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Xid 12173175 1

  1. 1. Tourism Development 1B TOW1B21 DOXEY’S IRRIDEX & BUTLER’SDESTINATION LIFECYCLE MODEL Information from Keyser, H (2002): Tourism DevelopmentTo be used in conjunction with chapter 12 in Ivanovic et al
  2. 2. DOXEY’S IRRIDEX SEE KEYSERStage Host community Characteristics attitude -Small number of visitorsStage 1 Euphoria -Visitorsseek to merge with the local community -Host community welcomes tourism -Limited commercial activity in tourism -visitor numbers increaseStage 2 Apathy -visitors are taken for granted -the relationship between tourists and the host community is more formalised -the number of tourists grows significantlyStage 3 Irritation -increased involvement of external commercial concerns -increased competition for resources between tourists and residents -locals concerned about tourism -open hostility from localsStage 4 Antagonism -attempts to limit damage and tourism flows
  3. 3. Butler’s Destination area lifecycle• Model of tourism destination development – Butler’s ‘growth-peak-decline’ cycle• Describes a cycle of evolution – destinations moving through 6 distinct stages• The characteristics of the destination, in terms of the nature of the tourism industry, the level of local involvement, the consequences of tourism, and the attitude of local people, are different at each stage• Each stage is also characterised by different perceptions of the destination by tourists, and of tourism by the local people• Using this cycle, allows us to study the history of the destination, to identify the causes of a positive or negative change, and to determine the effect of these changes on the destination’s transition• Also allows tourism planners and destination managers to examine the changes in a tourism destination’s environment in relation to the evolution of tourism as an economic activity• It can also be used as a predictive tool in planning and management of destinations
  4. 4. Butler’s Destination Area Lifecycle
  5. 5. Exploration stage• Small number of adventurous visitors attracted by the unspoilt natural beauty or culture at the destination• Numbers are small due to poor access and facilities• The attraction at the destination is that it is as yet unchanged by tourism and contact with local people will be high• Visitors seek to merge with the local community• The host community welcome tourism• Limited commercial activity in tourism• International example include: parts of Latin America• South African examples include: Port St Johns and the Haven (Wild Coast), Velddrif and Strandfontein (West Coast), and Genadendal (Overberg)
  6. 6. Involvement stage• Local initiatives to provide for visitors and to promote the destination have begun• Increased and regular number of visitors• A tourist season and market area emerges – pressure may be placed on the public sector to provide infrastructure• Tourists display a high level of interest and sympathy with local life• Harmonious relationship exits between the tourist and the host community• Increased involvement of the community in commercial tourist facilities and services• International examples: less-developed Pacific and Caribbean islands• South African examples: Paternoster (West Coast), Morgan’s Bay-Kei Mouth (Wild Coast), Springbok (Northern Cape), Wupperthal (Cederberg), Genadendal (Overberg), and Dullstroom (Mpumalanga)
  7. 7. Development stage• Large numbers of visitors are now arriving (peak periods – perhaps equaling or even exceeding the number of local inhabitants)• Control over tourism passes out of local hands• External companies start to emerge to offer up-to-date facilities that may alter the appearance of the destination• May suffer problems of overuse and deterioration of facilities• The relationship between tourists and the host community becomes more formalised• Regional and national planning and control become necessary• International examples: parts of Mexico and the north African coast• South African examples: Margate (KZN), Hermanus (Overberg), Langebaan (West Coast), Knysna and Plettenberg Bay (Garden Route), and Cape St Francis (Eastern Cape)
  8. 8. Consolidation stage• The rate of increase of visitors have now declined – but the total numbers are still increasing and exceed permanent residents• The destination is now fully fledged – all the major franchises and chains are represented• There is an identifiable recreation business district (RBD)• Economic, social, and environmental problems emerge• International examples: Many Caribbean and the northern Mediterranean destinations• South African examples: Cape Town and Durban
  9. 9. Stagnation• Peak numbers have been reached and the destination is no longer fashionable• Relies on repeat visits and business use of its extensive facilities• Major efforts are needed to maintain the number of visits• The destination may have environmental, social and economic problems• Residents may express concern about the loss of economic opportunities and initiate actions to redress problems• International examples: the Costa Brava (Spain)
  10. 10. Decline• The destination has become dependant on a smaller geographical catchment for day trips and weekend visits• There is a withdrawal of foreign-owned business• Property turnover is high and tourism facilities, such as accommodation, are converted for other uses• Authorities may recognise this stage and decide to ‘rejuvenate’ it
  11. 11. Rejuvenation• This involves deciding on new uses, markets and distribution channels – repositioning the destination• Changing the attraction is a common response• Similarly, some destinations capatalise on previously unused natural resources – such as winter sports to extend the season and attract new markets• These facility developments often reflect joint public/private sector ventures to seek new markets and invest in the destination, to reach a cycle/recycle pattern• Example: Ezulwini Valley in Swaziland