Participation
and participatory mapping

        Dr Duncan Fuller
     Northumbria University
Maps are pictures
Maps are self-portraits
Maps are manifestations of perceptions
Maps are portraits of the world in the ma...
•Ephemeral mapping
•Sketch mapping
•Scale mapping
•3D modelling
•Photomaps
•Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
•Map-linked m...
•The need to recognise and work with the
knowledge and experience of local people
(including in planning the ‘research’ ph...
•To recognise at the outset the importance of
existing power relations in disadvantaging certain
groups and individuals wi...
•To emphasize the need for participants to learn
from their engagement in the process; everyone
should accept that they ha...
•To focus on the application of the research
for future improvements;
•To facilitate social change through the
effective i...
•a result of a merger between Participatory
Learning and Action (PLA) methods with
Geographic      Information   Technolog...
•adapts to different socio-cultural and
biophysical environments…
•combination of ‘expert’ skills with local
knowledge(Ed-...
•it can enhance capacity in
generating, managing and
communicating spatial information;

•it can stimulate innovation; and...
Good PGIS practice –

    •careful,
    •user-driven/user-centred,
    •ethically conscious.
    •community takes as high ...
Transparency –

    •clarity,
    •accountability,
    •the      use    of   simple    and
    understandable language,
  ...
Time –
    •meaningful relationships between
    technology      intermediaries   and
    recipient communities.
    •maxi...
Trust –
     •critical ingredient
     •trust makes life predictable,
     •it creates a sense of community,
     •makes i...
‘Transparency’ and ‘Time’ being
  prerequisites for establishing
             Trust…
Empowerment –
  •leads to action…
  •helps people to change their lives according to
  their own ideas…;

Continuous learn...
Inclusion –
  •makes it easier for a wide range of people to take
  part and make their views heard…
  •actively attemptin...
•we must recognise the extractive nature of
much ‘traditional’ research;
•we must be aware of the epistemic violence
(Code...
•we must challenge power relations through
our research interactions;
•we must build emotional connections with
‘the resea...
•wear their politics on their sleeve…
•politically engaged…
•subverts conventional notions of order to
actively promote so...
•‘community’ can be preserved by mapping,
•mapping can lead to the gaining of a sense of
place,
•mapping can challenge cit...
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608
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Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608

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Duncan Fuller's presentation in Mapping for Sustainable Communities, UCL, 17th June '08

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Duncan Fuller (Northumbria University) Mapping For Sustainable Communities 170608

  1. 1. Participation and participatory mapping Dr Duncan Fuller Northumbria University
  2. 2. Maps are pictures Maps are self-portraits Maps are manifestations of perceptions Maps are portraits of the world in the manner in which those preparing them would like the world to be understood Maps are subjective Mapping is...an act of power. (Sen, 2007: 13)
  3. 3. •Ephemeral mapping •Sketch mapping •Scale mapping •3D modelling •Photomaps •Global Positioning Systems (GPS) •Map-linked multimedia information systems •GIS
  4. 4. •The need to recognise and work with the knowledge and experience of local people (including in planning the ‘research’ phase of any work from the outset) and to have respect for local perceptions and choices in choosing how they represent their own worlds •To have regard for local people as the main subjects rather than objects of research using an interactive rather than an extractive approach to information gathering •To emphasise that such mapping should be empowering, should lead to action, especially collective action, to help people to change their lives according to their own ideas.
  5. 5. •To recognise at the outset the importance of existing power relations in disadvantaging certain groups and individuals within mapping processes per se; •To focus on obtaining in depth information, that is verified and 'triangulated' locally to ensure reliability; •To be creative, and ensure the process is both enjoyable and enlightening •To mix a variety of techniques and approaches to uncovering information that include as diverse a participant range as possible including, if not prioritising those deemed to be 'hard to reach'), not least in verifying each stage of the process by using a variety of methods to elicit the same information.
  6. 6. •To emphasize the need for participants to learn from their engagement in the process; everyone should accept that they have something to learn from the process. •To feed-back through a recognition that information elicited by the research process belongs to local people, which is then made more 'visible' and given validity through the research process, thereby promoting inter-group/sectoral dialogue and co-operation (Inglis, 1995).
  7. 7. •To focus on the application of the research for future improvements; •To facilitate social change through the effective involvement of disadvantaged people in the social and political processes of mapping. •To enable process members to reflect on the processes of mapping, and facilitate changes in those processes through their involvement
  8. 8. •a result of a merger between Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) methods with Geographic Information Technologies (GIT)… •representation of local people’s spatial knowledge… •facilitate decision-making processes, as well as support communication and community advocacy…. •tailored, demand-driven and user-friendly applications of these geospatial technologies… •Flexible…
  9. 9. •adapts to different socio-cultural and biophysical environments… •combination of ‘expert’ skills with local knowledge(Ed- ‘?’) •Control… •Access… •use of culturally sensitive spatial data in the hands of those communities who generated it’… •profound implications for marginalised groups…
  10. 10. •it can enhance capacity in generating, managing and communicating spatial information; •it can stimulate innovation; and ultimately, •it can encourage positive social change…
  11. 11. Good PGIS practice – •careful, •user-driven/user-centred, •ethically conscious. •community takes as high as possible a degree of control over decision making processes, managerial power and responsibility •during all the different stages involved.
  12. 12. Transparency – •clarity, •accountability, •the use of simple and understandable language, •and transparent procedures such as open meetings. It respects •engaging •Informed
  13. 13. Time – •meaningful relationships between technology intermediaries and recipient communities. •maximise the positive impacts •enable local communities to take ownership •substantial investment of time. •disempower …
  14. 14. Trust – •critical ingredient •trust makes life predictable, •it creates a sense of community, •makes it easier for people to work together. •exert a discipline on practitioners. •Without the appropriate behaviour and attitudes for developing this trust, PGIS practice is difficult indeed.
  15. 15. ‘Transparency’ and ‘Time’ being prerequisites for establishing Trust…
  16. 16. Empowerment – •leads to action… •helps people to change their lives according to their own ideas…; Continuous learning – •all participants learn… •everyone has something to learn from the process…; Reflection – •self-critical reflection… •acknowledge the expert knowledge of other participants… •expect to learn from other participants…
  17. 17. Inclusion – •makes it easier for a wide range of people to take part and make their views heard… •actively attempting to include… •seek out people who are often ignored… •paying attention to differences… •not trying to homogenise different opinions and points of view…; Challenging established beliefs and power – •existing power relations in disadvantaging certain groups and individuals… •effective involvement of disadvantaged people…; and Reliability and ethical practice.
  18. 18. •we must recognise the extractive nature of much ‘traditional’ research; •we must be aware of the epistemic violence (Code, 2006) that can result from thoughtless, self-centred research engagements with publics; •we must show greater commitment to social transformation with committed research; •with must develop solidarity with oppressed others in determining communally beneficial research agendas for social change;
  19. 19. •we must challenge power relations through our research interactions; •we must build emotional connections with ‘the researched’ through our investigative endeavours; and •we must develop prefigurative actions to ensure, alongside these other elements, the furtherance of meaningful, mutual ‘research’ engagements with those beyond the academy (see Chatterton et al, 2007).
  20. 20. •wear their politics on their sleeve… •politically engaged… •subverts conventional notions of order to actively promote social change… •to envisage and engender participatory mapping for social change... •‘tactical cartographies’ … •confront power, promote social justice and are intended to have operational value…
  21. 21. •‘community’ can be preserved by mapping, •mapping can lead to the gaining of a sense of place, •mapping can challenge cities perceptions of themselves •maps are instruments of power, tools of liberation as much as exploitation, •‘reconstructive visionning’, •visibility, control, power-to… •discourses of mapping; •the taken for grantedness of maps,

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