Mid-Term Review of Education for All Goals for Haryana 2008


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This is a report that I submitted to NUEPA as Nodal Officer for Preparing the Report on Education for All Goals in 2008 in Haryana.

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Mid-Term Review of Education for All Goals for Haryana 2008

  1. 1. Mid Term Review of Education for All Goals Progress, Goals and Strategies Haryana March 2008 Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, And Department of Education, Government of Haryana
  2. 2. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Content Index Chapters Content Page Number Foreword 2-3 Acknowledgements 4 I The Context 5-7 II Early Child Hood Care and Education 8-14 III Universal Elementary Education 15-18 IV Education of Girls and Gender Equality 18-21 V Meeting Quality Concerns 22-25 VI Education of Adolescents and Young People 27-28 VII Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning 29-34 VIII Conclusion: Outlook for Achieving EFA Goals 35-37 References 38 Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 2 of Haryana
  3. 3. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Foreword The present the review paper on the EFA Goals for the state of Haryana is part of the MHRD initiative for responding to the international initiative of UNESCO on the mid- term assessment of education for all goals particularly in the context of the global framework of action adopted at the conference on Education for All held in April 2000 in Dakar. The plan was a rearticulation of the efforts of the countries and provinces in the areas of Early Child Care and Education , Universalisation of Elementary Education, literacy and adult education and other related areas keeping in view the six goals of EFA identified at the international level. The Government of India not only committed to the declaration but also responded with accelerated efforts for meeting the goals. As part of the comprehensive and sustainable efforts for realising the EFA goals, a flagship programme called Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was launched for universalising access to elementary education. It was launched simultaneously in all the state based on the structure of DPEP programme that had been launched in the selected districts of Haryana for addressing the gender disparity in education, building the institutional capacity, introducing innovations for improving the quality of education in the government schools and addressing the infrastructure gaps. Government of Haryana implemented the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in the mission mode as per the designed framework guidelines. It brought out a policy of education in 2000 following the 1992 amendments to the new education policy for 1986. Haryana has also been in the forefront for the implementation of national nutrition programme. It has made substantial progress in achieving the targets set for several other indicators. Haryana was ranked among the top states in the country in the utilisation of the funds during 2005-06 as per the reports of the 4th Joint Review Mission of ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ (SSA) held in July, 2006. The utilisation of the funds during the year was over 95 per cent of those made available under the project. The approved budget under SSA doubled from about Rs 82 crore in 2002-03 to Rs 250 crore during 2005-06. Progress in the year 2006-2007 has been equally good. Significant progress in the education of out of the school children has been recorded in 5th Joint Review Mission held in the year 2007. The drop out rate in the State in the year 2006-2007 had gone down considerably and it was 1.48 per cent at primary stage as against the national average of 12 to 13 per cent. Over 96 per cent of the children in the age group of 6 to 11 years were in schools and the enrolment ratio in the age group of 11 to 14 years was about 95 per cent. The number of out of school children in the State had decreased considerably from 3.2 lakh to 2.01 lakh in the year 2005-2006. However, in the year 2006-07, it showed a slight increase as the figure reached to 2.38 lakh. In Haryana, 3990 Alternative Innovative Education (AIE) Centres are functioning for out of school benefiting 99750 children. In addition, sanction was granted to 103 Madrassas and Maktabs for establishing 881 centres benefiting 22031 children. Out of the total centres, 1368 were vocational centres where training was being imparted in activities like cutting and tailoring, knitting, pickle making, mobile repair etc. along with formal education. Out of 2.01 lakh out of school children in 2005-06, 1.27 Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 3 of Haryana
  4. 4. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 lakh were studying in AIE centres and arrangements were being made to enrol the remaining 74,000 out of school children. 64,000 children were mainstreamed. In the year 2006-07 out of 27,810 children with special needs in the age group of 6 to 14 years, 22,547 were enrolled in schools while the remaining 5263 attended the AIE centres or getting home based education. Government Model Integrated Education for Disabled (IED) Schools had been established in each block and resource teachers had been deployed for the integration of such children. Altogether 116 resource rooms in Government Model IED Schools in the various blocks were established for the children with special needs in the year 2006-2007 with the appointment of 70 resource teachers. For achieving the objective of SSA, transport facility by way of bicycles is being provided to girls joining class 6th in a school located in the village away from their residence. The benefit had also been extended to girls residing in dhanis, farm houses or even in bastis. The Panchayats achieving 100 per cent enrolment and retention of girls in the age group of 6 to 14 years would be given a cash prize of Rupees One Lakh each, which could be utilised for development of education in the village. Haryana is cognizant of the needs of the children in the age group of 3-6 and endeavouring for universalisation of access to early child care and education. 800 Bachpanshalas under Early Child Care and Education (ECCE) and 652 Child Care Centres under National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) were established to cater to the needs of children in the age group of 3 to 6 years. Anganwadis in the rural areas have been shifted to the primary school buildings to ensure that the elder children would not have to stay at home due to sibling care. The present report is based on the assessment of the reports on the selected indicators. Attempts have been made for getting data on the additional indicators to the extent possible. Chronological data comparisons for all the indicators have not been possible due to the time constraints and due to unavailability of the data sets and segregations for the various social groups, urban and rural areas, minorities, linguistic groups and others. Dr.Muhammad Mukhtar Alam, Nodal Officer for preparing the EFA Mid Term Assessment Report for the State of Haryana, coordinated the collection of data and drafted the report after getting the feedback from concerned departments. His efforts need to be commended. I am sure the report would be useful to the educational planners in Haryana. . Mrs. Neerja Sekhar I.A.S. State Project Director Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad Department of Education, Government of Haryana Chandigarh ……………. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 4 of Haryana
  5. 5. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Acknowledgements The report is an outcome of the cooperation of the departments that have been working on the related Education for All goals under the overall guidance of the central government agencies. Special thanks and gratitude is expressed for the MHRD team consisting of Ms. Anita Kaul, Ms. Simmi Chaudhry, Ashok Kumar Khanna and Mr. Champak Chaterjee who has been involved in initiating the process for realising the EFA goals in the country in New Delhi and its work on the mid decade assessment for EFA goals in collaboration with the NUEPA team led by Dr.K. Govinda and Ms. Mona Sedwal who through organising regional meetings and consultations supported the work on the production of the state review papers. The report would not have been possible without the cooperation of HPSPP team of consultants and officials namely Ms. Kalpna Rashmi, Rajnish Sachdeva, Rajnish Sharma Pradeep Chaudhry, and Mr.Kudeep Mehta under the able guidance of State Project Directors Sh.Raja Sekhar Vundru and P. Raghavendra Rao. Special contributions were made in tabulating the data by Ms Suman Sharma, Ms. Seema Kaushal, Ms. Seema Rani and providing the information on Annual Work Plans and Budgets for SSA, Haryana by Ms.Kamlesh. Special contributions were made by Dr. Kuldip Kaur of Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development as an expert appointed for preparing the report. She organised the tabulation of data from the various sources. Ms. Malkeet Kaur and Mr. Jaswinder Singh need special mention for collecting the data from the various sources and filling in the data tables that form the basis for the review paper. There are certain data gaps that could not be filled due to various reasons. Acknowledgement is due to Mr. Shishu Pal Singh of the Department of Statistics who provided the copies of the statistical abstracts for the state of Haryana. Finally, the report would not have been possible without the dynamic support of Shri P Raghavendra Rao who guided for the completion of report with the best possible support and advice for making the report representative and comprehensive. Dr.Muhammad Mukhtar Alam Consultant (Mewat) and Nodal Officer for preparing EFA Mid Term Assessment Report Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad Department of Education, Government of Haryana Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 5 of Haryana
  6. 6. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 I. The Context The year 2007 is significant as it marks the midterm assessment of Education for All goals and also that of Millennium development Goals set in the year 2000, as part of the international initiative for assessing the progress achieved in the realisation of the goals. The Central Government while making certain modifications in National Policy of Education (1986) in 1992 took a significant decision to direct the State Governments to have their own State Programme of Action (POA) for implementing the thrust areas of the policy keeping in view the local conditions and the spirit of NPE. The State of Haryana also devised its own State POA in 1994. The NPE further provided for a periodic review of the thrust areas in consonance with the dynamics of education related needs and aspirations of the populace. At the threshold of the new millennium, the Government of Haryana sought to address the challenges thrown up by the changing environment and the problems being faced by the state in terms of key Human Resource Development (HRD) indicators by bringing Education at the central stage of its development agenda. This was done through introducing a new education policy. It recognized that the education agenda of the state required re-negotiation from quantity to quality, from mere transfer of information to enhancement of creativity & knowledge and development of relevant skills, from a centralized to a decentralized system of educational administration and from bureaucratic management to a participative decision making process. The overall objective was to make education relevant to the emerging environment by way of encouraging socially & economically productive skills. Haryana, which was carved out of the erstwhile Punjab in 1966, had come into existence as a deprived and underdeveloped state. The efforts of the people of the State and the Govt have led to a stage, where Haryana has the distinction of having the third highest per capita income. Haryana has made commendable progress in many areas on the economic front, like providing electricity, metalled roads and potable water to all the villages besides giving thrust to industries along with technical and material inputs in agriculture. The life expectancy and per capita income of the state have risen considerably. During the period the literacy rate has risen to 68.35 % as compared to the national average of 52.21% (1991 census). This may be viewed in the context of the fact that in 1966 at the time of reorganisation the State's literacy rate (19.92%, Census 1961) was lower than the national average (27.76%, Census 1961). Despite the major strides made by Haryana, the State ranks among the lowest in the country on many of the HRD indicators. For instance, the birth rate in the State remains higher than the national average and far above the replacement level. During 1981-91 the sex ratio between males and females has gone down from 878 to 865 and is the lowest in the country. The sex ratio continued to decline and it has become an issue of major concern. Although, the enrolment of girls has improved since the inception of the state, Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 6 of Haryana
  7. 7. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 yet it remains low. The drop-out rate among girls in the elementary stage is high and the percentage of girls going for education at the secondary and college stage is low. Education Policy of Haryana 2000 recognised the need to involve the village education committees more and more as it realised that at the time of initial thrust for universalisation of elementary education, there was voluntary community participation. Most of the schools in the rural areas were made by the Panchayats or the communities and the land for the schools were given free of cost by the Panchayats. The efforts of the State at universalisation of elementary education increased the coverage extensively, yet, it led to a system of centralization at the cost of community participation. SSA mandated involvement of the community in the management and planning of education. Village Education Committee and Village Construction Committee look after the education related issues and construction of infrastructures. Panchayats have also been empowered in managing the ICDS and nutritional programmes Although it is a matter of great satisfaction that enrolment of children has crossed the 90% mark (private schools enrolment included), and accessibility of schools has improved considerably, yet, many of the disadvantaged and weaker sections and physically and mentally challenged groups have largely remained outside the ambit of elementary education. In order to achieve universalisation of elementary education, the special needs of these special groups need to be further addressed. Further progress in increasing the percentage of enrolment demands continued efforts for making education accessible to these sections is made which are more relevant and flexible as per local requirements. Recognizing the child's fundamental right to education, focussed efforts needs to be continued for realising the full benefits of the UEE for the 6-14 years age group of children and there is need to continue the momentum for improving the quality of education in the 11th Plan period. Further, package of services under ICDS need to be sustained with qualitative improvements and assured resource allocations for education and the critical sector of social development and basic services. Although the percentage of girls getting enrolled in the schools has gone up in the last three and half decades, yet the drop-out rate among them remains alarmingly high. The number of girls going for higher or professional education is still very small. Special effort needs to be made to increase the access of higher education for this section. It is hoped that focus on expanding access and quality in the 11th plan period will ensure adequate access to elementary and secondary education to all children especially the girls who for various reasons are not able to get quality education in rural areas. After having reached a satisfactory degree of universalisation of elementary education, the State is now rightly concerned about the quality of education. Whereas the content of what is taught is important, equally important is the efficacy of the delivery system and the teaching methodologies. Effective management and access to quality elementary and secondary education to ensure optimum returns is, therefore an area to be urgently addressed. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 7 of Haryana
  8. 8. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Further progress on the economic front, can only be made feasible by increased expenditure on education. Examples from other developing countries have shown that the growth of the economy is directly related to the educational attainment levels. The growth rate of economy in Haryana is showing signs of slowing down while the growth rate of economy in the southern states, where education levels are better appear to be picking up. The Planning Commission has recommended an expenditure of 6% of the GDP on education. The state of Haryana, at the time of its inception had to meet first the challenges of basic needs of the people and development of the infrastructure. As such, it was able to allocate up to 2.1% of the state GDP for education by the year 2000. According to an assessment of MHRD in the year 2000, the growth in the state in per capita income was small (1.9% p.a.), but the state still ranked as the second richest after Maharashtra in 1997/98. It was noted that even though real spending on education had increased at above 5% p.a., overall government expenditure increased even more rapidly, so that education received a much reduced share of government spending. The share of educational spending in total revenue expenditure was higher because the former consisted of almost entirely of revenue expenditure. Haryana has the highest share while Kerala had the lowest share. According to MHRD assessment of expenditure, per pupil expenditure was noted to be among the states that had highest figures. In 1990/91, the per-pupil expenditure in Haryana was highest with Orissa and Madhya Pradesh having the lowest level less than half of Haryana. Haryana was among the three states with highest per pupil expenditure of Rs.1200 along with Kerala and Himachal Pradesh. The adjoining chart Expenditure incurred on educational instituiotns by shows the gradual type of education in Haryana increase in the expenditure on 200000 education. There has been increase in the Rupees in Lakh 150000 Higher Education 100000 expenditure over the Primary Education years .Even so, 50000 education policy in 0 Secondary Education 2000 noted that a paradigm shift was -92 -94 -96 -98 -01 -03 05 Total Expenditure on required in the 91 93 95 97 00 02 -20 19 19 19 19 20 20 allocation of 04 Education 20 resources for Years education which should ideally reach 6% of the GDP. It may be noted that Haryana has been in the forefront in meeting the commitments. The commitment of the state for bearing its share of expenditures in executing the programmes under SSA is in itself an indicator of the strong will for realising the Education for All goals. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 8 of Haryana
  9. 9. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 II. Early Child Hood Care and Education As per 1991 census, India has around 150 million children, constituting 17.5% of India's population, who are below the age of 6 years. The number further increased to around 164 million in the year 2001. Haryana had 3,335,537 children with 1,833655 male and 1501882 female children in the age group of 0-6 years. Large numbers of them live in economic and social environment that impede their physical and mental development in ways that are responsible for violation o their rights to protection, education, development, participation. These conditions include poverty, poor environmental sanitation, and disease, and infection, inadequate access to primary health care, inappropriate child caring and feeding practices. Government of India proclaimed a National Policy on Children in August 1974 declaring children as, "supremely important asset". The policy provided the required framework for assigning priority to different needs of the child. The programme of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was launched in 1975 seeking to provide an integrated package of services in a convergent manner for the holistic development of the child. India is a signatory to the 27 survival and development goals that were laid down by the World Summit on children 1990. In order to implement these goals, the Department of Women & Child Development formulated a National Plan of Action on Children. 15 State Government had prepared State Plan of Action on the lines of National Plan of Action specifying targets for 1995 as well as for 2000 spelling out strategies for holistic child development. Haryana has been in the frontline in preparing for state plan of actions for universalising access to ECCE. The ICDS is one of the principal planks in the national’s strategy to provide children from deprived sections of Society basic services for a better start in life. Starting from 1975, with one block to 100 blocks by 1992-93 and the entire rural area of 111 blocks and 5 urban blocks by 1996-97, ICDS has been providing different services like Supplementary Nutrition, Immunization, Health and Nutrition education, Non-formal pre-school education, Health check ups and referral services to children below 6 years of age and pregnant and nursing mothers and other women in the age group of 15-45 years. However, despite such a vast coverage, where about 90% of the State has been covered for ten years or more, the levels of malnourishment remained very high. An assessment of data for the ten years shows that there does not appear to be making much headway in tackling the problem of malnourishment in the children of Haryana. For the past 10 years the percentage of moderately malnourished children Grade-II shows no improvement and is stagnant at 20%, one in every five children in Haryana is moderately malnourished. In absolute terms the number of such children doubled from about 1.4 lakh in 1991-92 to 2.8 lakh in 2002-03. To overcome the problem of malnutrition, a strategy was framed and circulated to all the Programme officers and Child Development Project officers for implementation at the grass root level. The strategies seeks to, over a period of twelve months or so, significantly reduce the number of Grade-IV, Grade-III and Grade-II children in the State by over 50% to less than half the present levels. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 9 of Haryana
  10. 10. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 According the provisional information published by the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006), 58.8% of the mothers had at least three antenatal care visits for their last birth. Urban Rural disparity is significant being 75.2 % mothers visiting in the urban areas while 52.8 % mothers had antenatal care v. Over all figures for assisted birth was 54.2% with urban and rural figures being 79% and 45.9 % respectively. Altogether, 39.4 % of the births were in the institution with a huge rural and urban divide. While 66.7% of the births in the urban area were in the institutions only 30.3 % of the births in the rural areas were in the institutions. Altogether 40.6 % of the mothers received post natal care .Urban rural divide was significant considering the 63.3 % mothers who received post natal care in the urban areas while only 32.5 % of mothers received the same in the rural areas. 65.3% of the children of 12-23 months were fully immunised with 82.2% immunisation in the urban areas and 60.3% children getting immunised in the rural areas. 82.8 % received polio vaccine with 88.9% in the urban areas and 81% in the rural areas. Here urban and rural divide is minimal. Overall 74.2% children received 3 doses of DPT vaccine with 84.4% in the urban area and 71.25 in the rural areas.75.5 % children of 12-23 months received measles vaccine with 84.4% in the urban areas and 72.8% in the rural areas. Only 13 % children in the age group of 12-35 months received Vitamin A supplementation in the last six months of the survey period. Only 24.8 % children received ORS in the last two weeks of the survey period. Substantial progress need to be made with reference to chid feeding practice as over only 22.3% of the children were breastfed within one hour of birth with 25.2% children getting breastfed in the urban areas and 21.3% children getting breastfed in the rural areas. Overall, 35.9 % children less than 3 years have been reported to be stunted with 26.9% in the urban areas and 38.9 % in the rural areas. 41.9 % of the children were found underweight with 42.1 % in the urban areas and 41.8% in the rural areas. UNIVERSALISATION OF ICDS The ICDS Scheme was sanctioned during 1975-76 in just one block of the state. ICDS scheme had been expanded rapidly in Haryana state both under Central and State sectors. However, the Govt. of India converted 48 state sector ICDS Projects into central sector in the year 1996-97 and thus, all the ICDS projects became centrally sponsored. At present, there are 116 Operational ICDS Projects in Haryana. As a step towards universalisation of ICDS, the State Govt. proposed to expand ICDS in uncovered areas to reach the unreached children. The Govt. of India has sanctioned 12 ICDS projects and 2813 Anganwadi centres under this scheme in 2005. Capacity Building of the Anganwadi workers is being addressed through an innovative programme called Udisha, in Sanskrit means the first rays of the new dawn. Udisha is literally the new dawn for ICDS training and for ICDS itself. Training is the most crucial element in ICDS, since the achievement of programme goals depends upon the effectiveness of frontline workers in empowering communities for improved child care practices, as well as effective inter-sect oral service delivery. Recognizing this, the Govt. of India reviewed the entire training component of ICDS and focused on a wide range of issues, including emerging programme strategies, training needs assessment, the syllabus, training methodologies, training resources, procedures and systems. The need for such a review was realised because the entire ICDS programme hinged on the abilities and skills of the Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 10 of Haryana
  11. 11. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 functionaries, particularly, the Anganwadi Worker. Udisha envisages a key transformation in approaches to training of child care functionaries and caregiver education. The nationwide training component of the World Bank assisted Women and Child Development Project, Udisha was sanctioned for five years starting from April, 1999. It had a new emphasis on decentralized quality improvement processes, through state and district training plans of action guided by national and state training task forces Immunization of pregnant women and infants protects children from six vaccine preventable diseases-poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, tuberculosis and measles. These are major preventable causes of child mortality, disability, morbidity and related mal-nutrition. Immunization of pregnant women against tetanus also reduces maternal mortality. PHC and its subordinate health infrastructure carry out immunization of infants and expectant mothers as per the national immunization schedule. The Anganwadi Worker assists the health functionaries in coverage of the target population for immunization. The ICDS aims at providing a package of services, consisting of Supplementary nutrition; Immunization; Health Check-up; Referral Services; Non-formal Pre-school education; and Nutrition & Health Education. Following table shows the list of services under various components. Immunization of pregnant women and infants protects children from six vaccine preventable diseases-poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, tuberculosis and measles. These are major preventable causes of child mortality, disability, morbidity and related mal-nutrition. Immunization of pregnant women against tetanus also reduces maternal mortality. PHC and its subordinate health infrastructure carry out immunization of infants and expectant mothers as per the national immunization schedule. The Anganwadi Worker assists the health functionaries in coverage of the target population for immunization. Multi-Purpose Health Workers (Female) and Lady Health Visitors, Health Supervisors (Female) pay regular visits to the Anganwadi Centres, where ante-natal care of expecting mothers, post natal care of nursing mothers and health needs of the children up to 6 years of age are attended to. Medical Officers of the area also carry out health check up of children and mothers periodically. During health check-ups and growth monitoring, sick or malnourished children, in need of prompt medical attention are provided referral services through ICDS. They also diagnose minor ailments and distribute simple medicines in Anganwadi Centres. Each Anganwadi Worker has a small medicine kit with basic medicines for common ailments like fever, cold, cough, diarrhoea, worms, skin and eye infections that she dispenses as and when required. Under the programme Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI), four districts of Haryana were chosen. The programme seeks to strengthen the skills of healthcare workers, health care infrastructure and involvement of the community NUTRITION Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 11 of Haryana
  12. 12. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Government has been taking care of nutritional needs of the children. This includes supplementary nutrition, growth monitoring and promotion, nutrition and health education and prophylaxis against Vitamin-A deficiency and control of nutritional anaemia. i) SUPPLEMENTARY NUTRITION The Scheme targets the most vulnerable groups of population including children up to 6 years of age, pregnant women and nursing mothers belonging to poorest of the poor families and living in disadvantaged areas including backward rural areas, tribal areas and urban slums. The identification of beneficiaries is done through surveying the community as per guidelines laid down by GOI vide letter No.F.I-22/89-CD dated 11 th January, 1990. Recipients Calories Protein(grams) 6 months to 6 years children 300 8-10 Pregnant and nursing 500 20-25 mothers Severely Malnourished 600 16-20 Children The supplementary Nutrition is given in ready to eat form for 300 days in a year except Sundays and other 14 Gazetted holidays. ii) Prophylaxis Programme:- National prophylaxis programme for prevention of blindness caused by Vitamin-A deficiency and control of nutritional anaemia among mothers and children are two direct nutrition interventions integrated in ICDS. The usage of iodised salt is promoted through communication channels. iii) Growth monitoring and promotion:- Growth monitoring and nutrition surveillance are two important activities that are in operation at the Anganwadi Level in ICDS. Both are important for assessing the impact of health and nutrition related services. Children below the age of 3 years are weighed once a month and children 3-6 years of age are weighed quarterly. Weight for age growth Cards are maintained for all children below six years. This helps to detect both growths faltering and also in assessing nutritional status. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 12 of Haryana
  13. 13. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Nutrition and Health Education is a key element of capacity building of women in the age group of 15-45 years so that, they can look after their own health, nutrition and development needs as well as that of their children and families. NHED comprises basic health, nutrition and development information related to child care and development infant feeding practices, utilization of health services, family planning and environmental sanitation. Anganwadi Workers use fix days of immunization, mothers meeting, growth monitoring days, home visits, local festivals/gatherings, days/ weeks like National Nutrition Week and Breast Feeding Week, health and developmental education. Department of Women and Child Development, Government of Haryana has prepared Strategy Paper for improving the Nutritional Status of Moderately and severely malnourished Children (0-6 years) of Haryana. It wished to ensure that first of all 100% weighing of all children in the project area were done in the first instance positively by December 31, 2002. PO’s, CDPO’s, and Supervisors were made personally responsible in their respective areas to ensure that this was done by the time fixed. STRATEGY FOR IMPROVING THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS As part of the strategy, it was ensured that all 100% weighing of all children in the project area should be done in the first instance positively by December 31, 2002. All children must be weighed and report be obtained about the status of children. PO’s CDPO’s and Supervisors have been made personally responsible in their respective areas to ensure that this is done in time. It is clearly stipulated that children are weighed at regular intervals of fortnight/month/quarter as the case may be. SUPPLEMENTARY NUTRITION PROGRAMME (SNP) & NUTRITION HEALTH EDUCATION TARGETING: Target and focus is on the most malnourished children in the Anganwadi. The Anganwadi Workers and supervisor works with the families of such children on a sustained and continuous basis so that family becomes not only conscious and aware of the problem but also accepts responsibility for the same and brings about changes in the nutritional pattern of the child/family and the way it feeds and looks after its children. The following specific strategy is used: i) Every Anganwadi Worker selects four families having children with worst nutritional status. Selection of the family is made on the basis of nutritional Status of the children strictly in the order of grades .First of all families of Grade IV children is taken followed by grade-III, grade-II and grade-I. ii) The Anganwadi Worker as part of her normal daily duties is supposed to spend one-hour everyday visiting families. This time should now be used by her for visiting just two families in a day, amongst the families of four children so selected, spending at least half an hour with each family. Thus, if there are four families, in one week, there would be at least 3, half Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 13 of Haryana
  14. 14. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 hour visits, 12 visits in a month, over a two month period this would mean at least 25 visits to each family. Each worker works with these four families for a period of two months continuously during which period she explains to members of the family (Father, mother, grandmother, grandfather, aunts, other adolescents and adults in the family) that the nutritional status of the child is very poor and its adverse consequences on the growth and development of the child if such malnutrition persists. The worker studies the eating habits of the family and points out if members, especially the child/children in question and girl children are getting adequate nutrition and what the family should do to change its nutritional habits. She ascertains whether SNP given to the child is being given as an additionally or is it substituting normal food intake and further ensure that SNP remains an additionally provided nutrition. A special note is kept about whether the family discriminates in giving nutrition for the girl child/adolescent girls/women in the family. c) The Supervisor prepares a nutrition plan for the child which is explained to the mother and the family and given to the family in writing. On her visits to the family the Anganwadi Worker insists that the family follow the nutrition plan and if not she must find out why the family is not following the plan. This is then be discussed in the Parents Committee and also brought to the notice of the Supervisor for further action. d) Mothers/Parents Committee of Parents of all malnourished children is formed and the case of families is discussed in this Committee at least once a week noting the progress made per week. These committee meetings are used for experience sharing. Discrimination in nutrition to girl children, adolescent girls, women and pregnant women, if present is highlighted and discussed in such meetings. Supervisors attend at least one meeting per Anganwadi/per month and Child Development Project Officers make it a point to attend all those meetings where children are not showing any improvement. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND NON-FORMAL PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION: The early childhood care and pre-school education component of ICDS scheme is considered the backbone of the ICDS programme. The early childhood pre-school programme aims at providing a learning environment for promotion of social, emotional, cognitive, physical and aesthetic development of the child. Non-formal Pre-school education is provided to 3-6 years children in play way methods for preparing them for formal/ primary schooling. Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, school readiness programme was introduced in the year 2003-04 in five districts on a pilot basis and later the programme was introduced in other districts also. By the year 2006-2007, 40 Bachpanshalas were started in each of the 20 districts of Haryana with a total of 800 bachpanshalas. Most of the Bachpanshalas have been provided with play way materials and some of them have been provided with state of the art play way materials in the year 2006-2007. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 14 of Haryana
  15. 15. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 FOCAL POINT FOR DELIVERY OF ICDS SERVICES - ANGANWADI The programme provides an integrated approach for converging basic services through community-based Anganwadi Workers and helpers, supportive community structures/women's group -through the Anganwadi Centre, the health system and in the community. Besides this, the Anganwadi is a meeting ground where women's/mother's group can come together, with other frontline workers, to promote awareness and joint action for child development and women's empowerment. Projection for coverage during the next 5 years Government of Haryana following the directive principles of the constitution wishes to ensure that all the children are provided early child care and whole sets of services is provided effectively and sustainably. Shifting of the Anganwadi centre to the primary schools is for ensuring continuity of the education of children in the formal schools. India is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).The fourth Millennium Development Goal is reduction of child mortality and the target for this is to reduce the mortality rate of children under five by two thirds, between 1990-2015. This was reflected in the Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07), which stated that Infant Mortality Rate is to be reduced to 45/1000 by 2007 and 28/1000 live births by 2012. NFHS-3 has shown significant reduction in the IMR in Haryana. IMR in the NFHS-1 was 72/1000. During the NFHS-II the ratio came down to 57/1000 and in the NFHS-III it further reduced to 42/1000. Thus the target for the year 2007 can be considered to have achieved in Haryana with reference to reduction in IMR .It is likely that goals for the year 2012 will be achieved. Similarly, goals related to maternal mortality rate is a matter of great concern along with other indicators of EFA goals and Millennium Development Goals. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 15 of Haryana
  16. 16. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 III. Universal Elementary Education Attainment of free and quality elementary education for all has been one of top priorities for the Government of Haryana and the state has followed the national endeavours for universalising the elementary education. Following the signing of the Dakar Declaration in the year 2000, the state formulated the education policy that expressed commitment for achieving the goals for the universalisation of the elementary education. The Revised National Policy on Education (1992) and the 1992 Programme of Action provided the basic policy framework for central and state investment in primary education development. The objectives for primary education, in order of priority were to (a) reduce dropout, (b) improve learning achievement, and (c) expand access for un- served students. Girls, SC and ST students were to be given priority attention. Decentralization of responsibility for planning and management of primary education development programs to the district level, and strengthening of school/community organizations were advocated as means of developing locality specific strategies and implementation plans and of increasing ownership of schooling by communities. To achieve these policy objectives, the GOI established the District Primary Education Program (DPEP) as a cabinet-approved, centrally sponsored program of financial and technical assistance to states and districts for primary education reform."' Developed through extensive consultations with states, DPEP financed primary education development programs in selected districts and the strengthening of both state and national institutional capacity for planning, management and technical support. It was the intention of the GOI to channel the bulk of external assistance to primary education through the DPEP to ensure consistency with policy and equitable allocation of resources. DPEP guidelines were issued in April, 1993. In a major departure from previous vertical schemes focused on specific inputs, such as Operation Black Board (OBB), DPEP provided grant financing for integrated sub-projects developed at district and state levels aimed at improving the quality of basic education services. DPEP emphasized improved and expanded non-salary inputs for primary education; institutional development; more and better textbooks and educational materials; improved classroom teaching and facilities; strengthened community/school organizations; and expanded technical and managerial support. Incentives and scholarship programs already in place continued to be financed by state governments outside of DPEP. Key managerial features of the program included: (a) targeting of resources; (b) decentralized planning at the district level with substantial popular participation; (c) appraisal of district and state proposals against DPEP criteria and categories of assistance; (d) flexible implementation arrangements at the state level; (e) incremental implementation and expansion based on performance; (f) intensive technical support and supervision from strengthened national agencies and resource institutions; and (g) substantially increased financing through the budget of the GOI. The initiation of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an outcome of the learning of the lessons Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 16 of Haryana
  17. 17. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 from the achievements of DPEP both at the state and national level. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was initiated in the year 2001 through integrating major learning from the earlier programmes such as DPEP, Lok Jumbish and others. As per the Annual Work Plan 2007-08, there are altogether 13602 primary schools out of which 9312 primary schools are Government schools, 9 primary schools are under the Numberof management of local Educational Instituions in Haryana primary/Ju bodies and 153 nior Basic schools are Number of Instituions 14000 Schools Number of government aided 12000 10000 Middle/Se private primary 8000 nior Basic schools. There are 6000 Schools 2576 recognised 4000 Schools 2000 for the private primary 0 handicapp schools and 1552 ed unrecognised private 5 6 1 6 1 High 00 00 primary schools. -9 -9 -0 90 95 00 -2 -2 /Senior 04 05 There are altogether 19 19 20 20 20 Secondary Schools 9150 upper primary Years Teachers schools out of which Training 4819 are government Schools upper primary schools and 185 upper primary schools are government aided. There are 2907 recognised private upper primary schools and (DIETS) 1231 unrecognised private upper primary schools. 8 upper primary schools are under the management of local bodies. Following chart shows the number of institutions over the years. Targets set in terms of improved access, enrolment, retention Annual Work Plan for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 2007-2008 indicates that altogether 2818030 children are enrolled in the age groups of 6-11 out of which number of girls is 1275756 and Classwise enrollment of students in the schools number of boys of Haryana is 1542274. Altogether 2500000 Class I to V Boys 1605209 children Number of Students 2000000 Class I to V Girls are enrolled in 1500000 Class I to V Total the age groups of 1000000 11-14 years. Class VI to VIII Boys 500000 Number of girls Class VI to VIII Girls enrolled in 0 Class VI to VIII Total 725959 and 1990-91 1995-96 2000-01 2005-06 2004-05 Class IX to XII Boys number of boys Class IX to XII Girls enrolled is Years Class IX to XII Total 879250. A total of 130536 children are out of school. GER for the state of Haryana for the children in the age groups Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 17 of Haryana
  18. 18. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 of 6-11 is 95.57 an NER is 76.92. For the children in the age groups 11-14 GER is 93.66 and NER is 71.25. Transition rate from primary to upper primary for children in the year 2006-2007 is 92.42 for children moving in upper primary schools from the primary schools. Completion rate for the children is 92.67. Following chart shows the enrolment over the years based on the data contained in the statistical abstracts for Haryana 2005-06. Government of Haryana through implementing SSA wishes to achieve the targets by 2010 for ensuring realisation of the target for completion of 8 years of education for all the children. The year 2007-2008 is significant as this is the year for realising the SSA objective for completion of 5 years of primary education for all children. Specific problems of inter district disparities with respect to the supply of school places and student participation and enrolment There are gaps in the supply of schools in some district though the average figure is satisfactory .Mewat, the recently formed district has low enrolment and low literacy figures. According to estimates only 2 % of women are literate in Mewat. The inter district gaps will be addressed in the coming years for the infrastructure and quality dimensions of SSA. Special focus districts have been identified. The information on the habitations with minorities especially Muslims that do not have access to schools following the initiative of GOI are being updated. There are plans for saturating the need of additional primary schools for villages with large population especially in Mewat district. There are some districts with children of migrant population such as brick kiln workers. Mobile Schools have been run for the children of the brick kiln workers in collaboration with NGO’s. A convergence of the programmes is being sought though involving International Labour Organisation. Special plans for the slum children have been made for districts such as Faridabad that has the largest slum population in Haryana. Special Strategies being adopted or being proposed for overcoming inter-district disparities Districts with problems of access to primary and upper primary schools have been identified with mapping of schools. Needs for up gradation of the primary schools are being addressed in the districts where access to the upper primary school has been a factor for drop out of children. Best measures are being taken to enhance the participation of traditionally excluded groups, minorities and children with special needs. More intensive dissemination of the schemes for the children through convergence is needed for further addressing the inter district disparity in the provision of infrastructure, institutions and programming. Provision of nutritious meals to children on a universal basis through the Mid Day Meal Programme is being ensured through providing mid day meals to out of children at the Alternative Innovative Education (AIE) centres run by the non government organisation, village education committees (VECs), private aided institutions etc.. 137 primary schools are being upgraded in Mewat in the year 2007-2008 and there are plans for opening new primary schools. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 18 of Haryana
  19. 19. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Incentive Schemes SSA has a wonderful set of provision for children with special needs, girl children, children belonging to minorities and other groups that suffer from various forms of exclusion. National programme for education of Girls at the elementary level covered 25 educational backward blocks of Number of schools covered under computer aided ten districts in the year learning (CAL) 2005-2006. One school teacher in each block has been 500 identified for the award of best 450 400 teacher .Hobby /vocational 350 classes have been organised in 300 Number of schools each cluster as per the need. covered under Head of the model cluster have 250 computer aided 200 learning (CAL) been trained .22288 girls in the 150 year were provided remedial 100 teaching. Girl children 50 belonging to the scheduled 0 castes and BPL households are 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 provided bicycles for reaching school. A provision is made to ensure that the bicycle is owned by the girl children if they pass class 8. Computer added learning is a major feature of elementary education in Haryana. Altogether 902 schools were covered under computer aided learning by 2005-06. Children in the upper primary school have been provided computer books and teachers have been trained. Estimates of resource requirements – central and state contributions Implementation of SSA has to be done in convergence of programmes such as ICDS, National Literacy Mission, programmes for improving the vocational and technical education of adolescents and youths and then realising satisfactory progress on the indicators. The Eleventh Plan call for 50% share of the state for realising the goals of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Government of Haryana has committed resources for the same. With the pace of the industrial and agricultural development and then considering the revenue receipts of the state government, it is likely that resources will not be a constraint for realising the Education for All (EFA) goals in Haryana. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 19 of Haryana
  20. 20. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 IV. Education of Girls and Gender Equality Gender disparity in education of girl children has been a major concern. Substantial efforts have been made for reducing the gender disparities through the implementation of programmes like National Programme for Education of Girls at the Elementary Level (NPEGEL), Balika Smaridhi Yojana, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya and etc. The implementation of NPRGEL has been integrated with the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan along with the running the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya. The scheme of Balika Smaridhi Yojana was launched by Govt. of India w.e.f. 15-8-97 for changing the negative family and community attitudes towards the girl child at birth and towards her mother, improving the enrolment and retention of girl children in schools, increasing the age at marriage of girls and assisting the girls to undertake income generating activities. Under the Yojana, girl children belonging to families below the poverty line and born on or after 15th August, 1997 are given the benefit. The benefits are restricted to two girl children in a household irrespective of number of children in the household. This scheme is being implemented through ICDS infrastructure in rural areas and through the functionaries of Health Department in urban areas. The application forms are available with Anganwadi Workers in the villages and with Health functionaries in urban areas. The beneficiaries are required to submit the filled in applications to these functionaries. The amounts of post birth grant and scholarships are to be deposited in an interest bearing account to be opened in the name of the beneficiary girl child and an officer designated in this behalf by the State Govt. in the nearest bank or post office. The amount should earn the maximum possible rate of interest. In this context the Public Provident Fund scheme or the National Saving Certificate is given higher priority. On the girl child attaining 18 years of age and on production of a certificate from the Gram Panchayat /Municipality that she is unmarried on her eighteenth birthday, the implementing agency would authorise the bank or the post office authorities concerned to allow her to withdraw the amount standing in her name in the interest bearing account. In the event of the girl getting married before attaining the age of 18 years, she shall forgo the benefit of the amount of annual scholarships and the interest accrued thereon and shall stand entitled only to the Post Birth Grant amount of Rs.500/- and the interest accrued thereon. In the eventuality of the death of the girl child before attaining the age of 18 years, the accumulated amount in her account would be withdrawn. SSA's approach to making the education system responsive to the “pull” strategies include better access to schools (including toilets for girls, free textbooks, “back to school” camps and bridge courses for out-of school girls, residential facilities, and the NPEGEL in educationally backward blocks and urban slums), recruiting more women teachers, teacher training that focuses on gender sensitivity, appropriate teaching-learning materials and interventions like Early Childhood Care and Education centres. The community dimension includes creating enabling conditions for women’s participation, Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 20 of Haryana
  21. 21. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 providing women with a role in the management of school related activities and committees, and strengthening the linkages between the school and communities. Specific mention must be made of the National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) and the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), which are geared towards girls from marginalized social groups in educationally backward blocks. The NPEGEL (in operation since September 2003), provides for community mobilization, the development of Model Schools in clusters, teacher training and the development of gender sensitive material, and support material like workbooks and uniforms. 393 Model Schools are in operation and this includes the 86 new model schools where additional classroom construction has been sanctioned, and 652 Child Care centres are being supported. Meena kits were procured from UNICEF and training has been imparted in the year 2006-2007. District gender coordinators have been appointed for looking after the use of the educational tools and processes for improving the indicators of girl’s education. The KGBV scheme, in operation since July 2004 at the national level, is designed to set up residential schools or hostels for girls in the upper primary classes and mainly belonging to the SC/ ST/ OBC groups and the minority community. Currently 9 sanctioned KGBVs are functioning and more is proposed for educational backward blocks .6 KGBVs are in minority blocks and 3 are in ST/SC blocks. Initial assessments indicate that these residential schools and hostels have made an impact on retaining girls in the upper primary stage. Parents are feeling that girl children are getting a better deal at KGVBs. Demand for KGBV is going to be more as girl children not only get quality education free but they are freed from the all the domestic burdens. “Education through Wheels”, Haryana An analysis of the reasons for girls dropping out after completing their primary education showed that the absence of upper primary schools in their village was an important reason. This led to the introduction of an intervention titled ‘Education through Wheels’. Parents had been reluctant to send their girls to other villages by public transport, primarily on account of a perceived lack of safety. These reasons were discussed with community members in a number of villages and one of the solutions was the provision of transport facilities—bicycles for those girls who joined class six in a government school located in another village, provided that government middle schooling was not available in their own villages. In addition, the girls staying in farm houses or dhanis (small habitations which come up away from the main village), or slum bastis of cities and towns were also eligible. The scheme was launched in 2004-05; 16171 girls were covered in the very first year. In 2005-06, the number of girls who received bicycles has crossed 21,000. A field visit indicated that the scheme is perceived to be popular. The repair and maintenance of the cycles is the responsibility of the girls. A girl receiving a cycle has to appear for the Class eight examinations, if she wants the cycle to become her own. The initial impact on transition of girls to middle level schooling seems to be positive, but a review in 2007-08 of the progress towards completing the elementary schooling cycle should help assess the impact of such incentives. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 21 of Haryana
  22. 22. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Incentives for Girls and SC Boys belonging to Below-poverty-line families, Haryana An assessment made by the state indicated a significant drop in attendance rate during winter. Majority of children studying in government schools belonged to the weaker sections of society, and the assessment revealed that the drop was due to the fact that these children did not have warm clothes. In response, the state launched a scheme to provide woollen jerseys to girls and SC boys belonging to below-poverty-line families during the year 2005-06. Some of the districts have used the Innovative Activities component of the SSA to fund this activity under the heads “Education of girls” and “Education of SC children”. A quick study during the winter of 2005 indicated an improvement in regularity and attendance. The state expects this regularity to translate into better academic performance. The SSA Haryana has proposed a study to assess the impact of this program. The role of the Panchayats in achieving the objectives of universal enrolment and retention of children in school is becoming increasingly visible and important. In Haryana, girls constitute only about 45% of the total enrolment in the age group 6-11 years; the figure is very similar for the 11-14 year age group. As an incentive to Panchayats which take sustained action to bridge such gender gaps, the State awards a prize of Rupees One Lakh to those Gram Panchayats which achieve 100% enrolment and retention of girls in the elementary cycle in the age group of 6-14 years. The conditions under which the scheme operates are summarized below. • All eligible girls (6-14 years) of the village are in Government schools, government-aided schools or Government-recognized schools. • No girl child drops out from any class. • All the girls pass their annual examinations (wherever applicable). • The girls attend school for at least 70% of the school days in the academic year. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 22 of Haryana
  23. 23. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 V. Meeting Quality Concerns Government of Haryana has been cognisant of the need to improve the quality of education in the elementary and secondary schools. Government of Haryana has taken several steps for improving the quality of education in the government schools. Implementation of SSA has contributed to the increase in the enrolment rates over the years and there are evidences for the same with reference to improved NER, NIR, GER. Way back in 2000, Recognised government primary government of Haryana had schools in Haryana informed the meeting of the steering group of planning Number of Schools by 14000 commission that it has Management and 12000 taken steps for preventing 10000 tuitions by the teachers in Gender 8000 Government 6000 the government schools as 4000 Non Government it hampered the quality of 2000 For Boys education in the 0 For Girls government schools. Government had also 19 9 1 20 9 6 20 0 1 20 0 5 6 Total -0 - - - - 95 00 04 90 05 informed that teachers had 19 Years to give an undertaking for serving for at least 5 years in the rural areas. In the year 2006-2007, the number of habitations having UPS facility in 3 Km area is 8344. However, there were 800 habitations that did not have primary school within the radius of 3 kms. 572 habitations were eligible for upper primary schools as per the population and distance norms .There are 9442 primary schools and 4747 primary and upper primary schools. Following the 2:1 ratio for upper primary schools, there was a need of 2642 upper primary schools and the gap of upper primary schools in the year 2006-07 was 598. The gap was highest in Sirsa district Recognised Middle Schools by (143), followed by Hisar Management and Gender (91), Jind (76),Yamuna Nagar (75) , Faridabad (66) Number of Schools 2500 and Mewat (55). Project 2000 Approval Board for SSA 1500 Government has approved up gradation 1000 Non Government of 308 primary schools for 500 For Boys the year 2007-2008. 0 For Girls There are 160 schools that 1 1 5 6 6 Total -9 -0 -0 -0 -9 do not have its own 90 00 95 04 05 19 20 20 20 19 building out of the total of Years 14111 schools in the state. 80 schools are in Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 23 of Haryana
  24. 24. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 dilapidated condition that will be repaired in the year Recognised High/ Senior Secondary 2007-2008. Out of 68315 Schools by Management and Gender pucca classrooms, repair of in Haryana 9645 classrooms is planned for the year 2007-2008. 6000 There are only 3013 5000 schools that have room for 4000 Government the headmaster and there 3000 Non Government are 11927 schools that have 2000 1000 For Boys facility for drinking water. 0 For Girls 12770 schools have toilets Total and 10130 schools need 5 6 1 6 1 separate toilet for girls . -0 -0 -9 -9 -0 90 95 00 04 05 8537 schools have been 20 20 19 19 20 provided with ramps in the schools and remaining construction of the ramps will be done in the year 2007-2008.11112 schools out of the total of 14111 schools have the boundary walls. 10227 schools have playgrounds. 1282 schools have kitchen for mid day meals. Computer education has been a significant component of SSA. A total of the 902 upper schools were covered by the year 2005-2006. Computers have been provided to upper primary schools on a priority considering the launch of EDUSAT. Teacher supply position and over all pupil teacher ratios There were all together 50381 teachers for the upper primary school at the end of year 2005-2006 with 31827 teachers in the government schools 1368 in government aided schools and 16215 in the unaided schools. Percentage of female teachers was 50.45 and PTR for the year 2005-2006 was 1:42. Currently, there is a requirement of 1614 teachers. Sanctioned posts are 40939 while the number of working teachers is 33262. PTR with reference to sanctioned and working posts are 1:16 and 1:20. There are only 6 single upper primary schools and Pupil Teacher Ratio 1227 schools are having two teachers. All the 32816 Number of Pupil per 50 primary teachers and 33389 40 Primary upper primary teachers are Teacher 30 Middle trained. 20 High 10 Senior Secondary Currently there is an 0 entitlement of 35990 teacher for a total of 1439608 student enrolled in 19 1 20 6 20 1 20 4 5 -9 -0 -9 -0 -0 90 95 03 04 00 the primary schools. 19 Years Sanctioned posts are 39192 and PTR with reference to Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 24 of Haryana
  25. 25. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 the sanctioned post is1: 37 while as per the teachers in position PTR is1: 44. At the end of year 2006-2007, gross entitlement of the teachers for the primary schools is 355. Disparity in teacher supply position- teachers in different categories Disparity in the teacher supply position is not significant considering the PTR with reference to the sanctioned posts. However, there exists a disparity of 4 points with references to number of teachers working in the primary schools. Considering the PTR at the upper primary level, it can be said that disparity with reference to teacher supply does not exist. Special strategies being adopted for overcoming inter-school and inter-district mismatch in teacher supply Government of Haryana has ensured that all the teachers have certain years of work in the rural areas. With the massive improvement in the quality of educations, it is hoped that teacher absenteeism will no longer be a concern though this is one of the major concern identified by MHRD for all over the country. Creation of teacher support systems at district and sub district level-especially in term of DIETs, BRCs and CRCs- existing coverage and proposal for expansion There are seventeen DIETs currently and 3 more are needed for the remaining 3 districts. Training programmes are being organised regularly. Training of Key Resource Persons (KRPs), Master Trainers and direct training of teachers have been conducted at the DIETs and SCERT. Special instructions have been issued to conduct the trainings in time. Special focus is being laid on improving the teacher training modules so that there is wider 80000 reception and 70000 acceptability of the content and 60000 methods of 50000 training. With Number of teachers 40000 the launching No of teachers trained of EDUSAT 30000 the training is 20000 likely to 10000 improve 0 further. 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- Adjoining chart 01 02 03 04 05 06 shows the number of teachers and number of teachers who were trained in the various year. The impact of SSA can be seen through increase both in the number of teachers and number of trained teachers. There were some concerns that have been addressed in relation to absenteeism of the teachers in Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 25 of Haryana
  26. 26. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 the training programmes. It has been pointed out that there are compensatory leaves for the training days on weekends. Extended teachers training is planned to be conducted on time. Extended teachers training are being organised at the cluster level for addressing the subject specific, situation specific issues all over the state under SSA. CRC and BRCs are functioning and they need to be further strengthened and reformed in the line with the SSA framework. All the Block Education Officer (BEO’s) work as Block resource Coordinators (BRCs), they are assisted by Assistant Block Resource Coordinators (Arc’s) who are playing a crucial role in planning and implementation of SSA. Current status of availability of basic academic inputs in terms of text books and TLM with each Student Haryana has been following the NCERT books created under the National Curriculum framework for the upper primary classes. Free text books are provided to eligible students. A decision for providing work book for the students has been for improving the learning of the students. Also decision for introducing project based learning has been taken. Steps being take to upgrade the quality of academic inputs for teachers and learners The State is updating the State Pedagogy Plan for meeting the quality targets for education. Under SSA, efforts are being made to get convergence for the implementation of various schemes .Programmes of Department of Science and Technology are being communicated for all the schools. Strengthening of the BRCs is a critical objective under SSA and it has been also suggested by the joint review missions. BRCs are the focal point for ensuring the realisation of quality goals of education. Capacity building of the BRCs is being provided special attention. Similarly, there are plans for addressing the pedagogic needs of the children preferring Urdu language following the recommendations of the Gujral Committee. Special efforts may be made to create pedagogic content for training of the Urdu teachers. Central Assistance for the appointment of Urdu teachers will be availed in forthcoming years for fulfilling the demand of the parents in the Muslim dominated blocks. There are plans for improving the training modules for the various subjects. Expansion and diversification of teacher education programmes through the use of open and distance learning channels EDUSAT programme in Haryana is in the advanced stage of operationalisation. Scripts have being prepared and work on the VCDs for the same has been completed. SCERT is the nodal agency for development and management of the content for the training modules. All the DIETS will be covered for delivering the training through EDUSAT. Training of teachers through EDUSAT has been conducted. SSA Haryana has been collaborating with DEP-SSA, a project of MHRD and IGNOU for ensuring better quality Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 26 of Haryana
  27. 27. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 in the delivery of training and content for ensuring the realisation of quality goals related to delivery. Arrangements for monitoring learner achievement levels Under SSA, quality monitoring formats designed by NCERT are being used for assessing the learner’s achievements. There are some delays in getting the data for the same that needs to be quickly addressed. Achievement level tests are being conducted at regular intervals for assessing the performance of children in the schools. Several steps are being taken for improving the quality of education in schools. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Parishad is coordinating the achievement of learner levels tests and providing inputs for national level data compilation by NCERT. Independent reports point out improvement in the achievement levels and there is need to consolidate the same in the forthcoming years considering the demands for improvement of quality on all indicators such as retention rate, gender parity index, transition rate and other. Work on ensuring forward and backward linkage for inducting the learning from education development indexes is being taken up. BRCs and CRCs are being further strengthened for ensuring better monitoring of the achievement levels and ensuring corrective actions through activities and advise at the various levels. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 27 of Haryana
  28. 28. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 VI. Education of Adolescents and Young People Current Programme and coverage of out of schools adolescent and youth through programmes and basic education and skill building Haryana has been promoting distance learning and continuing education for the children and young people in the age group of 12-20. Under SSA girl children are being provided life skill sets through vocational centres. Distance learning is being provided by the Universities of Haryana. These correspondence courses offer the students a chance to pursue additional studies, vocational training or some brief study courses that would enhance the degree that they are pursuing. Distance learning is fast gaining importance as it allows multiple educational options to function together. Ultimately, a student pursuing and successfully completing distance education receives the degree from a recognized university .If a student manages to score good marks in the first year; s/he can very well migrate to a regular college. Distance education is a very flexible educational option before the students. Guru Jambeshwar University, Kurukshetra University and Maharshi Dayanand University are offering distance learning courses in Haryana. In addition, students are taking up courses offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University. Any move to create special programme for this age. Details in terms of quantitative coverage and the focus of such programmes There exists a special department for addressing the concern of technical and vocational education for adolescents and young people. Learning of the vocational skills for girls is one of the special programmes implemented with the support of non-government organisations under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Efforts are being made to use the vocational centres as an instrument for mainstreaming the education of girl children. Role being played by the NGOs in meeting the educational needs of this group coverage and programme NGOs and Nehru Yuva Kendras are playing a significant role in meeting the educational needs of the children through running vocational centres for adolescents. Exact data on the coverage needs to be gathered for making a realistic assessment of the extent to which needs of the adolescents and young people are being met. Government has been promoting the education through distance learning. IGNOU centres, National Open University and Directorate of Distance education are playing a significant role in ensuring that more and more adolescents who for the various reasons are not getting education through the formal channels get the same through distance learning and correspondence courses. Special Programmes for vocational skill building through the open learning channels Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 28 of Haryana
  29. 29. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 Under SSA, 45027 children in the age group of 11-14 years are covered under the vocational centres. They are provided training in the identified areas of vocations. In addition, there are programmes supported by the Department of Social Welfare for vocational training. Vocational Skill building through open channels is an area that requires more attention. Programmes being organised and the coverage achieved through other department and institutions- labour and social welfare departments etc. Social welfare department is running programmes for vocational training of the adolescent under the various schemes. NGOs have been involved in running the vocational programme under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan as providing life skills is one of the key objective of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan while ensuring universalisation of elementary education. Adolescents are being provided training in the vocations. Current estimate of working children in the districts: Special Programmes for meeting the needs of the working children, Efforts by the NGOs. According to 1991 census data on child labour Haryana had 109691 child labourers that went up to 253491 by the year 2001. There are around 2.54 lakh child laboured that has been identified in Haryana, whose liberation-cum-rehabilitation concerns are being addressed. Three welfare projects comprising education and rehabilitation of such children had already been implemented in Faridabad, Gurgaon and Panipat districts, while 12 such projects were in the pipeline which would be implemented soon. To eradicate the problem of child labour in Haryana, the Centre Government has selected three industrial districts of the state for the ambitious National Child Labour Project. The project would enable the government agencies to assess the magnitude of the problem and also to suggest remedies to rehabilitate the unprivileged ones. Three districts — Panipat, Faridabad and Gurgaon — had been selected for the assessing the magnitude of child labour in industrial and other units. The administration had planned to train the NGOs on the laws of child labour. Under the Child Labour (Regulating and Abolition) Act 1986, the law has classified the workstations as hazardous and non-hazardous and the NGOs have been imparted training about the provisions. Each project gets finances from the National Child Labour Society, headed by the deputy commissioners of the districts concerned. A survey was conducted in 1996, but without any convincing outcome. With rapid industrialisation, parents were more keen to get their children work with them. There is a provision of imposing fine on the accused and rehabilitate the deprived child. Under SSA, out of school children are being covered under Alternative Innovative Education Centres and Vocational Centres for mainstreaming them in the formal schools. Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 29 of Haryana
  30. 30. State Review for Education for All Goals, Government of Haryana, 2007 VII. Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning Literacy, as defined in Census operations, is the ability to read and write with understanding in any language. A person who can merely read but cannot write is not classified as literate. Any formal education or minimum educational standard is not necessary to be considered literate. Adopting these definitions, the literacy level of the country as a whole was only 29.45 per cent with male literacy at 39.45 per cent and female literacy at 18.69 per cent. As per the latest Census estimates (2001), the All-India figure has gone up to 65.38 per cent; About three-fourths of our men folk (75.85 %) are literate whereas over half of our womenfolk (54.16 %) are also literate. In the field of Development Economics, literacy holds an important place as a parameter to measure development. It has been recognized that the “Human Development Index” (HDI) developed by UN is a measure of the overall development of the country. One of the three components used in the calculation of HDI is “Literacy” as it is a cumulative measure of several factors that contribute to human development. As per UN Development Report, 2000, India’s ranking in HDI is 128, with education index registering a low .55 due to a low adult literacy rate of 55.7 and combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment of 54. In their book, “Development Reconsidered”, Owens and Shaw have stated: “It is self-evident that literacy is a basic element of a nationwide knowledge system. The most important element of a literacy program is not the program itself, but the incentive to become and remain literate.” When people are able to believe that they can improve their lives through their own efforts, when they realize that some newly created opportunity is denied to them by illiteracy, and then they will learn how to read, write and count.” As per the Census 2001, population of India was little over 1,027,000,000 that represented one-sixth of the population of the entire planet. Literacy at the All India level was 65.38 % overall while for the male literacy rate was 75.96 % and female literacy was 54.28%. This represented an increase in overall literacy percentage by 13.75% from 1991 Census. The corresponding increases in Male and Female literacy were: 11.83 % and 14.99 %. Sex Ratio had gone up to 933 from the earlier Census figure of 927. Haryana showed a decline in the sex ratio. The focus in the Tenth Five Year Plan was to consolidate the TLC projects, which have already been sanctioned for their successful completion. Under the revised scheme, it was envisaged that the activities of basic teaching learning would be integrated with the Post Literacy activities to ensure simple transition between Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) and Post Literacy Programmes (PLP). Special focus was on the problems of disadvantaged groups like SCs, STs and women. Haryana had the literacy rate that was more than the national average in the year 2001. As per census figure of 2001, Haryana had the literacy rate of 68.59 % while the national average was 65.38%. On the average, 79.25 % men and 56.31 women were literate in Haryana. The scheme of total literacy was started during the year 1994-95 to impart functional literacy to illiterates in the age group of 15-35 years. This was to be implemented by the Deputy Commissioner of each district through the Zila Sakshrata Samiti. The scheme had three phases: (i) Total Literacy Campaign; (ii) Post Haryana Prathmik Shiksha Pariyojna Parishad, Chandigarh, Education Department, Government 30 of Haryana