Australia– A Brief Introduction
Country
History
Climate
Economy
Education
Immigration
Employment

Author/Composer

Muhamma...
Overview

Australia is a stable, culturally diverse
and democratic society with one of the
strongest performing economies ...
Brief History
•

Australia's Aboriginal people, the original inhabitants of the
Australian continent, arrived from Asia at...
Democracy & Political System

•

•

•

Australians were pioneers in establishing democracy in the modern world. In
the mid...
•

•

The climate of Australia varies widely due to its large geographical size,
but by far the largest part of Australia ...
Australian Economy
•

•

•

The Australian economy continues to outperform other advanced economies.
Australia has solid g...
•

•
•

•
•

Australia is a sought-after destination for international students: more than 425,000 international
students ...
Study in Australia: Step By Step

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

To study in Australia you'll need to apply for both admissi...
Application process

The first step is to apply for the course you want. There are two ways to apply:
1. Direct to the edu...
How to apply

Tip:
Read the Letter of Offer carefully before you accept it.
Make sure that you understand all your rights,...
Entry requirements
To begin studying in Australia, there are a range of entry requirements you may have to meet.
English l...
Entry requirements

Visa requirements
The student visa you need depends on your chosen course of study. As a
guide, the ty...
Education agents
Once you've made the decision to study in Australia and you know where you want to study and
which course...
Health and safety
• Australia is generally a very safe place to live and study.
The 2011 OECD Better Life Index rated Aust...
Information for emergencies:

•
•
•

•
•
•

Call 000

The assistance and emergency networks in Australia are widespread an...
Personal safety
•

While Australia is generally a safe place to live and study, it is still important that you take
precau...
Personal safety

• Taxis
Some tips when using taxis in Australia:
• Sit wherever you feel most comfortable – it is normal ...
Health Insurance
•

•
•

•

As an international student in Australia, you are required to have Overseas
Student Health Cov...
Transport

•

•
•

•
•

The transport options available in Australia include buses, trains, trams and ferries.
Your access...
How to Get Job in Australia
• The Australian job market is amongst the
strongest in the world. Still, the process of
findi...
Step 1
• if you require a visa to work in Australia,
submitting an application to the relevant
embassy is your first prior...
Step 2
• Verify that your qualifications are valid in Australia.
Consult the Australian Skills Recognition Information
web...
Step 3
• If you haven’t decided the industry you’d like
to work in, choose wisely. The major
industries in Australia are a...
Step 4
• Next, it’s time to start searching for
vacancies. Millions of vacancies are posted
online. The largest job websit...
Step 5
• Some advertisements are not
published online, so also check
newspaper listings. Consult the job
supplements in Th...
Step 6
• To learn about vacancies in a particular
organization of interest, consult the
recruitment section of its homepag...
Step 7
• To learn about vacancies in a particular
organization of interest, consult the
recruitment section of its homepag...
Step 8
• “Aussiefy” your CV. It is important that
your CV (also called a “résumé” in
Australia) is in the Australian style...
Step 9
• Take the time to write a tailored cover
letter. State that you have been granted
permission to work in Australia ...
Step 10
• Exploit your contacts. Around 70% of
jobs aren’t advertised through the media,
so personal contacts are key. Tak...
Step 11
• Send your CV and a cover letter to every
potential employer and recruitment agency in
the region in which you pl...
Step 12
• Once you’ve submitted some applications,
remember to follow up. If you do not receive a
confirmation of your sub...
Step 13
• If you are called for interview, try to be
in Australia to attend in person. Very
few employers will engage cand...
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Presentation on Australia country,history,climate,economy,education,immigration,employment employment for Students of Tourism & Hospitality Management, BBA,MBA etc. for Subjects Business Communication, Tour Guide & Operation By Muhammad Umar Shehzad, Cell:+92-301-7004315, e-mail:m.umar.shehzad@gmail.com

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    1. 1. Australia– A Brief Introduction Country History Climate Economy Education Immigration Employment Author/Composer Muhammad Umar Shehzad Faisalabad(Punjab)-Pakistan Cell:+92-301-7004315 e-mail: m.umar.shehzad@gmail.com
    2. 2. Overview Australia is a stable, culturally diverse and democratic society with one of the strongest performing economies in the world. With an estimated population of more than 22.5 million, Australia is the only nation to govern an entire continent. It is the earth’s biggest island and sixthlargest country in the world in land area, about the size of mainland United States and one and a half times the size of Europe. Australia is home to one of the world’s oldest living cultures. Aboriginal peoples arrived at least 50,000 years, and Torres Strait Islander people 10,000 years, before European settlement. Capital: Canberra Surface area: 7,692,024 sq. km Population: 22.5 million (2011) Main language: English Currency: Australian dollar (AUD) National day: 26 January Time Difference: PST+5 Hours International students: 426,748 (2011) International Calling Code: 61 Literacy Rate: 99% Overseas visitors: 5,875,000 (2011) Political System : Parliamentary
    3. 3. Brief History • Australia's Aboriginal people, the original inhabitants of the Australian continent, arrived from Asia at least 50,000 years ago. Parts of the continent were mapped by Dutch navigators in the seventeenth century and by French and British navigators the following century, but it was not until 1770 that Captain James Cook charted the east coast and claimed it for Britain. • From 1788, Britain established penal colonies in New South Wales and Tasmania and later in Western Australia. Free settlers followed in increasing numbers, gradually outnumbering convicts. A colony made up entirely of free settlers was established in South Australia in the 1830s.
    4. 4. Democracy & Political System • • • Australians were pioneers in establishing democracy in the modern world. In the mid nineteenth century, Australian colonies set about writing constitutions which produced democratically elected parliaments. From the 1850s to the 1890s, when few other countries in the world were democratic, the Australian colonies progressively established universal male suffrage, and were also among the first to give women the vote. The Australian form of government follows the British (Westminster) tradition. The Governor-General, representing the Crown, exercises the supreme executive power of the Commonwealth. In practice, the GovernorGeneral acts on the advice of the head of the government, the Prime Minister, and other ministers. The Prime Minister leads a Cabinet of ministers, each of whom has responsibility for a different portfolio of government duties. Commonwealth ministers, including the Prime Minister, are appointed by the GovernorGeneral on the advice of the leader of a political party or coalition which represents a majority of the House of Representatives in the federal parliament.
    5. 5. • • The climate of Australia varies widely due to its large geographical size, but by far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varied between tropical rainforests, grasslands, part desert. Australia's climate is ruled by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt which moves north and south with the seasons. This causes the rainfall pattern over Australia to be highly seasonal. Australia's rainfall is the lowest of the seven continents (besides Antarctica). Rainfall is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons and is thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
    6. 6. Australian Economy • • • The Australian economy continues to outperform other advanced economies. Australia has solid growth, low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt and a strong and stable financial system. By 2012, Australia had experienced more than 20 years of continued economic growth, averaging 3.5 per cent a year. Australia's positive outlook is underpinned by a record pipeline of resources investments, solid growth in commodity exports and a strong fiscal position. The services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy, accounting for around three quarters of gross domestic product and four out of five jobs. Australia is an important and growing financial centre, with a sophisticated financial services sector and strong regulation. A continuing process of reform to further open the economy and strengthen its competitiveness has been a key ingredient of Australia's success. Australia weathered the 2008 global financial crisis better than most advanced economies, reflecting sound policies and the strength of our institutional and regulatory settings.
    7. 7. • • • • • Australia is a sought-after destination for international students: more than 425,000 international students chose to study in Australia in 2011. International students are attracted to Australia by its high standard of teaching, its internationally accepted qualifications, and its welcoming and diverse society. Seven Australian universities were named among the world's top 200 higher education institutions in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011. Australia's two largest cities, Melbourne and Sydney, have been ranked among the top 10 best student cities in the world according to the QS world university rankings. Australia has more than a thousand universities, training colleges, English language institutes and schools, offering international students some 25,000 courses. The quality of Australia's vocational education and training sector is recognized around the world. English language training Australia's English language schools offer a variety of services. They range from short courses for students visiting Australia as part of a holiday, to formal courses in preparation for accredited levels of English, recognized by education and immigration authorities around the world. In 2011, students from nearly 150 countries came to Australia to study English. Scholarships Education has the power to transform lives. The Australian Government's Australia Awards are a prestigious scholarship program aimed at promoting knowledge and creating education links and enduring ties between our country, our regional neighbors and the world community. Applicants from around the world compete for the awards, and those who are successful undertake study, research and professional development in Australia's premier universities and research institutes. Awards are also available for Australians to enjoy similar opportunities overseas.
    8. 8. Study in Australia: Step By Step • • • • • • • • • • • • • • To study in Australia you'll need to apply for both admission to an institution and also for a student visa from the Australian Government. There are a number of steps you must go through including: Deciding on your preferred course and institution. Submitting your application to the institution. Receiving and accepting a Letter of Offer. Receiving your electronic Confirmation of Enrolment (eCoE). Applying for your student visa. There is a range of entry requirements that you will need to meet both for you institution application and your visa application. This can include: Academic requirements. English language requirements. Evidence of funds to support your study. Overseas student health cover. If you're already living or working in Australia, you may still be able to apply to study here as an international student. Education agents in your home country can also help you with applying to study in Australia.
    9. 9. Application process The first step is to apply for the course you want. There are two ways to apply: 1. Direct to the education provider To apply direct, download the application form from the education provider's website. If you are applying for courses at more than one institution, you will need to submit a separate application to each institution. 2. Through an Australian education agent Most institutions partner with a number of agents. Details on the agents an institution works with can be found on their website or by contacting them directly. You will need to prepare supporting documentation to send with your application. The documents vary depending on the course, provider and qualification you're studying for. The most important documents include: Certificates that verify your previous study, including qualifications you already have. Evidence of your English language proficiency. Certificates or documents which verify previous study or work experience if you are seeking course credits. These must be translated into English. Receiving your Letter of Offer If your application is successful, you will receive a ‘Letter of Offer’. To confirm your offer you must respond to this letter by signing and sending an acceptance of offer back to the institution. This can usually be done by mail or, in some cases, by scanning and emailing the letter.The Letter of Offer is a contract between you and the institution. It sets out the course you will be enrolled in, enrolment conditions, the fees you need to pay, and the refund payable if you don’t complete your course with that provider. This contract is very important – if you don’t start your course, or finish your course, this written agreement will be used to determine if you will receive a refund.
    10. 10. How to apply Tip: Read the Letter of Offer carefully before you accept it. Make sure that you understand all your rights, including the refund arrangements. Do not accept the Letter of Offer if you are not happy with any of its terms. Keep a copy of the Letter of Offer. You will need this copy so that you are aware of your rights and if you have to make a claim against the institution. Confirmation of Enrolment After you have accepted your Offer and paid your deposit you will receive an ‘Electronic Confirmation of Enrolment’ (eCoE) by email. This will outline your course start date, total course fees and how long your course will run for. Visa application If you are applying for your Student Visa through the Department of Immigration and Citizenship’s online lodgment facility, you will need the details of your electronic Confirmation of Enrolment to lodge your visa application. If you are lodging a paper visa application you must provide the electronic Confirmation of Enrolment prior to the visa being granted. You should make sure that you meet requirements for a student visa before you accept an offer and pay any tuition fees.
    11. 11. Entry requirements To begin studying in Australia, there are a range of entry requirements you may have to meet. English language requirements In some cases, you may need to provide results of an English language test. Be aware that the English language skill level required by an institution can be different from the level of skill required for your student visa application. You should carefully check student visa information on both the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) website and the institution website for any English language requirements. Academic requirements The academic requirements (including evidence of English language skills) you need to study in Australia will vary depending on the level of education you want to study. Institutions can have different entry requirements, so read the course information on their website carefully and contact them to ask for advice. Here is some general guidance on entry requirements for the different levels of study: English language - Entry requirements vary between institutions, and according to the level of English language course you want to study. Schools - Entry requirements vary between schools depending on the state or territory you will be studying in. Academic performance and ability is considered during the application process. Vocational education and training - In most cases there are no entrance exams for VET institutions. However, some courses may have specific pre-requisite subjects or work experience requirements. Higher Education Undergraduate - To gain entry into an Australian undergraduate course you will need to have an Australian Senior Secondary Certificate of Education (Year 12), or the overseas equivalent. Some undergraduate courses may also have specific prerequisite subjects. Higher Education Postgraduate - As well as the satisfactory completion of at least one degree at undergraduate level, your institution may take research ability or relevant work experience into consideration.
    12. 12. Entry requirements Visa requirements The student visa you need depends on your chosen course of study. As a guide, the typical key requirements you will need to meet are: • Issued an electronic Confirmation of Enrolment (eCoE) certificate. • Meet the Genuine Temporary Entrant requirement. Read more about this on the Department of Immigration and Citizenship website. • Sufficient funds for airfares, course fees and living costs. • English language proficiency. • Meet health and character requirements. • Acceptable Overseas Student Health Cover (OSHC). The DIAC website provides detailed information on student visas. It also has a Visa Wizard to help you identify which visa you might be eligible for. Overseas Student Health Cover Australia has a special system of health cover for international students called Overseas Student Health Cover (OSHC). It will help you pay for medical or hospital care you may need while you’re studying in Australia; it will also contribute towards the cost of most prescription medicines and an ambulance in an emergency. When studying in Australia, you will need OSHC for yourself, and any family travelling with you, before you arrive. It is a requirement of your student visa that you maintain OSHC for the duration of your time on a student visa in Australia.
    13. 13. Education agents Once you've made the decision to study in Australia and you know where you want to study and which course you want to undertake, you can enrol directly with the institution. If, however, you need more help with the admission application process, or the Australia visa application process, you can choose to use an education agent. An education agent can tell you about your options for studying and living in Australia and assist with your visa and institution applications. In many cases, agents have had experience studying in Australia and can share their experiences with you. In addition, because they are dealing every day with application and visa application requirements they will be able to give you guidance for your particular situation. Here are some tips for choosing an agent: • • • • • • • • Under Australian Government law, every Australian education institution that uses the services of an education agent needs to have a contract with that organisation. Australian education institutions usually have more than one education agent appointed in a country so speak to more than one agent – collect and compare information. Under Australian Government law, every Australian education institution has to list on their website every education agent it has appointed to represent them in each country. Choose an education agent with experience helping students study in Australia – they will have a good knowledge of the Australian education system, visas and life in Australia. Make sure that the agent is an authorised representative of the institution that you want to apply to. You can ask to see their letter of apointment from the institutions if you want. Ask about any fees that may be levied for using their services. Have a third party or friend help you understand the documents before you sign any documents. Remember, education agents cannot guarantee a permanent visa or work placement in Australia after you graduate. Their job is to help with applications, so if it sounds too good to be true, keep looking. A reputable agent will be honest about the application process. If you need migration advice use a migration agent who is registered in Australia. Some Registered Migration Agents are located overseas or have representatives in international markets. If an education agent is based in Australia, it is against the law for them to provide you with migration advice, unless they are also a Registered Migration Agent. Further information on Registered Migration Agents can be found at: www.mara.gov.au
    14. 14. Health and safety • Australia is generally a very safe place to live and study. The 2011 OECD Better Life Index rated Australia 9.3 out of 10 for safety, one of the highest ratings awarded to any country. • But it is still important to look after yourself and be aware of the risks that exist - and ways to minimize them. This is particularly important for when you first arrive and are adjusting to your new way of life. • Following your common sense and best practices will ensure you remain safe and healthy, whether you are handling emergencies, personal and home safety, or natural elements such as sun, water, and fire.
    15. 15. Information for emergencies: • • • • • • Call 000 The assistance and emergency networks in Australia are widespread and well equipped for any potential emergencies. Fire, ambulance, and police services will be able to provide you with any health and safety assistance you may need. Wherever you are in Australia, if there's a life-threatening emergency, call 000 (zero zero zero). It's a free call, even from your mobile. An operator will answer and will ask which of the following services you need: Police Fire Ambulance If you're not sure which one you need just tell the operator what you are calling about and they will help guide you. If you don't speak English, tell the operator your language and you will be connected to a translator who will be able to assist. It is important to remain calm. The operator will ask questions, such as: where are you located, what is the emergency, and how many people are involved. Here are some examples of when you should call 000: Someone has been seriously injured or is in urgent need of medical help. If your life or property is being threatened. If you have just witnessed a serious accident or crime. Most institutions provide on-campus security who can be easily contacted. Their contact details should be in your enrolment information, but if they are not, contact your institution’s international student support staff to get their phone number or office location. If it's a life-threatening emergency, you should still call 000 even if you are at school or on campus.
    16. 16. Personal safety • While Australia is generally a safe place to live and study, it is still important that you take precautions to reduce the chance of an incident occurring. • Going out • • When you are out with friends or by yourself, here are some simple things to consider: Always plan your trip home, especially at night. You may want to pre-book a taxi or arrange transport with a friend. Always make sure you have enough money to get home. Try to travel with a friend or in a group. Keep your bag and belongings close to your body and where you can always see them. Never hitch hike. If you don’t have a mobile phone, make sure you have a phone card or money to make a phone call. Where available, use pedestrian walkways and cross the street at pedestrian crossings or lights. Leave valuables at home if you don't need to take them with you. This includes jewellery, electronic equipment such as iPads and your passport. If you've recently arrived and don't have anywhere permanent to live yet, talk to your institution’s international student support staff about secure storage facilities on campus. Don't carry large amounts of money with you. You can access your money at ATMs found in shops, supermarkets, petrol stations, shopping malls, bars, shop fronts and many other public places. • • • • • • • • Call 000 in the event of an emergency. Remember, calls to 000 are free of charge. • Public transport • Public transport is reliable and widely used in Australia, particularly in metro and urban areas. A number of security measures have been implemented to maximise the safety of public transport users including security officers and guards, help points, good lighting and security cameras. However you should still use caution when travelling on public transport: Avoid isolated bus, rail and tram stops. Check transport timetables to avoid long waits, particularly at night. Train carriages nearest to the driver or guard are lit and safest at night. If you find yourself left in a train carriage on your own or with only one other person you may feel more comfortable moving to another carriage. • • • •
    17. 17. Personal safety • Taxis Some tips when using taxis in Australia: • Sit wherever you feel most comfortable – it is normal for passengers to sit in the front or the rear of the taxi. • Always ensure you know the address of your destination before getting into the taxi. • Tell the driver the route you would like to take to your destination, and don’t be afraid to speak up if the driver takes you a different route, particularly one you are unfamiliar with. • If you don’t want the driver to know exactly where you live, get them to drop you off a short distance away. • At school or on campus • • • • • When you are at your institution during the day or night, here are some tips to help keep you safe: Make sure you are aware of the security and emergency arrangements at your institution and in your local area. Your institution should provide you with this information either in your information pack or once you arrive. Some large institutions offer security escort services or bus shuttle services for out of office hours. Contact your institution directly to see if this is a service they offer. If you drive to your institution, try to park close to your destination and use well-lit car parks. When leaving your institution at night try to walk with a friend or group, and take paths that are well lit and ideally frequently used by other people.
    18. 18. Health Insurance • • • • As an international student in Australia, you are required to have Overseas Student Health Cover (OSHC) for the entire duration of your study in Australia. But there are also other types of insurance which you may find useful. Overseas Student Health Cover International students undertaking formal studies in Australia, and their dependents (for example, spouses and children under 18 years old), must obtain OSHC. It includes cover for visits to the doctor, some hospital treatment, ambulance cover and limited pharmaceuticals (medicines). OSHC insurers can provide a range of different OSHC products. These may range from a basic product which covers only the compulsory minimum services to comprehensive products which cover, in addition to the compulsory minimum services, extra services as specified under the particular policy. You can find more information, including a list of the providers and average costs, on the Department of Health and Aging website. Remember, the Department of Immigration and Citizenship requires overseas students to maintain OSHC for the duration of time they are in Australia. For further information please visit the Department of Immigration & Citizenship website.
    19. 19. Transport • • • • • The transport options available in Australia include buses, trains, trams and ferries. Your access to these transport services will vary depending on where you live. You will also be able to access private and public car services from taxis to hired limousines, available to take you from door to door. Some larger education providers will also have their own in-house transport system, especially useful if you have to leave your campus late at night or live in a hard-toreach area. Public transport costs vary depending on where in Australia you live and the type of transport you are using. You should look at the relevant state or territory government website for where you are living to see the full range of services available, timetables, and the costs associated. Driving If you hold a current drivers licence in your home country, you might be able to drive in Australia without sitting for any further driving tests. But remember that many state and territory governments require you to get an Australian drivers licence if you are here for more than three months. Your licence requirements, and any driving restrictions, are managed by the state or territory government where you are living. Visit the relevant state or territory government website or go to australia.gov.au to find out more.
    20. 20. How to Get Job in Australia • The Australian job market is amongst the strongest in the world. Still, the process of finding employment in a foreign country is daunting. Never fear - read on for a stepby-step guide to finding a job Down Under.
    21. 21. Step 1 • if you require a visa to work in Australia, submitting an application to the relevant embassy is your first priority. Prospective employers will ask about your immigration status and having your visa (or at least having started the application process) is a prerequisite for most job vacancies. Visa priority is given to people who have skills, qualifications and experience in shortage occupations. You can check the Critical Skills List to see if your occupation qualifies.
    22. 22. Step 2 • Verify that your qualifications are valid in Australia. Consult the Australian Skills Recognition Information website to determine whether you must have your qualifications checked by the relevant professional body. Depending on your profession and place of study, it may be necessary to complete a bridging course or additional study. When you apply for jobs, it will be important that you can state your qualifications in terms of their Australian equivalents. For more information on Australian qualifications, see the Study in Australia website.
    23. 23. Step 3 • If you haven’t decided the industry you’d like to work in, choose wisely. The major industries in Australia are agriculture, mining, tourism and manufacturing. The industries of highest recent growth are mining, financial services, tourism and telecommunications. See the Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship’s list of occupations in which there are shortages.
    24. 24. Step 4 • Next, it’s time to start searching for vacancies. Millions of vacancies are posted online. The largest job website is SEEK. Other large general sites include Job Guideand CareerOne. There are also specialized sites, such as Graduate Careers Australia(for graduate-level positions), Job Search Australia (specialist database for the IT/computer industry) and Travel Jobs Network (for jobs in travel, tourism and hospitality).
    25. 25. Step 5 • Some advertisements are not published online, so also check newspaper listings. Consult the job supplements in The Age (Melbourne), Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), The Courier-Mail (Brisbane) and The West Australian (Perth).
    26. 26. Step 6 • To learn about vacancies in a particular organization of interest, consult the recruitment section of its homepage. See the Australian Chamber of Commerce andForbes Australia websites for a list of companies in your industry.
    27. 27. Step 7 • To learn about vacancies in a particular organization of interest, consult the recruitment section of its homepage. See the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Forbes Australia websites for a list of companies in your industry.
    28. 28. Step 8 • “Aussiefy” your CV. It is important that your CV (also called a “résumé” in Australia) is in the Australian style. For more information, see the CareerOne Resume Writing Guide - Australian Style or the Top Margin Resume Guide.
    29. 29. Step 9 • Take the time to write a tailored cover letter. State that you have been granted permission to work in Australia (or are in the process of applying). Provide an Australian postal address and telephone number in your CV if possible.
    30. 30. Step 10 • Exploit your contacts. Around 70% of jobs aren’t advertised through the media, so personal contacts are key. Take advantage of networking opportunities and expand your networks through joining professional associations.If you establish a contact within a company, inform the contact when you make an application – it may get your CV to the top of the pile.
    31. 31. Step 11 • Send your CV and a cover letter to every potential employer and recruitment agency in the region in which you plan to settle. Speculative ("cold") applications are common in Australia, so apply even if there’s no advertised vacancy. To find contact details for companies, use the Yellow Pages. For a list of recruitment agencies, see theRecruitment & Consulting Services Association Ltd (RCSA) website.
    32. 32. Step 12 • Once you’ve submitted some applications, remember to follow up. If you do not receive a confirmation of your submission, contact the human resources department. Equally, don’t hesitate to contact the company if you have not received a response within a couple of weeks. This is common practice in Australia, and is not considered at all inappropriate (on the contrary, it demonstrates your enthusiasm).
    33. 33. Step 13 • If you are called for interview, try to be in Australia to attend in person. Very few employers will engage candidates on an unseen basis (though it is a good idea to suggest a Skype interview if it is not possible for you to be present). Remember to take copies of your work visa and references for employers to sight.

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