build and if there is a mechanical failure, can take a long time to repair. A good alternative to these large hydro power stations is micro-hydro, which is hydro power built on a much smaller scale. This form of power still provides significant amounts of electricity – enough to power a cluster of small villages. The Government has identified 30 potential sites, across Ladakh & Zanskar, for implementing micro-hydro projects, but given that there are three major rivers in the region (do you know their names?): Indus, Zanskar and Shyok, and numerous streams, there is potential for many more micro-hydro sites. 49
  55. 55. Alternative to micro-hydro or in addition is solar energy. Solar energy occurs when the suns ultraviolet light-rays are converted into electricity through the use of photovoltaic panels, the electricity generated by the sun is then stored in a battery or batteries. The size of the battery varies in relation to the size of the photovoltaic panels. The bigger the panel the more of the suns rays converted into electrical energy. How many of you have electricity powered by the sun or micro- hydro in your homes? Given the remoteness of many parts of Ladakh & Zanskar there are a considerable number of homes, schools, government buildings, industrial units etc. that have no reliable source of power. Approximately 60% of Ladakh’s population lives in these areas. Micro-hydro is an excellent solution to providing this power. The government is doing some work to provide such power to remote areas and LEDEG is the only non-governmental organisation that is also working on the micro-hydro projects. As yet no one in the private sector has become involved with micro-hydro products. It is therefore an area that has enormous market potential for a Ladakhi entrepreneur. Do you know what an entrepreneur is? If you were a Ladakhi entrepreneur - how many different jobs could you think of associated with providing micro-hydro? Teacher: Here are some examples: Geologist, Site surveyor Micro-hydro engineer Manufacturer of specialist equipment Supplier of specialist equipment Project manager, Construction manager, Labourers Financial planning, Accountant Get the children to discuss, in groups, what they think the above people do in their jobs. Descriptions of the jobs are given below to help you guide the students. Geologist: One who has studied the earth’s surface and has become a scientific expert on the earths crust and the rocks & water etc. in it and how they behave. 50
  56. 56. Site Surveyor: one whose job it is to examine the land and to record the details they find and in doing so they assess the land and surrounding areas’ suitability for a given purpose. Micro-hydro engineer: someone who understands the workings of small scale hydro and can advise on the potential energy when given the site surveyors report. This person also designs the working parts of the micro-hydro i.e. turbine and generator etc. and advise on the best place to install it. Manufacture of specialist equipment: someone who manufactures micro hydro equipment according to the required specifications. They would have a factory with many machines and employ many people. Supplier of specialist equipment: someone who supplies all of the necessary equipment, which may be imported from other parts of India if not made locally. They would have a shop with brochures and examples of the different types of equipment available. (Three or four people may be employed) Project or construction manager: someone who oversees all aspects of the project such as the construction programme, ordering material, hiring labourers, checks quality of materials and work and keeps the project on budget. Financial planner: someone who works out all the costs of the project in advance and forms a budget (explain what a ‘budget’ is if the students don’t know) Accountant: someone who makes a note of all expenditure in a book and makes sure that all the money spent is in line with the budget. Labourers: the people who do all the hard physical work of site preparation and construction. Conclude these lessons and field trip by asking the students to produce either individual or group project reports. See guidelines on report writing in Section 3.3. Students should be advised that they will be writing a project report from the start of the project so that they gather information. You may also find it valuable to make a visit to the Ladakh Ecological Development Group (LEDEG) in Leh, to study some of their equipment and learn more about micro–hydro and solar power. 51
  57. 57. 4) Amchi World Learning level – Class VI & VII Subject: Social Studies (Geography, Civics) Key learning areas: Communication, language, teamwork, leadership, critical thinking, creativity, planning and keeping records Part 1 Aims: o To familiarise students with the ancient system and basic philosophy of Amchi. o To introduce students to the importance of the Amchi system in Ladakh, and why it is important to ensure its survival. o To introduce Amchi medicine as a livelihood in Ladakh - reviving traditional livelihoods. Outcomes – students will: o Have a basic knowledge of the philosophy and practise of Amchi medicine in Ladakh. Key learning areas: o Communication & language: through group discussion amongst themselves, with the teacher, guest speaker o Teamwork & leadership: working in groups for discussion and report writing o Critical thinking: asking questions and applying your own experience to the knowledge learnt o Creativity: through producing a herbarium/ scrapbook and noting plants etc through drawing for the report o Planning & keeping records: through keeping notes and writing a report Suggested field trips: 1) A field trip to your local Amchi. If this is not possible then ask the Amchi to visit the school and give a talk. See notes below on planning your field trip. 2) Field trip to NGOs working towards Amchi conservation (Leh area). 52

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