Bonding proceduresbooklet

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Bonding proceduresbooklet

  1. 1. April 2013 Edition Bonding Procedures For FIBERBOND® Fiberglass Piping Systems www.fiberbond.com www.futurepipe.com ENGINEERED COMPOSITE PIPING SYSTEMS
  2. 2. 2 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition INTRODUCTION The intent of this document is to provide reference information to those individuals involved in field bonding FIBERBOND Engineered Composite Piping Systems. It is not the intention of this document to provide the reader with full details for performing fiberglass bonding. In no way should this information be used as a substitute for training. Personnel not properly trained to work with fiberglass composites should not rely on the information contained in this manual for specific instructions. Furthermore, any personnel working with fiberglass composites should be properly supervised. For training and certification contact: Chipper Dawson or Jason Schexnayder Field Services Manager Construction Engineer Specialty Plastics Office +1 (225) 752-2705 15915 Perkins Road (70810) (800) 752-PIPE(7473) P.O. Box 83277 Fax No. +1 (225) 225-2757 Baton Rouge, LA 70884-3277 E-mail: jason.s@fiberbond.com chipper.dawson@fiberbond.com Revision Log: April 2013: Updated email addresses. November 2012: Clarified the assembly options as either the standard assembly procedure or the procedure for the "20FR" products. October 2012: Added table with typical shelf life for glasses and chemicals. July 2012: Added details on the resins, additives, glass reinforcements & assembly / bonding tools. March 2011: Updated PPE recommendations. January 2011: Updated contact information. Updated catalyzation table for putty. Added notes to catalyzation table for resin. October 2010: Added information on resins, promoters, catalysts, topcoats and solvents. Added additional details throughout the document.
  3. 3. 3 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition June 2009: Corrected CoNap ratios in Table 3. Updated contact info. April 2008: Added photos of raw materials to assist in identification. Added section on Assembly. Added details on promotion, other additives, accelerators, and catalyzation in the bonding section. October 2002: This is the first release of this document. MATERIALS The following is a general list of materials used for field bonding fiberglass-reinforced plastic. This list in not necessarily a complete list nor is it typical for all FRP field bonding. Note: FRP and GRP are used interchangeably in this document. The terms bonding and welding are also used interchangeably in this document. Glass Reinforcements Glass fiber products should be carefully stored to prevent absorption of water and dirt. Use of dirty or wet fibers can result in poor laminate quality, and therefore, should not be used.
  4. 4. 4 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Glass Reinforcements Chopped Strand Mat – 1.5 oz/ft2 (450g/m2 ) or 0.75 oz/ft2 (225g/m2 ) chopped strand mat is matrix of short, randomly oriented chopped E-glass fibers. Chopped strand mat is used in combination with woven roving to make up the structural cage of FRP welds. Woven Roving – 24 oz/yd2 (800g/m2 ) woven roving is a matrix of bi-directional woven E-glass fibers used in the structural cage of FRP welds. Glass Kits – glass kits consist of pre-cut sequences of chopped strand mat and woven roving. They are cut based on the pipe size and product line. Typically, they are packaged in brown paper wrapping and sometimes enclosed in a water-resistance plastic seal. Any required veil or unidirectional fabrics are normally NOT included in the glass kit. For large orders of glass kits, it is not uncommon for the glass kits to be shipped in a steel drum. Do not confuse these steel drums with acetone or other chemicals. Veil – a synthetic veil, such as Nexus manufactured by Burlington Industries, is a surfacing material used in the external corrosion barrier of FRP welds.
  5. 5. 5 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Glass Reinforcements Milled Fiber – a milled fiber can be added to putty for better tacking properties. Continuous Rovings – Continuous rovings (individual strands of filaments) are used as part of the fitup and bonding process for certain product lines. "Hoop" Unidirectional Fabrics – E-glass and carbon- fiber "hoop" unidirectional fabrics are used as part of the bonding process in certain sizes and certain product lines.
  6. 6. 6 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Resins and Additives Resins provide the corrosion resistance and act as the matrix material for the glass fibers in FRP welds. Most resins for FIBERBOND® products are vinyl ester or polyester and thus do not require external heat for proper curing. Instead, the promoter and catalyst react in the resin to generate the heat necessary to cure the laminate. Other additives may be used depending upon the FIBERBOND® product and application. The solvent for cleaning is also listed in this section. Resins and Additives Resins – The resin used in FRP welds varies according to the FIBERBOND® product and application. Typically, for field weld kits, there is only one resin used, however, some products such as Series 20JF and 20JF-C, may use a "dual" laminate composed of two different resins. Resins are Class 3 flammables. When shipped in drums, resin drums are white in color (to help reduce heat transfer from direct sunlight). (CoNap is a purplish liquid used to promote resin.) Promoters – The promoter for the resins and adhesives is Cobalt Napthenate, or CoNap, a 6% solution of active cobalt in solvent. CoNap is a Class 3 flammable. The promoter for the putty is N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA). DMA, instead of CoNap, may be used as a promoter for the adhesive and/or resin. DMA is a Class 6.1 toxic. NOTE: Resin shipped to the jobsite for use in field weld kits can be requested as pre-promoted (and does not require additional promotion). However, the shelf-life of the resin is reduced to 30 days or less once it is promoted. If not specified, the resin is shipped unpromoted (and requires additional promotion). The container of resin shall denote whether or not the resin is pre-promoted. Putty may also be shipped as pre-promoted or un-promoted. Adhesive is normally always shipped as pre-promoted.
  7. 7. 7 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Resins and Additives Catalyst – MEKP – When promoted with CoNap, the catalyst for the resins and adhesives is Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP), a 9% active-oxygen solution of MEKP and a plasiticizer. MEKP is typically used in a catalyst “squeeze bottle”. It is a clear liquid, but is sometimes pigmented red to distinguish it from other chemicals. MEKP is a Class 5.2 organic peroxide. Catalyst – BPO – When promoted with DMA, the catalyst for the putty is Benzoyl Peroxide (BPO). BPO may also be used as a catalyst for the resin when it has been promoted with DMA. Note that a DMA/BPO cure typically provides for much shorter working times than CoNap/MEKP, which is advantageous when working with putty. BPO is sometimes referred to as BZQ. BPO is a white paste and is a Class 5.2 organic peroxide. Accelerator – DMA – The accelerator is typically N, N- Dimethylaniline (DMA), an amine used to accelerate MEKP, BPO, and CHP cures. With MEKP as the catalyst, DMA is normally only required in cool climates. At temperatures of 70F (21c) or higher, DMA is rarely needed with an MEKP catalyst. DMA is a yellowish liquid, normally dispensed from a “wash bottle”. DMA is a Class 6.1 toxic.
  8. 8. 8 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Resins and Additives Top Coat – All FRP welds are finished with an external corrosion barrier. One part of the external corrosion barrier is the "top coat", sometimes referred to as a "gelcoat". The topcoat is an epoxy that contains a wax solution and UV absorbers. It is catalyzed with resin and brushed onto the exterior surfaces of the weld to seal all exposed glass. Topcoats are Class 3 flammables. NOTE: In products with electrically conductive exteriors, such as 20FR-EC and 20JF-C, the topcoat is a conductive topcoat that is black in color. It is a two-part mix (Parts A and B). Part A is a Class 3 flammable. Thixotropies – A thixotropic material, such as Silica Whacker (manufactured by Wacker-Chemie GmbH) is a thickener used in the putty and/or adhesive for tacking welds. Tween® 20, also known as Polysorbate 20, a non-ionic surfactant manufactured by Croda Inc, is another additive for making putty and/or adhesive. UV Absorbers – Tinuvin 326 (manufactured by Geigy Chemical) is used in the external corrosion barrier of FRP welds. The UV absorber is normally included in the topcoat. Fire Retardant Additives – Certain FIBERBOND® products, such as 20FR-E, 20FR16, 20FR20, 20JF and 20JF16, require an additive for fire retardancy. Antimony pentoxide is a common additive that is used. Series 20JF, 20JF-C, 20JF16 and 20JF16-C use two different additives. The antimony pentoxide is used with the 510C-350 resin and the alumina trihydrate (ATH) is used with the 441-400 resin. Note: some resins may be premixed with these additives. Nyacol APE-1540 is a fire retardant additive that is sometimes shipped in small “pony” drums when needed in large amounts. Smaller amounts may be shipped in pails. Gel Time Retardants – In some cases, when the temperature is above 90F (32c), a gel time retardant is necessary. 2,4-Pentanedione (by Union Carbide) is typically used. NOTE: 2,4-P will not affect gel time when used with a BPO/DMA cure system.
  9. 9. 9 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Resins and Additives Cleaning Solvents - Acetone is typically used to wash brushes, rollers, and other equipment that has become coated with resin or semi-gelled resin. Acetone is a Class 3 flammable. When shipped in drums, acetone drums are normally black in color. Typical Shelf Life Glass Kits, Chopped Strand Mat, Woven Roving Typically 3 to 5 years. Glass kits must be kept dry at all times. Any glass fabrics contaminated with water should be discarded. Glass fabrics that are contaminated with water shall not be used even if they are allowed to dry. Resins, Gelcoats, Putty, Adhesive In the unpromoted state, typically at least 4 months. Once promoted, shelf life is reduced to no more than 30 days. Conductive Topcoat Typically up to 2 years. Promoters Typically up to 5 years. Catalysts, accelerators Typically 7 to 18 months. Acetone Typically 7 to 18 months. Fire Retardant Additives Typically 7 to 18 months.
  10. 10. 10 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition TOOLS & PPE The following is a general list of the tools & PPE used for field bonding fiberglass-reinforced plastic. This list is not necessarily a complete list nor is it typical for all FRP field bonding. Assembly and Bonding Tools Assembly and Bonding Tools Brushes – Typically 2” or 3” natural-hair brushes used to wet-out the chopped strand mat and woven roven with resin. Serrated Rollers – Typically 1/2” x 3” metal serrated aluminum rollers used to rollout the trapped air pockets in the lamina. Paint Roller Frame and Felt Sleeves – A simple paint roller frame with felt sleeves are typically used on large diameter bonds for placement and applying resin. Paint rollers are not to be used for rollout purposes (use the aluminum serrated rollers for rollout). Bent Shears – A bent shears, typically 12” (300 mm) long, with a 6” (150 mm) length of cut, is handy to have available in case any glass cutting needs to be performed. The bent shears usually has a very sharp knife edge. A basic utility or razor knife may also come in handy for the same purpose.
  11. 11. 11 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Assembly and Bonding Tools Buckets – One or two quart (0.95 to 1.9 L) plastic buckets are used for mixing putty and resin. Paper cups can be used for small mixtures. Larger buckets (up to 5 gal – 19 L) may be used for larger mixtures. Note: some bonders may refer to bucket sizes by the pound. This refers to the approximate weight of the resin that the bucket holds: 1/2 quart (475 mL) = “1 pound” bucket 1 quart (0.95 L) = “2-pound” bucket 2 quart (0.5 gallons, 1.9 L) = “5-pound” bucket 1 gallon (3.8L) = “10-pound” bucket Putty Sticks –Tongue depressors (aka “putty sticks”) are used to mix putty and small amounts of resin. Wooden or plastic sticks are acceptable. Paint Paddle – A simple paint paddle is used for manual mixing in buckets. Wooden or plastic paint paddles are acceptable. 9” long paddles are good for mixing in quart-size buckets. 12” to 14” in gallon-size buckets. A 21” long paddle is typically needed for 5-gallon-size buckets. Catalyst Bottle – A “squeeze” measure beaker used to accurately measure the proper amount of catalyst. Typically a 16oz (473mL=473cc) or 8oz (237mL=273cc) bottle is used for resin. Also referred to as a Squeeze Bottle or Measuring Dispenser.
  12. 12. 12 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Assembly and Bonding Tools Wash Bottle – A “squeeze” beaker used to dispense very small amounts (a few cc’s) of catalyst or accelerator. A wash bottle is used when the amount to be dispensed is too little for a catalyst bottle. Wash bottles are typically used to catalyze putty and adhesive and to add DMA as an accelerator to certain mixtures. Grinder –Typically a 4 1/2” right angle grinder used in surface preparation of field welds. A larger grinder (7”) is often necessary when working on larger diameter pipes. Note: orbital sanders are typically ineffective when performing surface preparation on pipes. Grinding Discs – The grinding discs are usually 24-grit. Higher grit discs are usually ineffective when grinding on FRP parts. Grinding discs need to be sized to fit the grinder (e.g. a 5” disc for a 4.5” grinder, a 7” disc for a 7” grinder). Backing Pads – If the grinder is not supplied with a backing pad, one will be required. A disc nut is normally included with the backing pad. Compact Angle Grinder – Used for cutting ends of pipe to the proper length for fitup and assembly work. A compact angle grinder is used instead of a sawzall or a circular saw because of its speed in cutting. Note: Metabo’s WEP14-150 (www.metabo.com) is an example of a compact angle grinder. Note: certain working environments, such as on some offshore platforms, may require the use of air-powered tools, not electric.
  13. 13. 13 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Assembly and Bonding Tools Thin Metal Cutoff Blade – Used on the compact angle grinder. Typically aluminum oxide with an A60T grit. The cutoff blade must be sized to fit the compact angle grinder. Sawzall (reciprocating saw) – Not the preferred tool, but it may be needed for cutting pipes in retrofit situations where there is little clearance around the pipe to allow the use of the compact angle grinder. A sawzall may also prove useful when needed to cut “gusset” plates for olets. Note: certain working environments, such as on some offshore platforms, may require the use of air-powered tools, not electric. Sawzall Blades - Carbide-tipped or Diamond- tipped blades are required for cutting fiberglass pipe. Standard steel blades are not suitable for cutting fiberglass. Circular Saw – Only used when cutting very large pipes (20”NB, 500 DN and larger). Note: certain working environments, such as on some offshore platforms, may require the use of air-powered tools, not electric. Circular Saw Blades - Carbide-tipped or Dry- Cut Diamond-tipped blades are required for cutting fiberglass pipe. Standard steel blades are not suitable for cutting fiberglass.
  14. 14. 14 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Assembly and Bonding Tools Cardboard – Typically used as a disposable material for protection when wetting out plies of mat and woven roven prior to lay-up. It is also used for mixing putty with catalyst. Level – A carpenter’s level is required for fit-up of joints. It also needed when aligning flange holes. Levels can range from “torpedo level” size to 2-feet (600 mm) or longer. Digital levels, up to 4-feet (1.2 m) in length, are handy for complex angles. Tape Measure – Used for measuring field trim to be removed for fit-up of joints. Pipe Stands – Used when spools are fabricated in the field. Pipe stands are when piping needs additional support during the assembly process. Bung Mounted Agitator (Drum Mixer) – When promoting 55-gallon (208 L) drums of resin, a drum mixer is required to properly mix the promoter and any other additives into the resin. Note: 55-gallon refers to the nominal size of the drum.
  15. 15. 15 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Assembly and Bonding Tools Brass Drum Gate Valve – When dispensing material from drums, a gate valve is needed. 2” is the typical size to fit a 55-gallon (208 L) drum of resin or acetone. Note: 55-gallon refers to the nominal size of the drum. 4-Wheel Drum Dolly – Can assist with moving drums of resin and acetone. For a typical 55- gallon (208 L) drum, the drum O.D. is about 23” (584 mm). Note: 55-gallon refers to the nominal size of the drum. Drum Cradle Truck – Used to position drums horizontally, allowing for dispensing of material via gravity flow. A tipping lever may be a separate attachment that is required. A drum cradle truck should not be confused with a “manual drum upender” or a “manual drum tipper”. An upender or tipper is a simple tool that provides leverage to allow a drum to moved from the vertical to the horizontal position (and vice versa).
  16. 16. 16 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Assembly and Bonding Tools Drill – Required to mix chemicals in medium- size pails (1 to 5 gallon – 3.8 to 19 L). A 3/8” drill is normally sufficient. If you are going to use the drill with the hole saw cutter attachment, it is best if the drill comes with an auxiliary handle. Note: certain working environments, such as on some offshore platforms, may require the use of air-powered tools, not electric. Jiffy Mixer – Attachment used with the drill to mix chemicals in medium-size pails. Hole Saw Cutter – If you have to install a small diameter “olet” (also called a saddle), a hole saw cutter (along with a drill) is needed to the cut the hole in the header pipe. The hole saw cutter must be carbide-tipped or diamond-tipped. The hole saw cutter must be sized to fit the pipe size. Olets are typically fitted to the I.D. of the header pipe, so the hole saw needs to cut a hole to fit the O.D. of the olet. Pencil Grinder w/ burr bits – Used for touch up work and hard to reach areas. An example is a bonded connection made between a flange and another fitting or a pipe. After the bond is made, it may be necessary to touch up around the bolt holes of the flange. A pencil grinder may also be needed when making “saddles” (or olets). Burr bits can be straight or tapered.
  17. 17. 17 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Assembly and Bonding Tools Other tools that may be required, include but are not limited to: speed square, framing square, pipe wraps (for marking straight lines around the pipe), flange aligners, centering head and china markers (for marking the pipe). For bolting up flanges, a torque wrench, set of mechanical sockets and a set of box wrenches are required.
  18. 18. 18 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Personal Protective Equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Gloves – Neoprene (or other suitable material) gloves may be required by bonders to prevent skin exposure to chemicals. When used as a disposable glove, natural latex gloves offer good short-term protection along with maximum dexterity. Cloth Gloves – A heavy duty cloth glove is normally recommended when working with power tools. Filtering Facepiece – An N95 filtering facepiece (sometimes referred to as a dust mask) may be required during grinding procedures to prevent irritation. Eye protection glasses – Safety glasses with side shields should be worn at all times for impact protection. If splashing or spraying from chemicals is a concern, goggles should be used instead. If protection of the entire facial area is needed, a faceshield should be used as well. Other safety supplies that may be required include, but are not limited to: hard hats, safety shoes and a flame retardant Nomex coverall. For special conditions, such as working at heights or working in a confined space, refer to the safety program for the location where the work is being conducted. As a precaution, a portable fire extinguisher may be required when working with some of the flammable chemicals. A portable eye wash bottle may also be required.
  19. 19. 19 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition FIELD BONDING NOTE: The steps in the assembly and bonding sections are for reference purposes only. It is not the intention of this document to provide the reader with full details for performing fiberglass bonding. In no way should this information be used as a substitute for training. Personnel not properly trained in working with fiberglass composites should not rely on this information or this manual alone for specific instructions. Furthermore, any personnel working with fiberglass composites should be properly supervised. Surface Preparation All contamination must be removed from the surfaces to be joined. This includes dirt, dust, moisture, and all other foreign materials. The surface to be welded must be completely sanded and roughened (there should be no glossy resin finish). The roughened surface should extend at least 1inch (25mm) beyond the area where the glass/resin will be applied. The bonding should be performed as soon as possible following grinding. Under no circumstances shall the bonding be performed if the area has been contaminated or the grinded surface is older than 12 hours. Putty Mixing A typical mixture of putty consists of 4.5 gallons of Silica Whacker, 2.5 gallons of resin, 25-35 cc of Tween® 20, and 0.5 gallons of milled fiber. Note: the milled fiber is optional in the putty mix. This mixture will produce approximately 5 gallons of “unpromoted” putty. An electric drill with a jiffy mixer is suitable for mixing. The amount of Silica Whacker can be adjusted to produce the desired thickness. The Silica Whacker only acts as a thickener, it does not affect the mechanical properties of the putty. 2. Putty mixture (unpromoted) 3. Putty mixture (promoted) 1. BPO (Luperox AFR40) 4. DMA
  20. 20. 20 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition For puttying a field weld, measure the needed portion of the putty mixture and place onto a small strip of cardboard (approximately 4in x 4in) with a putty stick. Mix the appropriate amount of catalyst thoroughly into the putty (see Table 1). The working time will vary according to resin used, amount of catalyst, and temperature. Typically, BPO-promoted putty is catalyzed with 1cc of DMA per pound of putty. CoNap-promoted putty is catalyzed with 8.0cc of MEKP per pound of putty. After the putty is mixed with the catalyst, it is applied to the joint will a putty stick. Be sure to cover all crevasses evenly with putty. When the putty has hardened, the excess putty needs to be removed with a grinder. Before bonding continues the joint must be inspected for removal of glossy surfaces and regions with excess putty. Table 1. Recommended Catalyzation - Putty Adhesive Mixing Adhesive is similar to putty except that it uses an elastomer-modified epoxy vinyl ester resin for the resin and requires the use of milled fiber. Adhesive is typically promoted with CoNap and catalyzed with MEKP. Assembly All cut pipe lengths must be square and butted together as close as possible. All surfaces must be dry. Do not contaminate the grinding area with your hands. Wear cloth gloves, if needed, when handling. Standard Assembly Procedure: Roughen all cut edges, then coat with resin. Butt together the pieces of pipe/fittings/flanges to be joined. Apply putty to the joint from the exterior to fill any gaps and irregularities in the joint. After the putty hardens, it must be ground for a good anchor pattern prior to any bonding work. All putty, except that required to fill any cracks or crevices, must be removed. It is not necessary, however, it is acceptable to bevel the edges of the two pieces to be joined to allow more putty to be applied and thus hold the joint better prior to layup. However, the putty (after grinding) shall not be wider than 1/4" (6mm) nor thicker than 1/4" (6mm) to fill the gaps. Temperature Working Time 5 minutes 10 - 20 minutes 20 - 30 minutes Cool 50s to Hot 90s (10 to 35c) Use BPO-putty. Catalyze with 1cc of DMA per pound (454 grams) of putty. Use MEKP-putty. Catalyze with 8cc of MEKP per pound (454 grams) of putty. N/A
  21. 21. 21 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Series 20FR-E, 20FR-EC, 20FR16, 20FR16-C, 20FR20, 20FR20-C: When used in firewater applications that require IMO A.753(18) Level 3 fire endurance, these products have a slight modification to the assembly procedure: A 1:1 bevel is required at the center of the joint where the two parts are butted together. After beveling, butt together the pieces of pipe/fittings/flanges to be joined. Apply catalyzed resin to the beveled area. A very light application of putty may be used to tack the pieces together, but the putty should not be used to fill the beveled area. Hoop wrap 10 strands of filaments to fill the 1:1 bevel. The strands of filament should be “wetted out” with catalyzed resin prior to hoop wrapping. Once filaments have cured, re-grind the entire area with a grinder and then with 36grit sandpaper. Any “hump” from the filaments that extends beyond the bevel may be ground evenly with the pipe, but it is not required. Resin Mixing Promotion: Before use, the resin must first be promoted. This is normally done in 55-gallon drums (approximately 450 lbs) prior to shipment to the field, however, some resins may be shipped unpromoted to extend their shelf life (promoted resins normally have a shelf life of one month; unpromoted resins have a shelf life of 3 months or more). A drum mixer should be used to thoroughly mix the appropriate amount of promoter in to the resin. Smaller portions of resin can be promoted with a jiffy mixer. Any additives or accelerators, if needed, should be added after the promoter is completely mixed into the resin. Under no circumstances should the promoter (CoNap) be mixed directly with a peroxide catalyst (MEKP, BPO, and CHP). This could cause a fire or explosion. Other Additives: Series 20FR-E, 20FR-EC, 20FR16, 20FR16-C, 20FR20, and 20FR20-C require an antimony pentoxide additive that is normally mixed after promotion. The antimony pentoxide, typically labeled as Nyacol APE-1540, is added at a rate of 3.75% by resin weight (e.g., for each 10lbs of resin, add 0.375lbs of Nyacol APE-1540). Series 20JF, 20JF-C, 20JF16 and 20JF16-C use two different resins and each resin has its own additive. The 1st resin, which is typically labeled as 510C or 510C-350, requires the antimony pentoxide additive to be added at a 5. 510C-350 Resin (unpromoted) 6. 510C-350 Resin (promoted)7. CoNap (purple) 8. Nyacol APE-1540
  22. 22. 22 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition rate of 3.75% by resin weight. The 2nd resin, which is typically labeled as 441 or 441-400, requires an alumina trihydrate (ATH) additive. The ATH additive is typically labeled as Solem SB-336 or Solem SB-432 in 50lb (23kg) bags. Note: the labeling of the resin and additives may vary depending on the material supplied. Materials supplied by Specialty Plastics, Inc. or one of its licensees are in accordance with the internal quality assurance requirements of the product line. Please contact Specialty Plastics, Inc. or the licensee from which the materials were purchased for assistance. Accelerators: In colder temperatures, it can become necessary to add dimethylaniline (DMA) as an accelerator to help assist with the cure of the resin. DMA is a liquid, clear to somewhat yellowish in color that has a very strong, pungent odor. You will not see a color change when DMA is added as an accelerator. Typically, if DMA is being added to a drum of resin, it should be mixed for 45 minutes. Catalyzation: When you are ready to begin field bonding, use a one-pound cup (about 1 pint or 473mL) to measure the amount of resin you wish to catalyze. Then add the appropriate amount of catalyst using a catalyst bottle. Thoroughly mix the catalyst with the resin and scrape the sides and bottom while mixing. It is important to never use a brush to mix catalyst with the resin, because it will absorb the uncatalyzed resin changing the ratio of catalyst to resin. Once the resin has been catalyzed the working time will be reduced to 10-40 minutes (see Table 3). Be sure to catalyze only the amount of resin needed within the given time. Because conditions vary greatly from day to night, it can be very difficult to catalyze resin at night. It is strongly recommending that bonding be carried out during the day. Important Note: It is not the intention of this manual to provide specific formulating information for proper curing of fiberglass laminates. Characteristics of resins vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, working conditions fluctuate during the day, weather conditions vary from jobsite to jobsite, and desired gel times vary from one fabricator to another. It is not uncommon for actual catalyzation levels to vary from 50 to 150% of the values in these tables. The resin manufacturer's literature can be referenced for general information; however, personnel not properly trained in working with fiberglass composites should not rely on this information or this manual alone for specific instructions. Furthermore, any personnel working with fiberglass composites should be properly supervised. 9. MEKP (Luperox DDM-9)
  23. 23. 23 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Table 3. Recommended Promotion & Catalyzation - Resin Temp. < 50F (10c) At temperatures below 50F (10c), for optimum performance, it may be necessary to provide some source of heat to the resin and the surfaces being bonded in order to ensure a satisfactory degree of cure. Changes in promotion and catalyzation are at the discretion of the bonder. Cold - 50s (10-15c) 0.40% CoNap 2.5% MEKP 0.05 to 0.10% DMA 16.4cc per gallon 11.4cc per pound 0.2 to 0.5cc per pound 4.3cc per liter 25.0cc per kg 0.5 to 1.0cc per kg Cool - 60s (15-20c) 0.30% CoNap 2.5% MEKP 0.0 to 0.10% DMA 0.40% CoNap 2.0 to 2.5% MEKP 0.0 to 0.05% DMA 12.3cc per gallon 11.4cc per pound 0.0 to 0.5cc per pound 16.4cc per gallon 9.1 to 11.4cc per pound 0.0 to 0.2cc per pound 3.2cc per liter 25.0cc per kg 0.0 to 1.0cc per kg 4.3cc per liter 20.0 to 22.5cc per kg 0.0 to 0.5cc per kg Mild - 70s (20-25c) 0.20% CoNap 1.0 to 1.75% MEKP 0.05% DMA 0.30% CoNap 1.75% MEKP 0.40% CoNap 2.25% MEKP 8.2cc per gallon 4.5 to 7.9cc per pound 0.2cc per pound 12.3cc per gallon 7.9cc per pound 16.4cc per gallon 10.2cc per pound 2.2cc per liter 10.0 to 17.5cc per kg 0.5cc per kg 3.2cc per liter 17.5cc per kg 4.3cc per liter 22.5cc per kg Warm - 80s (25-30c) 0.20% CoNap 1.25% MEKP 0.0 to 0.035% 2,4-P 0.30% CoNap 1.5 to 1.75% MEKP 0.40% CoNap 2.0 to 2.25% MEKP 8.2cc per gallon 5.7cc per pound 0 to 0.16cc per pound 12.3cc per gallon 6.8 to 7.9cc per pound 16.4cc per gallon 9.1 to 10.2cc per pound 2.2cc per liter 12.5cc per kg 0 to 0.35cc per kg 3.2cc per liter 15.0 to 17.5cc per kg 4.3cc per liter 20.0 to 22.5cc per kg Hot - 90s (30-35c) 0.20% CoNap 1.0 to 1.5% MEKP 0.0 to 0.05% 2,4-P 0.30% CoNap 1.25 to 1.75% MEKP 0.40% CoNap 1.75 to 2.25% MEKP 8.2cc per gallon 4.5 to 6.8cc per pound 0 to 0.2cc per pound 12.3cc per gallon 5.0 to 7.0cc per pound 16.4cc per gallon 7.0 to 9.0cc per pound 2.2cc per liter 10.0 to 15.0cc per kg 0 to 0.5cc per kg 3.2cc per liter 11 to 15.4cc per kg 4.3cc per liter 15.4 to 19.8cc per kg See Important Note preceding this table.
  24. 24. 24 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Table 2. Recommended Catalyzation - Gelcoats (Promoted) Temperature Working Time 10 - 20 minutes 20 - 30 minutes 30 - 40 minutes < 50F (10c) At temperatures below 50F (10c), for optimum performance, it may be necessary to provide some source of heat to the resin and the surfaces being bonded in order to ensure a satisfactory degree of cure. Changes in promotion and catalyzation are at the discretion of the bonder. 55 - 65F (12-18c) 4.4% MEKP (20.0cc per pound) (44.2cc per kg) 3.6% MEKP (16.4cc per pound) (36.1cc per kg) 2.2% MEKP (10.0cc per pound) (22.1cc per kg) 65 - 75F (18-24c) 3.6% MEKP (16.4cc per pound) (36.1cc per kg) 3.0% MEKP (13.7cc per pound) (30.1cc per kg) 1.8% MEKP (8.2cc per pound) (18.1cc per kg) 75 - 85F (24-29c) 3.0% MEKP (13.7cc per pound) (30.1cc per kg) 2.2% MEKP (10.0cc per pound) (22.1cc per kg) See Important Note preceding this table. This table does not apply to conductive topcoats. Batch Conversion Factors Weight % cc per pound cc per kilogram cc per gallon cc per liter fluiz oz per drum cc per drum (452lb, 50gal, 190L) 0.10% 0.5 1.0 4.1 1.1 7.7 204 0.20% 0.9 2.0 8.2 2.2 15.5 409 0.30% 1.4 3.0 12.3 3.2 23.2 613 0.40% 1.8 4.0 16.4 4.3 31.0 818 0.50% 2.3 5.0 20.4 5.4 38.7 1022 0.60% 2.7 6.0 24.5 6.5 46.4 1226 0.70% 3.2 7.0 28.6 7.6 54.2 1431 0.80% 3.6 8.0 32.7 8.7 61.9 1635 0.90% 4.1 9.0 36.8 9.7 69.7 1840 1.00% 4.5 10.0 40.9 10.8 77.4 2044 1.25% 5.7 12.5 51.1 13.5 96.8 2555 1.50% 6.8 15.0 61.3 16.2 116.1 3066 1.75% 7.9 17.5 71.5 18.9 135.5 3577 2.00% 9.1 20.0 81.8 21.6 154.8 4088 2.25% 10.2 22.5 92.0 24.3 174.2 4599 2.50% 11.4 25.0 102.2 27.0 193.5 5110 (1) gallon = (4) quarts = (3.8) liters; (1) quart = (2) pints; (1) pint = (2) cups; (1) cup = (8) ounces; (1) ounce = 29.57cc Based on cured resin weight (cured resin S.G. of 1.08, liquid resin S.G. of 1.15, liquid additive density of 1.00).
  25. 25. 25 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition Bonding (also called Welding) Refer to the field weld kit packages for the laminate sequence. The glass reinforcement materials are already cut to the proper length and width for field bonding. 1. On a piece of thick paper or cardboard apply a layer of catalyzed resin with a 2in. or 3in. natural hair brush. The cardboard should be completely saturated with resin (no dry spots). Apply the widest ply of the weld sequence to this layer of resin and add more resin to this ply of glass. Note:  The widest ply of the weld sequence is not necessarily the widest ply of the weld kit. The weld kit may have to be divided into more than one "sequence" because of thickness. A typical sequence consists of 5 plies of material. Therefore, a weld kit with 8 plies of material will normally be divided into 2 sequences. You should separate the weld sequences in the kit when wetting out the glass. The last and first ply of each sequence should always be a chopped strand mat.  Be sure the mat is wet out thoroughly. There should be no white strands showing. 2. Continue adding the following plies to the sequence one at a time. Completely saturate each with resin. Note:  When adding the glass plies to the sequence, stagger each about 1/2in. from the previous ply. 3. Lift the mat from the cardboard and place one end over the puttied joint (The narrowest ply should be placed to the inside.). The weld should be centered on the joint. While holding one end of the wetted sequence, start rolling (circumferentially around the pipe) the sequence on the joint. Continue rolling until 180degrees of the joint is covered. Note:  When you first begin rolling, it is important to hold the other end of the sequence in your hand to prevent stretching.
  26. 26. 26 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition 4. Form the remainder of the weld around the joint and continue rolling in the direction of the wrap until all the air is removed. Note:  Keep the roller going in one direction. If all the air has not been removed, continue rolling in the same direction for another pass around the joint. It is important that all visible air pockets are completely removed before proceeding with the next step.  If the roller is picking up strands of mat or causing more air bubbles, clean the roller. Shake all the cleaner off of the roller and dip the roller in catalyzed resin and continue rolling.  Direct sunlight may cause burns and should not make contact with the weld. Shade the joint with cardboard or other suitable protection. 5. Once rolling is completed, the first sequence needs to harden and cool down (part of its curing process). During curing, do not let the joint be moved, impacted, or contaminated with water, dirt, etc. For the second and remaining sequences, repeat steps 1 through 4. Note that in the remaining sequences, there are normally more than 3 plies, depending upon the resin. Also note that normally there are woven plies in these sequences. Note:  After the first sequence has hardened and cooled down, it should be lightly sanded to smooth any glass that may be sticking up that can cause air entrapment in the second sequence.  If the first sequence cures for more than 12 hours, it must be reground with a 24-grit disc on an electric sander before applying the second sequence. 6. Once the final structural sequence has cured, visual inspection should be performed. Visually look for air entrapment, burns, drains, and contamination. Also ensure that the weld is properly positioned over the joint.
  27. 27. 27 FIBERBOND® Engineered Composite Piping Systems April 2013 Edition 7. Once the final sequence is applied, a veil layer is applied. Please note that the veil layer is applied before the final sequence has hardened. It is usually necessary to brush a thin layer of resin onto the final sequence before applying the veil. Continue applying the veil until the entire joint is covered. The veil should be applied tightly to the joint to help remove excess air and resin. 8. Once the veil is applied, it should be brushed with resin. It is important to cover the entire veil layer with resin until saturated. Before applying the external coat (which may be a natural color waxcoat, pigmented topcoat, or conductive topcoat), the veil layer (which has now hardened and cooled) needs to be ground lightly. Once the surfacing veil has hardened and cooled down, the external coat is applied (not shown). Apply the external coat to the exterior surface with a brush being sure to cover the entire surface. Note:  At temperatures below 50F (10c), for optimum performance, it may be necessary to provide some source of heat to the resin and the surfaces being bonded in order to ensure a satisfactory degree of cure. The use of an enclosure, such as tenting, may provide assistance in maintaining satisfactory temperatures. An external heat source may be in the form of electric heater blankets, space heater units with the hot air ducted to the work area or other suitable method.
  28. 28. April 2013 Edition OVER 35 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF FIBERGLASS PIPE SYSTEMS.

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