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Adventure tourism-policy-english-version

  1. 1. 1 Policy for Adventure Tourism Activities Preface The state of Maharashtra has diverse geography like Kokan coastline, the Sahyadri mountain range and Vidarbh where there is ample scope for organizing Adventure activities based on Land, Air and Water. Adventure activities are a popular part of tourism in the region and there is a growing trend for people to enjoy these activities. The Tourism Policy 2016 covers the promotion of adventure tourism and registration, regulation, monitoring, planning, encouragement, training etc. to organisations related to Adventure Tourism, Adventure tour operators, Adventure training institutes and Clubs. Two children who went on a trek in the Himalayas died during an expedition. Their parents had filed PILs in the Mumbai High Court in 2007. In this regard, the Hon'ble High Court on 12.07.2013 directed the government to form a detailed policy/guidelines or rules for the safety of people and children participating in various adventure activities. Accordingly, a Government Resolution (GR) with Guidelines was issued on 26.06.2014 for organizations involved in Mountaineering, Skiing, Snowboarding, Parasailing, Hang Gliding and Water Sports. Shri. Vasant Limaye and others filed a writ petition no. 8304/2014 in the Mumbai High Court challenging the GR. It was pointed out in the petition that due to various shortcomings in the GR dated 26.06.2014, it would be impossible to implement it due to practical difficulties in its implementation. The petition also called for the appointment of a committee comprising of two experts each from Land, Air and Water adventure sports to prescribe guidelines for the safety of participants. To make necessary improvements in the GR dated 26.06.2014 issued by the Department of Tourism and Cultural Affairs, a committee was constituted under the chairmanship of the Commissioner, Sports and Youth Services to make recommendations to the Government for framing the rules/guidelines for organizations/individuals conducting various adventure activities based in Land, Air and Water. The committee had submitted a draft of the revised GR to the government. Accordingly, GR dated 26 July, 2018 was issued. Shri. Vasant Limaye and others filed again a writ petition No. 490/2019 in the Mumbai High Court challenging the GR. After hearing the petition, the Hon High Court directed the government to take appropriate action. As per the directions of the High Court in this regard, a hearing was held on 05.02.2020 under the chairmanship of Additional Chief Secretary (Sports) in presence of the Principal Secretary (Tourism) and the concerned petitioners. During this hearing, Petitioners and President of Maha Adventure Council (MAC) has submitted an elaborate and detailed statement regarding their various suggestions arising out of the GR of 26.07.2018 and the practical difficulties in its implementation. In this hearing, it was decided that since adventure activities are
  2. 2. 2 the subject falling under the purview of the tourism department, the matter should be referred to the tourism department for taking appropriate action. A meeting was held on 5th May 2020 under the chairmanship of the Principal Secretary (Tourism) with representatives of the Adventure Tour Operators Association of India (ATOAI) and representatives of other organizations in the field. The guidelines prepared by ATOAI are recommended by the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. Government of Maharashtra has developed guidelines that are in line with the those of ATOAI as also safety standards prescribed under ISO 21101 and BIS ISISO21101: 2014 standards for adventure activities for all stakeholders related to various adventure activities based in Land, Air and Water. Required detailed guidelines are attached with this draft (Annexures - A, B, C, D and E). The GR issued by Ministry of Education and Sports on 26th July 2018has been superseded. This policy will be applicable to the entire state of Maharastra. This policy will be applicable to all organizations currently conducting adventure activities as well as those planning to conduct adventure activities in future in Maharashtra. All such activities must follow a process of registration. A. Following type of stakeholders need to register under this Policy for Adventure Activities. 1. The following organizations/individuals/clubs conducting Adventure activities will be required to register and follow the guidelines outlined below. 2. The proposed GR will be applicable only for Organized Adventure Activity. All organizations, individuals or group of individuals who are engaged in organizing any type of adventure activity based on Land, Air or Water, where there is a clear division between the organizers and the participants, are required to register under this GR. 3. The following categories of organizers: 1. Adventure Tour Operators - Individual Ownership (Proprietorship Act)/Partnership (Partnership Act)/Company Registered under the Companies Act 1956 2. Relevant Service Providers who provide services for organizing Adventure activities 3. Non-profit organizations/Charitable organizations/amateur organizers/clubs 4. Adventure Activity Aggregators (Individuals and Organizations) 5. Camps / Resorts Organizing Adventure Activities 6. Institutes and Organizations imparting Training for Adventure activities 7. Associations of Organizations involved in Adventure Activities 8. Individuals who organize adventure activities
  3. 3. 3 B. Registration Procedure The procedure for registration of adventure activities will be as follows. Temporary Registration Certificate: Temporary Registration is mandatory for all Adventure Activities. Those organizers who are currently active and also desirous of organising Adventure Activities, which is all individuals/organisations/companies must, get temporary registration. After scrutinizing the application received, temporary registration certificate will be issued by the Office of the Director. The Temporary Registration Certificate will be valid for one year from the date of issuance of the Certificate. During the period of Registration individuals/organisations/companies who have applied for Registration can conduct activities, using certified equipment, trained staff, all required infrastructure and following Safety Guidelines. In exceptional circumstances extension of six months for the Temporary Registration may be given only once, but such extension will not be available after that. Adventure Activity organisers can continue their activities at their own risk after giving an Undertaking to follow the Safety Guidelines. All stakeholders who are engaged in organizing any type of adventure activity based on Land, Air or Water will have to apply for Temporary Registration by paying a fee of Rs. 1000/- and submitting the application online in the prescribe format of the application. Application must be made with attaching the following documents. Adventure Activity organiser who cannot apply Online, a facility of making an Online application is provided at the main office of the Directorate and the offices of regional Assistant Directors. The documents to be submitted along with the prescribed application form: 1. Organization/Company Registration Certificate 2. PAN Card 3. Aadhar Card 4. Shop Act License 5. Electricity Bill/Rent Receipt/Water Bill/Telephone Bill/Ration Card 6. If rented premises then copy of the Rent Agreement. 7. IT Returns 8. Information on the medium of Adventure Tourism to be registered for - Mandatory 9. Undertaking of compliance with Safety Guidelines
  4. 4. 4 2.Final Registration Certificate -Application must be submitted to the Office of the Director for the final recognitioncertificate along with all the required documents, at least 60 days before the expiry of the temporary registration certificate. If the application for the Final RecognitionCertificate is received after the expiry of the temporary registration certificate, the Director of Tourism reserves the authority to reject such application. Applications received for Final RecognitionCertificate will be scrutinized by the Divisional Committee. Within 30 days after receipt of the application, the Divisional Committee will scrutinize the application, inspect the site and forward the applications to Directorate of Tourism with recommendation(s) for Final Certification. Divisional Committee structure S.No. Ex officio/ Designation Designation in Committee 1 Deputy Director, Tourism Chairman 2 Deputy Superintendent of Police / Nominated Senior Representative Member 3 Divisional Forest Officer/ Nominated Senior Representative Member 4 Concerned Executive Engineer (Water Resources/Public Works/Maharashtra Maritime Board) Member 5 Three Experts from Land Medium and one each from Water and Air Mediumfrom the empanelled list of Directorate of Tourism Member 6 Deputy Engineer, Regional Tourism Office Member Secretary
  5. 5. 5 Scope of work of the Divisional Committee 1.To scrutinize the application for Final Recognition Certificate based on Temporary Registration Certificate as per the Guidelines of the Adventure Activity for which the application has been received. 2.Visit of the site and inspection of the equipment/trainers/ infrastructure and other related issues for the Adventure Activities. 3.Along with site inspection report, submission of report of relevant factors for Final Recognition Certificate to the Director, Tourism. 4.Submission of report to shut down / take legal action on organizations conducting unauthorised Adventure Activities to the Director, Tourism for further action. 5.To conduct enquiry / investigation in case of an accident during the conduct of any Adventure Activity, and to take necessary action against the concerned organization. 6.Coordination betweenadventure organizers in the respective Divisions and Government. 7.To provide all possible assistance for the proper implementation of the Adventure Activity Policy. 8.To collect all the necessary information regarding establishment, development and important landmarks about Adventure Activities in the districts of the division. Procedure for Final Registration Certificate: A separate cell for adventure tourism will be set up in the office of the Director, Directorate of Tourism. The Director, Tourism will be the Head of this cell. Applications received in the office of Deputy Director, Tourism will be scrutinized by the cell and forwarded to the constituted committee for approval. Office of Deputy Director, Tourism will grant the Temporary Registration within 30 days of receipt of application. If the cell finds any discrepancies in the applications, these will be sent back to Deputy Director, Tourism within 7 days for resolving the discrepancies. Office of Deputy Director, Tourism will rectify the discrepancies and send the applications within 15 days to Director, Tourism. Divisional Committee will forward the scrutinized applications to the Adventure Tourism Cell (mentioned below) for granting the Final Registration Certificate. The criteria for granting the Final Registration Certificate will be finalized and sent to State Level Committee within 6 months for approval.
  6. 6. 6 Adventure Tourism Cell S.No. Ex officio/ Designation Designation in Committee 1 Director, Tourism Chairman 2 Deputy Director, Tourism Member 3 Three Experts from Land Medium and one each from Water and Air Mediumfrom the empanelled list of Directorate of Tourism Member 4 Assistant Director (Development) Member Secretary Scope of Adventure Tourism Cell 1. Scrutiny of applications received from Divisional Committee 2. Final decision regarding Final Registration Certificate after scrutiny. 3. To recommend actions for smooth implementation of Adventure Tourism Policy to State Level Committee. 4. To publicize Adventure Tourism Policy and its implementation 5. Create and approve empanelled committee of experts from field of adventure and formulate guidelines for the committee. 6. To grant star-rating to those registered Adventure Organizations that provide star-facilities to clients. Registration period The validity period of the Final Registration Certificate issued for Adventure Activities will be 3 years from the date of issuance of such Registration Certificate. Application for renewal must be made online, 45 days before the expiry of the Final Registration Certificate. Registration fee 1. A fee of Rs.3,000/- for the Final Registration Certificate must be paid for each category of Adventure Activity (such as Land, Air and Water). This means that if an applicant is registering for only one out of the Land, Air and Water activity, he will be charged Rs.3,000/- as registration fee. 2. If the applicant is applying for Registration for more than one adventure medium, he must pay a fee of Rs.6,000/- (for two media) or Rs.9,000/- (for three media). 3. Also, the Final Registration fee for Air and Water adventure activities will be for one location and such location will be mentioned in the Registration
  7. 7. 7 Form. For organizing Adventure Activities in the same medium in more than one location, Rs.1,500/-for each location will have to be paid as additional registration fee. 4. These fees must be paid through Gras system. Renewal Charges: 1. The renewal fee for each Adventure medium will be Rs.2,000/- (i.e. if an applicant is applying for renewal of registration for only one out of the Land, Air and Water medium, he will have to pay a registration fee of Rs.2,000/-). 2. If the applicant is applying for renewal of registration for more than one Adventure medium, he will be charged Rs.4,000/- or Rs.6,000/-. 3. Also, the renewal fee for Adventure Activity in the medium of Air and Water will be for one location and such location will be mentioned in the registration form. For conducting adventure activities in more than one location, the renewal fee for each additional location is Rs.2,000/-. 4. These fees must be paid through Gras system. Provisions regarding Insurance: Individual participants as well as those organizers who are actually present at the site of adventure activity must have adequate insurance cover. As recommended in the Safety Guidelines, before starting the adventure activity, the organizers are required to share with the participants, all information, about all the risks involved, adequate insurance coverage and the need for it in the adventure activity. It will be the responsibility of the organizers to comply with the Safety Guidelines regarding the insurance coverage of the participants, organizers and employees participating in the activity, and the professionals (permanent, contractual or otherwise). Annual report It is mandatory for each Registered Certificate holder to submit the report of the activities conducted in that financial year in the prescribed format by 31st May. Failure to submit the annual report within this period will result in suspension of registration. Empanelled Committee The Director Tourism will compile a list of experts in Adventure in Land, Air and Water activities. The selection of these experts will be based on specific criteria. Experts from such list will be appointed as members on state and divisional committees. Such list will be announced within six months from the date of the GR. An ad hoc committee of experts from all three media will be appointed by the Tourism Department to prepare such a list and its criteria.
  8. 8. 8 Investigation and Penal Action: The Director or Deputy Director, Directorate of Tourism himself or an authorized Inspection Team, carry out inspection without any prior notice at the adventure site or at the registered office of the operator, the equipment used and safety measures adopted for Adventure Activities. Punishable Organizations operating without Registration Violation of Safety Guidelines related to Adventure Activity Unfavourable report submitted by inspection team about Adventure Service Provider. Non-availability of trained staff Violation of other provisions of this GR while conducting Adventure Activities Any of the above will be liable for penalty. Penalty: 1. Organizing adventure activities without Temporary Registration or Final Registration, or organizing unauthorized activities - For the first time default, penalty amount Rs.20,000/- and sealing of equipment being used for adventure activities. If the organiser is found to be guilty for second time, penalty amount Rs.25,000/- and sealing of equipment being used for adventure activities. If the organiser is found to be guilty for third time, it will be considered a punishable offence. 2. Registered Organizers are liable to penalty as given below - a. Penalty amount of Rs.5,000/- for nominal offence b. Penalty amount of Rs.10,000/- for serious offence c. Penalty amount of Rs.15,000/- for grievousoffence PenalAction 1. The registration certificate of organizers will besuspended/cancelled in the event of the offences mentioned above. The Director of Tourism will have the power to blacklist the organizers who have been penalized for serious violations and ban them from providing Adventure Tourism services in future in Maharashtra. The concerned organizers will be given opportunity to defend their case. 2. In case of serious injury/loss of life to tourists, civilians or third parties by the organization/company/individual providing Adventure Tourism services, there will be necessary action by the local police under the Indian Penal Code/CrPC.
  9. 9. 9 3. Any penal action against the organizers of Adventure Activity under the provisions of this GR will be without prejudice to the applicable provisions of Indian Penal Code, Cr. P.C., Consumer Protection Act or any other law for the time being in force. Appeal In case of suspension/cancellation of registration by Deputy Director, Tourism, an appeal may be lodged with the Directorate of Tourism in this regard within 30 days from the date of notification of the decision to the concerned organizers. A second appeal may be referred to the Principal Secretary (Tourism) against the decision of the Directorate of Tourism within 30 days from the date of notification of such decision to the concerned organizers. The decision of Principal Secretary (Tourism) will be final. A State Level Committee is being constituted for effective implementation of Adventure Tourism Policy. The constitution and scope of the State Level Committee is as follows: State Level Committee for Adventure Tourism/Activity Policy and Implementation S.No. Ex officio Designation Designation in Committee 1 Principal Secretary, Tourism Chairman 2 Director General of Police or Nominated Senior Representative, Maharastra State Member 3 Chief Conservator of Forests or Nominated Senior Representative, Nagpur Member 4 Chief Executive Officer, Maharashtra Maritime Board Member 5 Joint Secretary, Water Resources Member 6 Director, Directorate of Tourism Member 7 Three Experts from Land Medium and one each from Water and Air Mediumfrom the empanelled list of Directorate of Tourism Member 8 Joint Director, Directorate of Tourism Member
  10. 10. 10 Scope of the work ofState Level Committeefor Adventure Tourism/Activity Policy and Implementation 1. Comprehensive development of all types of Adventure Activities in the State, implementation of appropriate and safe methods in their conduct. 2. To determine the methodology and procedure for investigating accidents while conducting Adventure Activities. 3. To determine the methodology and procedure to be followed for redressal of complaints 4. To suggest improvements if necessary, in the working of the Divisional Adventure Activities Committee. 5. To provide all possible assistance to the Government for proper implementation of this Adventure Tourism/Activity Policy. 6. To prepare a policy framework for the overall development and promotion of Adventure Activities. 7. To prepare and approve new plans, new Adventure Activities in tune with the changing times and as per requirements and to suggest improvements. 8. To implement this scheme in a timely manner and to suggest measures for it. 9. To review the implementation by holding quarterly meetings of this committee. 10. The State Level Committee shall have the power to accept from time to time changes in the Guidelines for Adventure Activities, in consultation with experts, and publish the changes. 11. To guide innovative Adventure Activities in Maharashtra for publicity through various media at National and International level. 12. To decide guidelines for accreditation of registered adventure activity organisers. 13. When organizing Adventure Activities, the organizers need to contact various Government departments for getting permissions. These agencies include Forest Department, Archaeological Department, Irrigation Department, and Home Department. The State Level Committee will implement 'One Window Scheme' to make it easier for registered organizers to get such permissions. 14. To guide Ministry of Tourism for preparing list of empanelled experts. Various incentives provided under Tourism Policy 2016 will be applicable for organizing Adventure Activities. Adventure Tourism Policy is applicable to individuals / organizations conducting organized adventure activity (professional or no-profit no-loss
  11. 11. 11 basis). As far as possible, individuals or small groups (upto 5 people) undertaking mountaineering or rock climbing activity should participate in these activities with registered individuals/organizations for the purpose of safety. If not, then these individuals/small groups should follow all practices for safety mentioned in the Adventure Policy. Organizers based out of Maharashtra wishing to conduct adventure activities within the state of Maharashtra must follow the process of registration outlined under the Adventure Policy. Organizers that promote adventure activities through social media and conduct such activities also must follow process of registration. Organisers conducting adventure activities without registration / in an unauthorised manner are liable for penal action. If trekking / mountaineering activities are to be conducted in Reserve Forest, Wildlife Sanctuaries or other areas coming under the jurisdiction of Forest Department or Archaeology Department, all relevant rules and regulations of these respective departments must be followed. If water-based adventure activities are to be conducted in sea or creeks, the rules and regulations specified in Water Sports Policy of Maharashtra Maritime Board must be adhered to. (Excluding snorkelling / scuba diving.) Similarly, if adventure activities are to be conducted in the backwaters of dams, then necessary permissions must be secured from Department of Water Resources, Water Conservationand Local Autonomous Body. It is mandatory to secure all permissions relevant to respective adventure activities from State or Central Government Authorities. ***
  12. 12. 12 Appendix – A Common Guidelines for all kinds of Adventure Activities Definitions Adventure Activity: an activity that involves greater than normal risk which may include a) travel into a relatively undeveloped area in which communication and vehicle contact is difficult and/or uncertain or b) encounter with natural environmental challenges requiring greater reliance upon personal resources than would normally be required in day-to-day life or c) ‘soft adventure’ that is organized for people with little or no experience in rural, semi-urban and urban areas. In this Document, ‘Adventure Activity’ and ‘Activity’ mean the same thing. Land-based Adventure Activity:Adventure Activity which is primarily conducted at various geological features like hills, mountains, rock faces, pinnacles, valleys etc. on the earth’s surface. Air-based Adventure Activity: An adventure activity which is primarily conducted at various locations and which involves using gear that enables people to stay/fly above ground for extended periods of time Water-based Adventure Activity: An adventure activity which is primarily conducted in flowing water or flat water (lake) with the use of various kinds of crafts. Adventure Program: An event that has one or more Adventure Activities included with specific objectives in mind. Service Provider: An individual or organization which provides service/s to the Adventure Program of a contracting organization or individuals (i.e., it is an outsourced resource). Service: Service could be in the form of an activity associated with the adventure part of an Adventure Program or an activity which complements the adventure part (e.g., transport to the adventure site, boarding and lodging, etc.). Experiential Learning based Program: a program designed using the methodology of experiential learning which uses a series of activities each one of which is followed by a review session where participants derive learnings through reflection in their experiences
  13. 13. 13 Social Environment: that part of the environment that comprises of local populations and their cultures. Historical Environment: the component of the adventurer’s environment that comprises of relics of archaeological structures and monuments Ecological Environment: the natural environment of an adventurer Organization: individual, group of individuals, commercial entity and non-commercial entity organizing any Adventure Program or Adventure Activity Management: Policy-making part of the organization. The responsibility for implications of any action taken by the organization lies with the management. Hazard: something that can potentially cause harm; objective hazards are largely natural phenomena, and subjective hazards are largely related to human factors. Risk Potential: arises when subjective a hazard comes into contact with an objective hazard Critical Incident: Any significant incident that demands medication and/or first aid and/or extended care and/or conflict management and/or evacuation of person and/or is a near miss (near miss: an incident that could have had serious consequences) These rules will apply to water, land and air adventure tourism activities. Below mentioned rules and standard operating system will be applicable to all types of adventure tourism service providers. Separate rules based on the various types of adventure tourism activities will be applicable as per Annexure B,C,D & E. This shall be mandatory for all adventure tourism activities. 1. The adventure tourism service providing organisation / independent person / partnership firm / company / society require to have their goods and service tax registration, pan number, current bank account and a registered office in India. 2. It is essential that the adventure tourism service providers shall have full time experienced, efficient, trained staff. 3. It is essential that the employees providing adventure tourism service have at least one year experience certificate from a reputed organisation as per guidelines mentioned in form B.
  14. 14. 14 4. It is important that the adventure tourism service provider has best equipment for the concerned adventure tourism type. The quality of specific equipments must be in order with the global standards and guidelines mentioned in annexure B. 5. All members and organisers who participate in adventure activities must have sufficient insurance cover. It shall be mandatory for the organiser to give information on the dangers and nature of risks lying in the adventure activity before starting it. The organisers shall also arrange for sufficient insurance cover for field workers, guides and other professionals concerned with the adventure activity. 6. The adventure tourism service provider shall have all permissions and licenses necessary to carry out the activities. 7. Adventure tourism service provider should provide separate group leader to each tourist individual / group. 8. Each participating tourist need to be given information on safety by the organiser at the beginning of the adventure activity. This shall include information about the equipments that are mainly required to perform the activity; dangers faced while performing the activities and measures to overcome them. Giving such information to the tourist and staff will be mandatory for the organiser. 9. The staff giving adventure tourism service must be trained for providing first aid / CPR. Every employee of the adventure tourism service providing organisation must have thorough knowledge of First Aid / CPR. 10. Adventure tourism service providing staff must have following first aid materials for tourists participating in their adventure activities.  Band aids of different size and shape  Small, medium and large sterile gauze dressings  Medical adhesive tape  Crepe rolled bandages with chips  Disposable sterile gloves  Tweezers  Scissors  Painkiller medicines (Paracetamol, Aspirin, Ibuprofen) (Not applicable to children below 16 years of age)  Analgesic spray (Volini, Move)  Antihistamine Tablets (Cetrizine)  Dettol or similar antiseptic liquid  Anti-Diarrhoea pills  Energy boosting medicine (ORS)  Disposal Syringe
  15. 15. 15 11. It is mandatory for the adventure tourism service provider to have a list of the nearest dispensaries / list of doctors. 12. It is important for all employees to have a medical fitness certificate from a certified doctor. 13. Before providing adventure tourism services to the tourists, it is important to assess the risk of the type of adventure activity. An independent register shall be maintained for risk assessment. The risk assessment register shall be made available by the service provider whenever requested. 14. It is important to have an Emergency Action Plan ready. It is mandatory to provide regular training to the staff / employees on emergency action plans. Adventure tourism service providers shall be provided with emergency action plans on-demand. 15. It is important for adventure tourism service providers to adopt stress-free policies. 16. It is important for adventure tourism service providers to display a service fee display board. 17. Necessary precautions be taken for conservation of nature and protection of environment. In this regard a compliance certificate be obtained based on the guidelines on sustainable tourism issued by Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. 18. The participating member / organisation will be held responsible for any accident if occurred while performing the adventure tourism activity. The Department of Tourism will not be responsible for the accident. 19. Though the organisation has taken guarantee / declaration from the participant members, regarding the risk carried for performing the adventure activity; action will be taken by the competent authorities as per the rules and regulations regarding the accident. Documents In addition to the documents to be submitted for the type of adventure tourism activities, following documents shall be ensured by the service providers while providing adventure tourism services. These documents should be made available on request by the concerned authorities. 1. Name and address of the service providing employee and employer. 2. Assessment reports of nominated experts.
  16. 16. 16 3. Documents related to the personnel assigned to the specific adventure tourism site and the responsibilities assigned to them. 4. Documents related to the insurance cover 5. Details of supplier of materials / equipments, purchase date, warranty period, etc. 6. Daily, weekly, monthly, annually maintenance related documents and documents related to maintenance procedure. 7. Employee training and certified employee register 8. Register regarding first aid medicines 9. Record regarding incidents 10. Reports of assessment conducted by departmental committee. 11. Details of tourists performing adventure activity (Name / Address / Contact Number) 1. Provision of Resources The prime role of Management is to provide adequate resources to the organization in order to conduct operations and activities in safe manner. The resources include Standard equipment as per requirement, trained and qualified manpower. Though, it is true that this needs financial support, it is a myth that it needs fat budgets. One of the objectives of this document is to help Management to clearly specify Mandatory & recommended requirements in order to carry out activities in a safe manner. It is expected that Management reviews current activities to ensure adequate resources are available as per recommended requirements to enhance safety level in the organization. In case such recommendations are not met currently, the Management should consider providing resources to meet those recommendations in a planned manner over a period. In case any gaps are observed, the Management should put a stop to the activity and restart the same after adequate resources are organized. 2. Training and Development Trained and qualified manpower is an important resource for safe operations. Thus, Management needs to put efforts for systematic training and development of its employees, members or associates. The training does not necessarily mean only nominating members or employee to external training programs. However, it is strongly recommended to formulate mechanism to conduct in-house training, where, experienced & trained resources available within the organization are utilized. The mechanism includes identification of
  17. 17. 17 training needs, develop training modules, imparting training (Class room and field) and evaluate effectiveness of the training. It is suggested that the Organization nominates budding members to assist leaders and, in the process, learn leadership skills and gain knowledge. This will also help organizations create second line according to succession plan. 3. Periodic Reviews It is recommended that the Management conducts periodic reviews with the concerned Leaders and other key persons. Such reviews Ensure availability of adequate resources in terms of equipment and manpower and other safety aspects planned Take action of feedback and complaints received from leaders and participants Ensure of completion of planned tasks in regular operations Ensure of compliance of statutory requirements It is also recommended that records of reviews should include decisions on actions planned, responsibilities and timeframes. 4. Complaint Handling It is recommended that Management should ensure effective mechanism for receiving complaints and initiation of actions for logical solutions. After resolution of complaint, it is necessary to carry out detailed root cause analysis and corrective actions. 5. Assign Responsibilities It is essential that Management assign roles and responsibilities very clearly to leaders, members, associates and others. The same need to be communicated to the concerned persons to prevent ambiguity. 6. Compliance to Legal Requirements Management should ensure that the legal requirements applicable to Organization are identified and complied with. This can be one of the points on the agenda for review meets.
  18. 18. 18 Risk Management This is the basic exercise where Organizations are expected to identify hazards and risks associated with their activities in a comprehensive manner so that controls can be exercised in order to prevent incidents and accidents. This exercise serves as a basis for formulation of ‘Safety Management System’. Safety includes People (Participants, Leaders, Guides, Members, Associates, Service Providers, Locals), Environment and Equipment. Organization should form a Risk Management Team comprising of experienced members to look at all the aspects of risk management. Since it is very important and critical for the Organization to effectively identify hazards and risks, it is recommended that the Organization should make a note of the following Risks are specific to each Adventure Activity and Adventure Program. Hence Risk Management Team should conduct Risk review process for each Adventure Activity and Adventure Program. Risk assessment should be done prior to each event. Recommended steps for Risk Management Risk Identification ▪List all sub-activities associated with each program. Consider sequence of sub-activities in order to ensure no sub-activity is missed out ▪Identify hazards associated with each sub-activity and enter the same in the format given below. ▪Identify Risks associated with Hazards as ‘What can go wrong’ and enter the same in the respective column in the format below. Ensure all hazards and risks are identified. ▪Determine actions being taken or required to be taken to prevent the undesirable situation (To minimize risk). To ensure that these actions are to be included in the concerned Safety Guidelines, indicate reference of applicable Safety Guidelines. ▪Determine consequences (who/what gets affected) of undesirable situation occurs and its severity (injury/death etc.)
  19. 19. 19 2.Risk Assessment Level of risk is assessed by its severity (seriousness) and its probability / Frequency of occurrence. That means, the more severe risk with greater probability is more significant. The Organizations should assess the level of risk and determine the actions as appropriate. Activities with more significant risk would have more stringent controls. 3.Actions to minimize Risk While considering ‘actions to minimize risk’ follow the following hierarchy: Elimination: Organizations may choose to stop certain activities having highest level of Risk till adequate controls are put in place. ▪Substitution: Consider substitution of resources by competent manpower and adequate equipment ▪Controls: Ensure implementation of Safety Management System in order to minimize Risk 4.Emergency Preparedness and Response It is possible that emergency may arise in spite of implementing Safety Management System. Hence, it is recommended that ‘emergency preparedness and response plans’ are developed 4.1 Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan (EPRP) Based on the identified potential emergencies, Risk Management Team should prepare EPRP. The EPRP is documented in order to communicate and understood by all concerned Leaders / Instructors and participants. EPRP to include ▪ Communication process, including responsibility for internal and external communications. Determine communication equipment e.g. walkie-talkie sets. specific support persons e.g. Mail Runners, in case of very remote locations for quick communication and reporting to the outside world Contact numbers of nearby Medical centers, Medical professionals, Government authorities (Police stations), Rescue teams / organizations, transporters ▪ Arrangements for Providing First Aid and or Medical Assistance are in place
  20. 20. 20 ▪ Response Protocol assigning responsibilities and Roles of the qualified individuals such as Rescuers, First Aiders, communicators, supervision etc. and to determine the path of handling the crisis. ▪ Equipment for Search, Rescue, Evacuation and Communication in the Group. ▪ Information requirement from participants as well as leaders / instructors (Ref Section x on communication) ▪ Escape routes ▪ Emergency-cash’ to help in handling emergency situations. ▪ Rescue and Evacuation Protocols and Procedures clearly defining the steps to be taken in case of a crisis ▪ Mechanism for Incident Reporting including format and communication (Refer Section 11) 4.2 Correctness and completeness of EPRP Risk Management Team should review EPRP in order to ensure its completeness and correctness prior to its implementation 4.3 Awareness of EPRP Organization / Leader should ensure that the participants, Leaders, Instructors and other relevant persons are aware of EPRP including their own roles. 4.4 Periodic testing of EPRP Organization carries out Mock drill to test the Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan at predetermined intervals. Outcomes of tests are studied and documented in order to improve effectiveness of EPRP 4.5 Review and improvement in EPRP Based on learning from mock drills or any other test carried out or occurrence of actual emergency situation, Organization to carries out a critical review of EPRP.
  21. 21. 21 Risk Management Matrix: Sr. No. Sub Activity Hazards (Cause) Risk (What can go wrong) Consequences (who/what gets affected) Actions to minimize the Risk (Safety Guidelines Ref) Names of persons conducting risk assessment _____________________________________________________________ Date completed_____________________________________________________ Approved by: _____________________________________ Date: ____________________________________________________ 1. Organization’s Responsibilities towards Safety Guidelines . Organizations should develop Safety Guidelines as per recommended content given in Annexure-C a. Safety Guidelines should contain all the Activities determined by Organization where it is necessary to minimize as per Risk Matrix b. Organizations should develop SOPs wherever it is necessary; such Sops are best written in the language that is easily understood by all who are involved in operations (including locals, if applicable). c. All stages of activities are firmly guided also by practices as defined by environment friendly principles (like Leave No Trace Seven Principles) d. Leaders/instructors and other members/staff understand all Safety Guidelines / SOPs, understand the importance of documentation
  22. 22. 22 and are competent to execute all expectations from them. Concerned Leaders / Instructors should be well-versed with the Safety Guidelines / SOPs. Hence, it is recommended that the Leaders / Instructors get trained on Safety Guidelines/ SOPs. The training may also include ‘On the Job / Field’ training. Note: SOPs are not replacement for training. SOPs support training. e. Approval of Safety Guidelines / SOPs: It will be responsibility of Organization’s Risk Management Team to review and approve Safety Guidelines / SOPs prior to their implementation. f. Safety Guidelines / SOPs for Service Providers: ‘Safety’ on the field is the prime concern of Organization. Organization should share concerned Safety Guidelines / SOPs with the Service Providers if a particular activity is outsourced to them and they are expected to perform the same behalf of the Organization. g. Periodic Review of Safety Guidelines / SOPs: are to be reviewed by Risk Management Team with a predetermined frequency with an objective of making it more effective. Note: Objective of guidelines is to provide general guidance in order to perform an activity to achieve desired results. There is a provision for taking some decisions based on on-field situations and expertise. SOPs are specific instructions to persons concerned to perform a task or sequence of tasks, where there is no scope for any deviation from the specified instructions. In case there is a need for revision of Safety SOPs, the same can be done by Risk Management Team of the Organization. Communication with stakeholders Communication within Organization 1. Organizational values, goals and culture shall be clearly communicated to all leaders, members and staff. The organization shall ensure that the same are clearly understood by the individuals. 2. Organization should clearly communicate Safety Guidelines to be adopted, the work processes and standard operating procedures of Organization to all leaders, members and staff. 3. Organization should communicate expectation in the context of program design, risk assessment, execution strategy, emergency
  23. 23. 23 response plans and feedback process for planned Adventure program to its leaders and relevant resources like instructors etc. Communication with Participants Organization should ensure that proper communication takes place with participants before their enrollmentand at all the stages of adventure activity. In case of minor participant, Organization should ensure that relevant communication is done with their parents and proper written consent for participation to be taken from them. Clear and crisp instructions are reflected in the concerned SOPs for effective and consistent communication with participants. Communication with participants during Registration process Program information shall be communicated with participants before registration which should include key parameters like Nature of natural elements Grade of difficulty Fitness expectations, Qualifications of leadership team and organizational information, Terrain quality, Inherent Risk Itinerary, Logistic arrangements etc. photos in publicity material should accurately depict the activity Collection of information from Participants It is recommended that Organizations collect information from Participants in a prescribe format prior to beginning of activity. This includes - Identification details such as full name, ID - Emergency contact details such as name, contact details - Participants fitness Certificates & medical history from Registered Medical Practitioners, personal information like blood group, allergies, emergency contact details etc. - Any other information
  24. 24. 24 The organization to clearly communicate with the participants that it will be participant’s responsibility to furnish correct information in timely manner. On failure to do so, the organization reserves the right to cancel participant’s registration on account of safety norms. Communication with participants during the Adventure Activity Leaders should conduct a briefing prior to an activity: activity information, safety rules & norms, role clarity of all persons present along with expectations from participants, instruction along with demonstration (if necessary), idea about possible consequences of not sticking to expectations and safety rules& norms, obtaining acknowledgement of understanding key points of briefing. ▪ Clear and crisp instructions are reflected in the concerned SOPs for effective and consistent communication with participants. ▪ Feedback: Leaders should obtain feedback from participants after the event and convey the same to the Management Requirements of communication during emergencies are covered in Emergency Response Plan 3. Communication in Emergency Situations Organization should define process of communication within and with external agencies (Police, media, public and government agencies) in Emergency situations. This includes nominating people for communication and mode of communication. This process should be clear to all concerned. 4. Communication with Service Providers It is important that the Organization communicates its expectations with respect to Quality of Services as well as safety requirements to its Service providers. In order to ensure safety performance from Service providers. Organization should provide their SOPs in order to ensure safe operations. Detailed profile of participants with medical information to be provided to Service Provider prior to event
  25. 25. 25 Control over Service Providers In case, the Organization chooses to outsource field activities (part or full) the primary responsibility of safety lies with Organization. The Organization should ensure Service Providers conducts the activity with at most care and safety. Where, safety aspects and quality of their programs are not compromised. The mechanism includes criteria for selection of Service Providers, Communication regarding Organization’s expectations on Safety aspects, including clarity about liabilities. Selection Criteria for Service Providers The Organization shall determine criteria for selection of its Service Providers in order to ensure the Service provider has ability and attitude to fulfill Organizations expectations of Safety and Quality. Past experience of handing similar activities with similar participant profile References and past safety performance of Service Provider Service provider has the Leaders / instructors meeting the skills and competency criteria proposed by the Guide lines of Organization. There should be complete clarity regarding the respective roles and responsibilities of the contracting organization and Service provider, especially with regard to first aid, Emergency preparedness and response procedures including emergency communication and evacuation Ensure The Safety guidelines for the activity outsourced should be explained to, understood by and agreed by the service provider. The detailed briefing / explanation should include best and safe practices, risk evaluation and mitigation, participant instructions, instructor/participant ratio, action plan in case of mishap or a near- miss, communication and evacuation plans etc. Issue of Work Order It is recommended that the organization should issue written Work Orders to its Service Providers for outsourced Services. The Work Order should clearly specify Precise description of activity / location Expectations with respect to Safety. Expectations with respect to Quality
  26. 26. 26 General Profile of Participants with special instructions, if any Reference of SOP to be followed Minimum qualification criteria of Leaders / Instructors Details of equipment to be used Effects/consequences of non-compliance of SOPs, guidelines, expectation w.r.t. safety and quality 3. Nominate Leaders to supervise activity In order to ensure control over service providers Organization should nominate 2 – 3 Leaders to supervise the activities conducted by Service Providers The expectations listed in below table are recommendations Land-based Activities Technical Skills Soft Skills Experience and Fitness Training Courses - Basic Mountaineering Course - Rock Climbing Course - First- Aid Course - Advance Mountaineering Course - Search-and-rescue Course Organizations to determine demonstrable skills commensurate with contents of training programs. Persons those who have not formally trained can qualify based on demonstrated required skills Formal Training Courses - Leadership Development Course Specific Field Experience - Adequate Experience in Sahyadri of approximately 20 treks - Adequate Experience in Himalayas of at least 5 Himalayan treks reaching altitude of more than 3000 meters Specific Activity Expertise - Knowledge & Technique, including of usage of equipment Leadership - Ability and experience in leading teams and groups - Presentation skills, especially in the context of briefing for activities and programs - Personal traits like resilience, resourcefulness, Fitness - Adequate Fitness
  27. 27. 27 Technical Skills Soft Skills Experience and Fitness assertiveness, communication, approachability, role modeling Mountain Environment - Knowledge about geography and geology of Sahyadri, Himalaya, etc. - Knowledge and experience in application of Leave No Trace Principles - Basic understanding of weather in the Sahyadri, Himalaya, etc. - Teaching/instructing/Com munication - Knowledge of subject matter and skills of teaching techniques - Knowledge and experience in having worked with different groups e.g. group of children - Attitude towards novices, children and in general participants - Language and communication skills - Presentable Orienteering & Navigation - Familiarity with the Sahyadri, Himalaya, etc. terrain - Familiarity with navigation equipment like GPS - Map reading and use of maps Organizational and Managerial Skills - Ability to plan, organize and implement things - Initiative in taking lead in organizing - Alignment with organizational values, goals and culture
  28. 28. 28 Technical Skills Soft Skills Experience and Fitness Operations & Risk Management - Preventive approach towards Safety - Knowledge of Safety Guidelines, Standard Operating Procedures and Emergency Response plan - Knowledge of appropriate rescue equipment and other needs for proposed activity or program - Ability to effectively use communication systems for handling emergency situation Legal Matters - Knowledge of responsibilities and legislations relevant to undertaken activity/project - Knowledge of rights of operations - Knowledge of issues related to insurance - Knowledge of legalities related to rescue operations A. UIAA Model Training Standards for Voluntary Leaders and Instructors – gives comprehensive list of skills and competencies required for leaders For additional details refer UIAA website link. ***
  29. 29. 29 Appendix – B Part - 1 Guidelines for Adventure Tourism Activities on Land
  30. 30. 30 Guidelines for Adventure Tourism Activities on Land 1. The term Adventure Tour Organisers is used to specify general guidelines applicable to all types of adventure sports activities such as water sports, air sports, mountaineering and trekking, various types of safaris, etc. 1.1 Each participating group of persons in an adventure activity should have an appointed group leader. 1.2 Qualifications and skills as mentioned are mandatory. 1.3 Every person who joins the team working in Adventure activities, must have received basic training and have acquired the skills necessary to participate in the specific activity. The group leader needs to be satisfied about it. 1.4 The leader must have a first aid certificate and the ability to provide first aid training while using a stretcher. 1.5 The leader should be familiar with the search methodology and should inform all the members of the group about the methodology. 1.6 In case radio is used, all members in the group must be familiar with it. 1.7 The leader should be familiar with the operation of the helicopter. He should know how to operate the helicopter and also the procedure of dropping and lifting. 1.8 In any weather conditions during day or night, the leader must be proficient in using maps and compasses. 1.9 The leader must ensure that all members are medically fit to participate in the adventure. 1.10 The leader must be satisfied that all tools used in each adventure activity meets all safety requirements. 1.11 Under all given circumstances, the certified capacity of instruments and materials must not violated by the manufacturer. Apart from additional safety, no other unauthorised alterations be made to any of the instruments, neither any inferior quality instruments be used. 1.12 The nature of the adventure activity, its surroundings, time frame of the activity, possible difficulties, list of emergency contacts and participating members should be reported to the concerned security and releasing committee. 1.13 If any hand operated disaster proof signalling equipment is made in India at appropriate price, the same should be made available to the adventure tourism activity group. 1.14 Qualified doctor should be available for visit whenever required. 1.15 Communication tools like mobile / Walkie Talkie, etc. must be available for use. Guidelines for Mountaineering and Trekking – 1) It is important that all the members of the Mountaineering mission are qualified enough to take the initiative in this endeavour. The primary training certificate issued by national training Institute will be considered sufficient for the same. 2) The leader of mountaineering institute should have adequate qualification accredited by National Mountaineering Institute. 3) Members of mountaineering expeditions and trekking groups must be physically fit. 4) The tools used for mountaineering and trekking must be UIAA certified or accredited by Indian Mountaineering Institute. 5) Rescue tools like rope, harness, pulley system and portable stretcher should be kept in the appropriate cover with ‘Rescue Tools’ written in capital letters.
  31. 31. 31 (This is a generic guideline to be used for conducting an Adventure Activity from its inception to execution. Organisation should use this to customize its own document based on its operations) Introduction This guideline is a broad overview of the most crucial aspects of any Adventure Activity right from its inception, concept finalization to actual execution and conclusion. Organisations are encouraged to use this guideline to plan and execute any Adventure Activity. Before adventure program Planning Organisation should decide the goals and objectives of Adventure Activity. Organisation to detail out the plan which should include points mentioned below at a bare minimum: Complete details about Adventure Activity Permissions, if any, from relevant government authorities Transportation arrangements, as required Leadership requirement (Leaders ‘competency & qualification requirement, Leader to Participant ratio as defined in program specific guidelines generated by the Organisation) Decision on Service Provider, if required Equipment required: technical equipment, first aid kit and emergency kit (including communication devices) Carry out Risk Analysis of Adventure Activity as defined in Part-I of this document Communication to potential Participants (giving Activity details, risks involved, etc. Refer Communication section in Part-I of this document) Completion of registration process of Participants and compliance to Strongly recommended requirement like risk undertaking, medical certification, etc. as decided by Organisation Service Provider- check on the following aspects of a Service Provider before contracting them Credentials (accreditations if any, previous experience, references from clients, etc.) Qualification of staff Contract with Service Provider should include Role clarity in terms responsibilities, all arrangements Responsibility in managing consequences like risk to life/limb and damage to equipment Payment terms and conditions Note on Leader to Participant ratio Leader to Participant ratio can affect safety in Adventure Activities. The factors that affect Leader to Participant ratios are, but not limited to: Nature of Adventure Activity - Location of Adventure Program The natural environment of the location - Participant profile (age, fitness levels, etc.) The below Table can be used by Organisations as a reference to arrive at its own Leader to Participant ratio for each Adventure Program it conducts.
  32. 32. 32 Activity Leader:Participant Ratio Remarks 1 Walks (e.g., around an established campsite) 1:15 Preferable ratio is 1:10, especially for educational objectives 2 Day hike 1:10 Organisation should consider one extra person who will make handling emergencies easier 3 Camping out (in tents) 1:8 For Activities like bouldering sessions, a ratio of 1:5 should be considered 4 Multi-day hike 1:8 This can be even 1:6 if terrain difficulty is expected (Reference: guidelines/Outdoor_EN.pdf) Interaction between Organisation’s Management and Activity Leaders prior to Adventure Program Management of Organisation should brief the Leadership Team, along with explanations/discussions as necessary. This briefing includes: Program objectives and Adventure Activity specific guidelines Outcome of the Risk Analysis carried out by Organisation. Handing over Chief Leader‘s Folder, Equipment, Leader‘s kit etc Participant information including medical information and Criteria of exclusion of a Participant Emergency Response Plan and expectations from Activity Leaders in emergencies Emergency preparedness Communication to external agencies (e.g., hospitals, relevant government authorities, etc.) about specific Adventure Program Resources (material) to handle emergencies kept in readiness in Organisation During Adventure Program Introductions: Participants and Leaders Participants ‘briefing Conduction of the Adventure Program as per Safety Guidelines Wind up Adventure Program
  33. 33. 33 After Adventure Program Debriefing of Leaders Storage of equipment and repair work, if needed Review of Reports submitted by the Chief Leader (Program Reports, expense account and other documents as per Organisation‘s practices) ▪ Risk Management Team or Organisation‘s Management to review debrief, feedback and critical incident reports (if any) for corrective action for similar programs in future Guideline for Behavioral aspects for Staff and Participants Staff Behaviour Members of the Leadership Team (Leaders and members/employees of Organisations) are expected to conduct themselves responsibly throughout their functioning on an Adventure Program. They will understand the code of ethics and values held by the Organisation and follow relevant practices accordingly. Since Adventure Activities inherently involve responsible leading and supervision to a much greater extent than on a conventional program because of the risks and likely consequences, it is imperative that staff members have the highest standards of expected Behaviour. Alcohol and illegal drugs Alcohol should not be permitted during the Adventure Activity operations. Possession and use of illegal drugs should be prohibited for all members of the Leadership Team and Participants. Violation of these policies should result in immediate termination of the member of the Leadership Team and immediate expulsion of Participant from the activity without refund. Tobacco Using tobacco in any form should not be permitted during the any Adventure Activity operations. Any form of flame and heat is potentially damaging to equipment used extensively in Adventure Activities. Smoking and chewing tobacco by members of the Leadership Team should be prohibited on Adventure Programs that involve extended time with Participants (e.g., day-hikes and river runs). Participants may be appropriately guided for these things so as to ensure safety of people and the environment (smoking to be done at certain times only, away from dry vegetation, with the consent of other Participants in the group, litter to be packed away to be disposed off in the property of the resort). Personal Relations Members of the Leadership Team are not to engage in personal or intimate relationship with Participants throughout an Adventure Program. Any subsequent relationship of this kind with past Participants, if it develops, needs to be outside the respective Organisation. Members of the Leadership Team are also not
  34. 34. 34 expected to display excessive affection or demonstrate any existing intimate relationship between members while conducting Adventure Activities. Physical Contact with Participants Physical contact with others is inevitable in conducting Adventure Activities, and Participants need to be made aware of it, e.g., while putting a harness on to a Participant. Any such physical contact should be appropriate and should be seen to be relevant to the specific Activity. Wherever possible, have Participants assist themselves in putting on personal gear (like harness, chest loop and personal flotation device), but the Leader will have to monitor and ensure that all personal gear has been put on appropriately. Leaders are responsible for safety of Participants. Participant Behaviour While Leaders of any Adventure Activity would be familiar with various dimensions of that Activity, it is to be understood that Participants are ‘Novices’ and may be out of their comfort zone while participating in such an activity. Participants need to be instructed and even educated when necessary before and while they are participating so as to enable them to follow operational and safety instructions. Questions seeking clarity need to be encouraged. Clearly define Participants’ role during the pre-activity brief. Any deviation from expected Behaviour should be politely but firmly corrected by members of the Leadership Team. Leaders should be alert for signs and symptoms of extreme fear in a Participant and use first aid guidelines in helping such a Participant. Guideline for Participants, Parents of Participants and Organisations arranging High Altitude Trekking Programme (Adapted from guidelines issued by Indian Mountaineering Foundation & Himalayan Club in 1999) Potential Participants / parents of Participants consider the following points and seek relevant information from Organisations before deciding to join an Adventure Program. These aspects are as follows: Schedule of the Adventure Programme including daily content Check whether the program is realistic with respect to duration and day-to-day schedule. The number of hours per day that will be occupied by activity needs to be balanced with sufficient time for a Participant to relax and recover in order to cope with the schedule. This is especially crucial in Adventure Programs involving walking at high altitude where appropriate pacing leads to acclimatization. Enquire which Adventure Activities will be included or are an inherent part of the schedule. E.g., river crossing can be an activity, or there could be actual crossing of rivers on a hike, and rock climbing can be just an activity or there could be a patch of rock to be negotiated on a hike, etc. Information related to altitude gain Altitude of locations where the trek is supposed to start and end Altitude gain per day Process of acclimatization: check
  35. 35. 35 Note: beyond 2500 m. (8000 ft.) it is advisable to gain altitude gradually. Altitude gain of a maximum of 2000 ft. per day is recommended. But if a person is going directly to a high altitude location (like Gangotri and Leh) then at least two days of acclimatization is advised before starting any Adventure Activity. Check if the schedule planned for acclimatisation by Organisation is appropriate and be assured that the Organisation will actually follow their acclimatization schedule. Major difficulties expected on the program as regards terrain, weather conditions, facilities offered by Organisation Organisations are bound to tell enquirers about the inherent risks in high altitude hiking programs & consequences if certain processes are not adhered to. Note: Participants too have a responsibility towards their own safety and others ‘safety. Get clarification on expectations from Participants in the context of safety. Such information should help you make an Informed Choice about whether to participate (or send your child) in a program or not. Level of fitness expected from Child Participants There is a certain level of physical fitness required for trekking at high altitude. Trekking and camping at low altitudes can be done with lesser fitness levels and can be very enjoyable for children. If a child is not physically fit then introduction to outdoors could be through simple treks that include plain walking and camping – the enjoyment of a child would be probably much more. Again, be sure to make an Informed Choice. If necessary, take professional advice to help with this decision. 5. Medical facilities provided by Organisation. (Whether a doctor or a first aider will accompany the program and emergency handling plans to deal with medical problems). At least one of the Leadership team members should be holding a current (that is valid and not outdated) certification in first aid (ideally ’Wilderness First Aid) and should be experienced in problems related to high altitude. It is not enough for a trekking group to have a first aid kit; the ability to handle an emergency situation and use first aid skills is essential. The Organisation should have an emergency Response Plan specifically for the Adventure Program in question, and all Leaders should be familiar with it. 6. Communication modalities to be used during activities conducted on a trekking program as well as in case of emergencies. Organisation should have a concrete plan for communicating with the outside world in case of an emergency (government agencies, rescue groups, hospitals, relatives of Participants, etc.). Relatives and parents of Participants should have details of the schedule, contact numbers of Leaders of the trekking group, contact numbers of the Organisation‘s representative who has been appointed for coordinating things during emergencies. What are the facilities provided for accommodation throughout the program? - Nature of facilities provided by Organisation: - Safety of the camp locations: are there norms for riverside & mountain camps, locations near villages, etc.? - Management of hygiene at campsites – personal hygiene of all group members, kitchen hygiene, disposal of kitchen and human waste
  36. 36. 36 8. Provision for drinking water during for the program. - Organisation should have appropriate modes of purifying water on the trek as well as in-town stays - Note: adequate liquid intake is an extremely important factor in preventing illness and fatigue, and contributes to acclimatization. 9. Equipment for conducting the program safely - Equipment required for a trek will vary according to the many factors like terrain and expected hazards, period of year, profile of trekkers, and group size. - If sleeping bags are not warm enough for the temperatures encountered then trekkers who ’sleep cold ‘will tend to get weaker due to low quality sleep - Leaders on any trek should carry a ’hiking rope ‘and some basic gear to help Participants across tricky sections or unexpected landslide patches across paths. - Type of tents will affect the comfort and safety of Participants, especially in inclement weather 10. Clarity on things to be brought by the Participants - Organisation must give exact list of things to be brought by the Participants - Participants and Parents should get to understand significance of each item in order to bring appropriate items and avoid excess and unnecessary baggage. 11. Group size, Participant profile, Leader to Participant ratio - Groups with large diversities (across age groups, range of objectives) make it difficult for Leaders to manage and ensure enjoyment for all - Inappropriate Leader to Participant ratio is a safety issue: Organisations should be able to justify their ratios for a specific Adventure Program with the help of factors that have been considered (refer section on Leader to Participant ratios) Other information about Organizers to be obtained Note: it is extremely important for Participants / Parents of Participants to attend the meeting organized by an Organisation where information about the Adventure Program is given, where expectations from Participants are made clear and questions can be asked of the Organisation. 1. Whether the Organisation is registered (either as nonprofit like trust or a society or a company) 2. Composition of management of the Organisation? A well-established Organisation, whether commercial or non-profit, will always take care to ensure full safety of the Participants. It is not advisable to go with temporary operators. Ensure that the organizers are responsible persons with the necessary qualifications, expertise and experience to conduct Adventure Programmes . 3. An appropriate declaration that the Leaders of the Organisation are adequately equipped, qualified, trained & experienced to conduct the Adventure Program and that they will take adequate safety measures during the program.
  37. 37. 37 Participants must be aware and realize that any Adventure Activity involves an inherent risk. Even in the best organized program, an accident can take place beyond the reasonable control of Organisation and its Leaders. *It is imperative that Participants understand expectations from them, go prepared on an Adventure Program, and follow all safety instructions. 4. Profiles of the Leadership Team in charge of the group, information on support team (guides, porters and cooks) Refer to sections on qualifications of Leaders in this Document. 5. Consider asking for references of previous Participants who have been on similar program of the Organisation Following points maybe considered for seeking feedback: Food, water, accommodation facilities provided Capability and behavior of Leaders in charge of the group Safety measures followed by the Organisation c. Quality of communication at various stages, especially on aspects of safety, and whether safety instructions were clear to all including children. Whether the experience was enjoyable (or, e.g., did it turn out to be an exercise in endurance) 6. Participants / Parents are encouraged to arrange for insurance if the Organisation has not taken care of it.
  38. 38. 38 Guideline for Leave Minimum Impact & Leave No Trace Seven Principles ‘Leave Minimal Impact’ practices help Adventure Programmes to minimise adverse impacts of their functioning on their environment. In the context of India, some of the constituents of environment includes but are not limited to: natural environment, socio-cultural environment and archaeological environment. This document states a) the example of the well established environment friendly outdoor ethics titled ‘Leave No Trace Seven Principles’ and b) some recommendations specific to local conditions in India. LEAVE NO TRACE SEVEN PRINCIPLES (LNT) - Outdoor Ethics Please note that appropriate training will immensely help practice these principles. These principles are to be adapted to the socio-ecological concerns of the region one visits and practiced assiduously under guidance to start making a person ‘LNT-friendly’ Plan ahead and prepare Know the regulations and special concerns for the area you‘ll visit. Travel in small groups. Split larger parties into groups of 4 - 6. Use a map and compass to eliminate the need for tree scars, rock cairns or ribbons. Repackage food into reusable containers. Prepare for all types of weather. Carefully evaluate the risk associated with your outing. Travel and camp on durable surfaces On the trail Stay on designated trails. Walk in single file in the middle of the path. Do not cut switchbacks. When traveling cross-country, choose the most durable surface available: rock, gravel, dry grasses, or snow. At camp Good campsites are found, not made. Altering a site is unnecessary. Choose established legal campsites that won‘t be harmed by your stay. Keep pollutants out of water sources by camping at least 200 feet (70 adult steps) from lakes and streams.
  39. 39. 39 Dispose off waste properly Pack it in, pack it out. Inspect your campsites and rest areas for trash or spilled foods. Pack out all trash: yours and others. Deposits solid human waste in cat holes dug 6 to 8 inches deep at least 200 feet from water, camp, and trails. Cover and disguise the cat hole when finished. Pack out toilet paper. To wash yourself or your dishes, carry water 200 feet away from streams or lakes and use small amounts of biodegradable soap. Scatter strained dishwater. Leave what you find Preserve the past. Do not damage historical structures or remove artifacts. Leave rocks, plants, and other natural objects where found. Do not build structures or furniture or dig trenches. Minimize campfire impacts Campfire can cause lasting impacts on the backcountry. Always carry a lightweight stove for cooking. Enjoy a candle lantern for light. Where fires are permitted, use established fire rings or mound fires. Keep fires small. Use dead, downed wood that can be broken by hand. Burn all woods and coals to ash. Put out campfires completely, and then scatter cool ashes. Respect wildlife Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach them. Never feed wild animals. Feeding wildlife damages their health, alters natural behaviors, and exposes them to predators and other dangers Protect wildlife and your food by storing rations and trash securely.
  40. 40. 40 Keep pets under control at all times. Leave young animals alone. Avoid nesting, feeding or mating animals. Be considerate of other visitors Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience. Be courteous. Yield to other users on the trail. Step to the downhill side of trail when encountering pack stock. Take breaks on durable surfaces away from the trail. Let nature‘s sounds prevail. Keep noise levels to a minimum. Notes for local conditions specific to India and Maharashtra: Do not disturb or take relics from archaeological ruins or ancient shrines and caves Be considerate of local populations Avoid adversely impacting local sources of water (e.g., water tanks) and food (e.g., fields) Be aware of and minimize adverse cultural impact on local population Work towards win-win associations where Adventure Programmes generate respectful earning opportunities for locals Avoid occasional help given to villagers on an ad hoc basis; instead explore ways of striking meaningful relationships with local associations like schools and village panchayats for extending relevant help For camps set up for groups, take care to not impact streams and rivers, especially with kitchen refuse and human waste – meticulously follow practices based on Leave No Trace Seven Principles On Himalayan trails, make way for pack animals by standing away from the trail, moving to the uphill side of the trail As far as possible avoid having campfires – the deadwood in the outdoors is used by local populations, in addition to being a resource for flora and fauna; as far as possible, use stoves to save on wood being used or cooking camp-meals
  41. 41. 41 PART – II Safety Guideline for Land based Adventure Activity
  42. 42. 42 Safety Guideline for All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) Introduction There are many adventure parks, hotels and resorts that have All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs), also known as quad bikes. Incorrect use of ATVs can cause injuries including serious ones. The following guidelines have been adapted from guidelines created by ATOAI for ATVs which are based on guidelines available on the websites of the European ATV Safety Institute and All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Institute (USA). Information required for Leaders Activity objectives Names and qualification of Leadership Team Information of last check on ATV tracks Back-up plans which can be used in emergencies Qualifications of Leaders Formal training Qualification/accreditation from an international training institute may be accepted. Alternatively a Leader should be given training by the Organisation which focuses on the following aspects of ATV operations: Knowledge about ATV and basic accessory equipment (like tool kit, basic repairs, basic maintenance) PPE required for Leaders and Participants, and other equipment Pre-ride and post-ride inspection procedures and documentation Rules and range of signals ATV operation: how to start-stop run the ATV ATV maneuvers: riding circles & figure-eights, sharp turns, quick turns, quick stops and swerves, quick stop during turns, u-turns, traversing hilly terrain, circuit and trail rides Participant preparation that includes briefing, training and warm-up exercises Familiarity with ATV operating manual – this manual is to be used in assessing the competence of Leaders Understanding of braking system of the ATV: most ATVs have separate front and rear brake controls, while some may have linked brakes operated by a single control. Certifications (check if current or lapsed)
  43. 43. 43 Chief Leader to have current certification in First Aid & CPR from reputed organisation Preferable: Chief Leader to have current certification in Wilderness First Responder / Wilderness Advanced First Aid & CPR from reputed organisation All Assistant Leaders to have current certification in Wilderness First Aid & CPR from reputed organisations Experience - Leading groups in adventure activities - Personal experience of operating ATVs in hilly terrain and circuits/tracks - Handling emergencies, both medical and non-medical Skills - Competence for the terrain conditions that a Leader is supposed to handle ATVs - Ability to take some hard / harsh decisions in case of any emergency - Ability to supervise members of Leadership Team - Conservative approach in risk management while handling emergencies - Group management skills - Ability to be assertive when taking decisions, especially in preventing risky situations and while handling emergencies - Proficiency in best practices for environmental safety Documents in Chief Leader’s Folder (recommended): 1. Legal compliance documents (registration documents, permits for campsites, etc.) 2. Personal information of Participants and Leaders 3. Undertaking from Participants (indemnity bond) 4. Risk assessment and mitigation done for location/area where ATVs are to be operated 5. Pre-inspection check reports of all ATVs and equipment to be used during the ATV-runs 6. Copies of Feedback forms Emergency Response Plan Emergency Response Procedure Critical Incident Report form Medicine-use report form Equipment logs & equipment damage report form Information related to outsourced Service Provider including contract copy
  44. 44. 44 Equipment: The choice of equipment should be made according to the function of each item as described below. ATV Use ATVs only from reputable manufacturers and ensure that their maintenance is undertaken as per manufacturers ‘manuals. ATVs come in different sizes (determined by the engine capacity and build) and thus each size has a recommended minimum age specified for the rider. E.g. a particular ATV may be specified as ”not for age less than 12”. These specifications mentioned by manufacturer should be always followed. Helmet Use either a full-face or three-quarter helmet, ensuring that there is no reduction in vision or hearing of the wearer. When worn, a helmet should be snug, comfortable and secured in place by the requisite straps (straps should not be left hanging at any point of time). Face shield or goggles Use goggles on any ATV ride. If the ride happens to be in areas where foliage of passing trees is going to be encountered then use face shield. Gloves have two functions: provide protection and comfort. Gloves should help prevent hands from getting sore, tired and cold, in addition to preventing injury in the event of a fall. Consider gloves with padding at relevant places like knuckles and back-of-hands. Knee protectors: function is to protect knees in the event of a fall Footwear: Boots should be minimum ankle length with low heels that prevent the boots from slipping off the footrests (slip-on shoes and open-footwear like slippers and sandals should not be allowed) Clothing Long sleeved top and long trousers will help protect rider from cold and scratches/abrasions in the event of a fall. Depending on ambient temperature, warm and wind layers may be considered. Emergency kit Spares and tool kit recommended by manufacturer to be carried on each ride At least one cell phone, with important contact numbers entered in Consider the following factors for choice of communication devices: Communication between Leadership Team members Remoteness of location Reliability of cell phone signal Legal considerations First aid kit
  45. 45. 45 Items to be selected based on a) risk assessment and mitigation study done for an activity site, b) Leader‘s first aid certification and c) medico-legal aspects that are relevant to the region that the activity is being conducted Guidelines for Organisations operating ATVs Considerations for Organisations: Organisation should have all the accessories required to support and maintain its fleet of ATVs Organisation should maintain all vehicles serviced and in working order along with required documentation Organisation should have at least two qualified ATV Leaders (qualification in hard and soft skills as specified above) Organisation should have clear knowledge about the area in which ATVs are to be operated. These areas have to be clearly demarcated for the activity. ATVs are meant for off-road use, and not for use on main roads with traffic. Organisation should have SOPs based on these guidelines which are specific to their ATVs, functioning area and kind of terrain and profile of people undertaking this Activity through it. Organisation should have set of all crucial documents (e.g., emergency response protocol). Organisation should have documented details about risk assessment and recommendations for their functioning. Organisation should comply with all required legalities and formalities relevant to its functioning, including registration of entity with requisite authorities and registration and passing of vehicles. Organisation should formulate environment friendly practices for its functioning and ensure that its field staff understands how to implement those practices. Pre-activity actions by Leaders Inspection of ATV, spares, tool kit and first aid kit Leader should inspect all items listed here before any ride he/she is going to undertake with an ATV. The All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Institute (USA) recommends the following basic T-CLOC Checklist: Tyres & Wheels Controls & Cables Lights & Electrics Oil & Fuel Chain/Drive Shaft & Chassis Review medical history of Participants: ensure that preventive and curative aspects are in place (e.g., medicines in duplicate in known locations) Check for environmental hazard on activity site (reptiles, insects, fallen trees or branches, loose rocks and landslide patches) Dry run if feasible/recommended for a particular site Who should not be allowed to participate in the activity? Intoxicated person Person who refuses to follow safe practices Person with medical issue that will pose a risk to the Participant
  46. 46. 46 Person who refuses to wear safety gear Pregnant woman Person with backache – follow first aid protocols Service Providers Chief Leader to review contract signed with outsourced Service Provider Chief Leader to review the qualification of all staff members of the outsourced service provider, and their ability to do pre-activity inspection checks, run the ATV rides and do appropriate wind-up procedures Chief Leader to review roles and responsibilities with staff of outsourced Service Provider Chief Leader to ensure that all the safety guidelines and SOPs valid for safe conduct ATV rides are followed before, during and after each ride Organization‘s Leaders to monitor crucial points and actions of staff for safety Briefing to Participants: Leader: brief all Leaders and Participants in detail about rules, activity-site features and aspects of risk management including actions to be taken in case of emergency. Specific focus on: Speed limits and any related rules Wearing PPE and consequences if someone does not wear ATV controls, operations and pre-ride checks Rider responsibility Group riding procedure (lane position, vehicle order, headlights, signals and parking procedures) Identify hazards Handling dangerous surfaces and any other special terrain conditions Policy on tobacco, alcohol & other intoxicants Environment safety practices Leaders ‘instructions to be followed Chief Leader to ascertain any fresh health issue before starting the activity Inherent risk in the Adventure Activity & consequences if process is not adhered to Responsibility of Participants towards their own safety and others ‘safety Norms & rules (e.g., shoes, personal gear, no wandering around, etc.) Show cordoned-off areas Participant training Leaders ‘authority to stop activity when necessary: especially when safety is involved (e.g., environmental factors, damage to equipment, uncooperative behaviour of Participants) Practices as derived from Leave Minimum Impact Principles and Practices Training of Participants Organisation should follow instructions in manufacturers ‘manuals and design its training of Participants accordingly. Such training should cover the following at the minimum: To mount and sit in the ATV correctly, locate and operate controls, and dismount correctly. To use brakes of ATV properly to bring ATV to a stop in a smooth and safe manner.
  47. 47. 47 To demonstrate basic turning skills by shifting weight properly to maintain balance and avoid the possibility of losing control of ATV. Give clear instructions about staying within demarcated area for the ride. Establish protocol for communication in case of an emergency. Instructions for activity / operations Use ’Touch-Say-Confirm ‘method for checking PPE of each person (Leader & Participants) before permitting each ride: touch each item of personal gear on the Participant while saying its name aloud to confirm that all equipment is firmly in place. Keep the engine of the ATV off till the Participant sits properly and is comfortable before starting the ride Ensure sequence of activities and coverage of all actions for prevention of risks as per Risk Matrix Monitor Participants who have finished an activity or are waiting for their turn Monitor for environmental impact – repeat expectations from Participants if necessary Wind up Inspect equipment, pack/store equipment according to norms Tag each ATV in case any repair or cleaning is required Pack separately equipment that needs repairs or is to be discarded: attach a tag to each item with a note on damage Do not pack wet gear like gloves and helmets Fill up all the documents required Lock up equipment as per site‘s rules Review and feedback (Participants & Leadership Team) Communicate to the Organisation‘s office any subjective feedback that has not been recorded in paperwork Other safety considerations − Store fuel away from Participants and other people at site. Do not store close to any residential area of site-facility. Do not allow anyone to smoke or light fire near fuel storage area. Store only required amount of fuel. − Have a fire extinguisher at fuel storage site and at ATV track location. − Use gauge designed to measure ATV tyre air pressure. (Automotive tyre gauges for measuring air pressure can be inaccurate). − Adults in group of Participants will only help in non-technical aspects, and Leaders are responsible for the safety of the whole group
  48. 48. 48 2. Safety Guideline for Cycling Tours (This format is to be used by Organisation for formulating its own SOP for a ’Cylcing Tours ‘session) Introduction Cycling tours in India have been managed by privately owned companies and do not fall under the purview of any government or any community-instituted central body. The Cycling Federation of India organizes races and tours for licensed elite athletes for prize money. Any tours where amateur athletes are entering into a commercial contract with a touring experience provider do not require any permissions from any sport related bodies. Cycling grades It is important to categorise the biking / road cycling itinerary with proper grades so that the Participants can chose their trip as per their level of fitness and preparedness: Grade 1: Easy - For those new to cycling or who don‘t have a high level of fitness. Easy combination of relatively flat or gently undulating routes. For riders seeking a very relaxed holiday. Beginners: 30-60 km. per day. Grade 2: Gentle - On undulating or rolling terrain, occasional moderate / challenging climbs. No high altitude ascents & the odd short steep climbs. For semi-regular riders / relative novices wishing to gain experience & fitness.60-80 km. per day. Grade 3: Moderate - For riders with experience, requisite fitness & level of skill required for this grade (see below). Some features that may be experienced more frequently in a higher-grade tour: Most days may include a couple of significant climbs. Some long days & some steep to very steep sections. Not for beginners. 70-95 km. per day. Grade 4: Challenging - For cyclists with high stamina & a high level of fitness. Long & challenging days with multiple tough or high altitude ascents, with steep sections over extended distances. Long & often technically demanding descents. Road riding for experienced riders. 80-160 km. per day. Grade 5: Demanding - Designed for cyclists with very high stamina and a high level of fitness. Consecutively long, challenging days with multiple serious or high altitude ascents. Frequent steep or very steep stages occasionally over extended distances. Includes long and often technically demanding descents. Serious road riding for experienced riders only. 95-160 km. per day.
  49. 49. 49 Information required for Leaders Activity objectives Names and qualification of Leadership Team, along with Leaders to Participants ratio The entire cycling tour route, with maps, where the night halts are going to be etc. Back-up plans which can be used in emergencies (e.g., alternative routes etc.) have an emergency evacuation plan in place for each site. Documents in Chief Leader‘s Folder (recommended only – each Organisation to decide final list): Compliance documents (bookings of the places for nigh halts, intro forms filled by the Participants etc.) Personal information including medical information of Participants and Leadership Team Undertaking from Participants Risk assessment and mitigation done for the entire cycling route Feedback forms Emergency Response / Evacuation Plan Critical Incident Report form Medicines used report form Support / service vehicle related documents etc. Information related to outsourced Service Provider including copy of contract document - Criteria of exclusion that are relevant to Adventure Activity Intoxicated person Person who refuses to follow safe practices Person with medical issue that will pose a risk to himself/herself Person who refuses to wear safety gear Pregnant woman who is at risk of injury Person with backache (follow first aid protocols) Qualifications of Leaders While there are no technical criteria of qualifications required, these are experiences that will help a Leader ensure a successful trip: a) Experience of being in the saddle and riding the distance covered per day. This will ensure that they are alert and not fighting their own fatigue. In an organised programme that lasts for multiple days,
  50. 50. 50 Participants will experience cumulative fatigue; the Leader cannot be in the same position. They need to have spent time cycling, so they do not experience saddle soreness and are able to help their Participants and ensure a good experience for them. b) Knowledge of the terrain being traversed, potential hazards of that area, typical weather conditions, in addition to knowledge of Hindi, English and or local language are required. c) The knowledge to assess which Participant needs what size of helmet and how to tighten or loosen the various straps to ensure a snug fit on their heads. d) First-aid and CPR certification. e) Basic knowledge of bike maintenance while on tour and fixing issues such as punctures, gears not working well and other such minor repairs. f) Owning a government authorized identity card and keeping it with them for the duration of the organised programme. Equipment: Organisations usually give their Participants the option of bringing their own bicycles or providing bicycles to them. a) In the former case, the minimum materials needed would be spares (tyres, tubes, tyre levers, patch kits, brake and gear cables and their housing, chains, chain links, lubricants, floor pump with presta and shredder valves, multi tool or allen keys, small screw drivers, duct tape and zip ties. b) In the latter case, in addition to the above, add bicycle specific spare components such as brake shoes, drive train components, spokes, spoke wrench, etc. c) Bikes should be delivered to Participants fully built and ready to ride after individual saddle height adjustments. Helmets a) Cycling helmets by reputed brands, stocked for all sizes from extra small (XS) to extra large (XL). b) It is mandatory to use helmets on all rides and at all times. Lights a) Head lights: Head lights that are powerful enough to see the road at night/ in foggy or rainy conditions. Typically, headlights with mounts, that can be removed easily when the bikes are being left by themselves. b) Tail-lamps: Tail-lamps those are powerful enough to be visible and provide the option of rapid blinking, so they are more visible to oncoming motor vehicles. c) Spare batteries for each of the lights. d) Panniers and racks for luggage. e) Bungee cords to tie additional material to the bike rack.
  51. 51. 51 Pre-activity actions by Leaders - Checking of cycles - this has to be the second check just before the start of the tour. The first check should be done at office / store - The entire route of the tour, hotel / stay bookings, logistical plan etc. - Review of medical history of Participants to ensure that preventive and curative aspects are in place (e.g., medicines in duplicate in known locations) - Check for environmental hazards for the tour duration, e.g.: weather report etc. - Check the Leaders to Participants ratio in the context of Activity site; some parameters that could be relevant are: - The terrain of the cycling route, if the organised programme gets more entries, if the organised programme is on the higher altitudes, the distance of the entire route etc. - Overall experience of the Participants, how many such tours each one of them have done in past, how many are the new-comers, the age group etc. Check any fresh health issue that Leaders should be aware of: Chief Leader to ascertain this before starting the activity Inherent risk in the activity & consequences if process is not adhered to: a Leader to clearly state this to the whole group Responsibility of Participants towards their own safety and others ‘safety: a Leader to clearly state the expectations from all in the context of safety Mandatory practices For Leadership Team members: role modeling, environment-safe practices For Participants: all personal gear such as helmet etc. Safety precautions for minimization of risks Leaders to monitor the group at all times Training No specific training is required to be a cycling tour operator in India. However, itis helpful if the organizers meet the basic qualifications listed above. It will go a long way towards ensuring the safety and well-being of your Participants and your own confidence in your operation. Policy of ’no alcohol, tobacco and drugs‘: Leaders to ensure that this is followed strictly by everyone in the whole group Leaders ‘authority to stop activity when necessary: Leaders to be assertive about this when safety is involved (e.g., environmental factors, damage to equipment, uncooperative behaviour of Participants, etc.) Minimisation of environmental impact No littering No breaking branches of shrubs and trees No damage to nearby cultural structures like shrines At least one trowel in group-kit in case anyone wants to ’take a dump in the woods‘ Leader to make clear expectations from everyone in emergency situations